Also, books one , five , and nine are hardcovers, giving each author the opportunity to write a hard-bound book. The new generation was being primed, which in turn led to speculation that one of the major movie characters Luke , Leia , Han would die. Ultimately, however, all three survived to the end of the series.
The novels Crosscurrent , Riptide , Millennium Falcon , and the 9-book hardcover series Fate of the Jedi are follow ups to the Legacy of the Force series, further expanding the Legacy era. Legacy of the Force has seen the re-emergence of several characters, both from the EU and from the films, who had until the series been untouched by EU literature for some time. Most notably the Dark Lady of the Sith Lumiya made her first appearance in a novel in Betrayal , and Boba Fett, last seen in a cameo role in The Unifying Force , re-entered the galactic scene in Bloodlines.
The series saw a number of major character deaths, more than even the New Jedi Order series , which was longer and itself controversial for the number of deaths in it. As in The New Jedi Order , there were several characters whose deaths were mentioned but not depicted, including Lensi , Twool , Liegeus Vorn , the World Brain , which was wounded in Legacy of the Force: Tempest and who is mentioned as dead, and Reh'mwa , who never made an appearance in a novel but is mentioned previously and is mentioned as dying in the series.
As of December , the series was not planned to be released in the next six months. Wodehouse was still using the expression in , since it appears again in Jeeves in the Offing. My assumptions were clearly incorrect. Thanks for the nudge to look into it further, Harry! And I really ought to read some Wodehouse Thanks for the research, Steve! Everyone ought to read some Wodehouse! Volumes - Perry Rodan's first contact with Arkon and appointment as the ruling positronic brain's agent in the galactic cluster M Volumes To protect humanity's homeworld, threatened by Springer and Ara forces, Perry Rhodan has engaged in a risky deception.
If it works then the attackers, guided by "corrected" coordinates stored in the computer of Topthor's battleship, will mistake the third planet of Betelgeuse for Earth! The Betelgeuse system is uninhabited according to the old Arkonide star catalogs -- but is the information still accurate? Convincing the Springers that Betelgeuse-3 is Earth won't be easy: Perry Rhodan will have to convince them that an uninhabited planet is actually home to a highly-developed civilization; and he will have to leverage a handful of ships into the illusion of an entire fleet.
Rhodan's plan begins with sending a recon team to Betelgeuse under command of the telepath John Marshall.
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The scouts soon learn that the system is no longer uninhabited. The target planet Betelgeuse-3 is uninhabited -- well, it is a "jungle planet" which begs the definition of "uninhabited" but at least it has no intelligent life. But aqueous Betelgeuse-4 is home to a species of torpedo-shaped fish people The Topsiders aren't any friendlier now than they were back then, but Marshall quickly hatches a plan to turn their unexpected appearance to the Terrans' advantage.
The scouts allow themselves to be captured, but present themselves as Springers scouting the system for an attack on a secret Terran base. Then when Marshall and his team make a messy escape, the Topsiders will not be kindly disposed to the oncoming Springer fleet. If they're lucky, the Topsiders may even call for reinforcements Teaser for the next adventure: The surprising discovery of humanity's old foes the Topsiders and their base in the Betelgeuse system, have now been drawn into Perry Rhodan's master plan. But will the Topsiders play along when the Springer fleet and the Aras appear And Topthor, who has already seen Earth's sun with his own eyes: won't he immediately recognize that his computer's data has led him to a false target as soon as he sees the red giant Betelgeuse Topthor, that is the key figure in the next skirmish This adventure was translated into English as Red Eye of Betelgeuse.
The first edition was published by Ace in with a cover by Gray Morrow, together with short stories by Jim Harmon and Angel Arango, and the ninth chapter of a serialization of "Cosmos", a story written by 18 different science fiction authors. Volumes - Perry Rodan's first contact with Arkon and appointment as the ruling positronic brain's agent in the galactic cluster M Volumes Springers and Aras prepare to destroy Earth Volumes Earth is to be destroyed -- even for Perry Rhodan's best interests!
Of course not the real Earth, home planet of humanity, but the uninhabited third planet of the Betelgeuse system which is "Earth" for the attacking Springers thanks to the falsely-programmed computer on Topthor's battleship! The dramatic production of "Earth's death" must convince all intelligent beings of the galaxy's inhabited worlds: Perry Rhodan's plan is to allow knowledge of Earth's existence to fade into oblivion until Earth can develop itself into a galactic power.
Whether that plan will work depends on various factors. One of these factors is Topthor's existence In this adventure Perry Rhodan's plan comes together. The Springers attack; the Topsiders counterattack; and the Springers, mistaking the Topsiders either for Terrans or for Terran allies, believe they have engaged the Terran home world.
It all goes swimmingly for Rhodan. The only wrinkle is Topthor, the only Springer captain who has actually seen the solar system and cannot possibly mistake Betelgeuse for Sol -- and who could blow the whole scheme should he share his knowledge with the rest of the Springer fleet. And indeed, Topthor recognizes something is wrong as soon as he arrives in the system.
Topthor withdraws from the space-battle while he contemplates what could have gone wrong and what step to take next Can the Springer and the Topsider communicate their suspicions to their respective forces in time to thwart Rhodan's plan? Teaser for the next adventure: The goddess of luck and Gucky have brought Rhodan's plan to fruition, whereby Earth has been destroyed in the eyes of all the galaxy's intelligent life.
Humanity has thus won some time to develop undisturbed and to begin the construction of a powerful Solar Empire. An epoch in which Atlan, time's lonely one, plays a grand role This adventure was translated into English as The Earth Dies. The first edition was published by Ace in with a cover by Gray Morrow, together with short stories by L. Lester Anderson and Sylvius Agricola, and the tenth chapter of a serialization of "Cosmos", a story written by 18 different science fiction authors.
The story so far: Perry Rhodan has sought power and recognition for humanity in the universe, but despite clever moves on the galactic stage his efforts have remained piecemeal, for the means available to humanity have been, measured on the scale of the universe, too small. Since Earth's apparent destruction in , fifty-six years have now passed. A new generation of humanity has grown up. And just as the Terran world government developed in its time from the "Third Power," so also from that government developed the organization of the Solar Empire.
Mars, Venus, and the moons of Jupiter and Saturn have been colonized, and those worlds of the solar system unsuitable for colonization now serve as Terran bases or as inexhaustible repositories of natural resources of all types. No other intelligent life has been discovered in the solar system. The Terrans are therefore the unconstested rulers of a small realm of planets surrounding Earth. This planetary realm, at a high level of technology and civilization, naturally has a battle-ready space fleet ready to defy any agressor.
And that seems to Perry Rhodan sufficient reason for a new push into interstellar space. This one isn't about Perry Rhodan. It's a first-person story from the perspective of Atlan da Gonozal, a new character who will become such a fixture of the series that he will star in his own spinoff series beginning in and lasting nearly twenty years. Atlan and Perry will soon become very close friends and allies, but first they have to fight.
Because that's the kind of series it is: Atlan is such a strong character that dominance must be established. Guess who wins? Atlan is an Arkonide like Thora and Crest, but a very old one. For reasons not yet clear he has been stranded on Earth for all of human history and even longer. He has intervened occasionally in human history, adopting various personas to prod the development of atomic technology in order to build a spacecraft capable of taking him back home to Arkon.
But he has also spent much of the time in suspended animation deep on the ocean floor. At this adventure's opening, Arkon wakes from his most recent sleep. He'd gone under 'way back in the early s when some nutjob named Perry Rhodan was building a new country in the Gobi Desert and pissing off people with atomic weapons. Ain't it just the way? He feels he's waited long enough. He establishes a new identity in order to infiltrate Terrania, where one thing leads to another and he stows away aboard an outbound ship with the intent of hijacking it.
Unfortunately for his plans the ship is piloted by Perry Rhodan himself, no easy mark. Excitement ensues and the ship crashes on the extremely unpleasant planet Hellgate, where Atlan and Perry Rhodan engage in a battle of wits and endurance. Teaser for the next adventure: What a fascinating figure, this Arkonide Atlan! For Atlan, who possesses a cell activator, the centuries are just like a day!
Atlan has studied humans since the beginning of recorded history, and he has helped humans when helping also furthered his own plans. We will hear much more about Atlan! This adventure was translated into English as Time's Lonely One. The first edition was published by Ace in with a cover by Gray Morrow, together with short stories by Kris Neville and R. Barlow, and the eleventh chapter of a serialization of "Cosmos", a story written by 18 different science fiction authors. A human has escaped But Perry Rhodan, administrator of the Solar Empire, is not yet ready to let drop the protective curtain of anonymity.
His cosmic agents -- members of the famous Mutant Corps -- are under orders to keep their earthly origin a secret. Fifty-six years have passed since episode 49, and many of our characters have not aged at all thanks to the cellular treatment available to humans on the planet Wanderer.
Unfortunately, the treatment is not available to Arkonides like Crest and Thora -- which worries Rhodan because he and Thora have married. He desperately wants to keep her around for a while, but Thora is aging. There are rumors of a rejuventaion serum on the zoo-planet Tolimon, and Rhodan sends two agents to investigate: John Marshall, a series regular and beneficiary of the cellular treatment; and Laury Marten, daughter of Mutant Corps members Anne Sloane and Ralf Marten.
Marshall is a telepath; Marten can walk through walls. Tolimon is a zoo and home to a sprawling research institution. Marten goes undercover as a veterinary student, Marshall as a trader in exotic animals. Marshall's cover is very nearly blown when some inconsistencies appear in his story There are human captives on Tolimon and have been for centuries, kept alive with the mysterious rejuvenation serum.
Among the human captives is a half-Spanish, half-Aztec nobleman from the 17th Century, very dashing, and irresistibly appealing to Marten. Laury Marten falls in love with Rodrigo de Berceo, so when the research institute decides to reverse experimentally the effects of the rejuvenation serum, she must break him out.
Unfortunately Laury and Rodrigo don't get far, and their craft is damaged in the attempt. Together with Marshall they go into hiding and send a telepathic distress call to Rhodan. But the planet is swarming with Springers and Aras -- will Rhodan arrive in time? Teaser for the next adventure: John Marshall and Laury Marten, the two cosmic agents inserted onto the Ara-world Tolimon, have doubtless achieved a partial victory by acquiring an ampule of the life-extending serum.
But they were not able to leave Tolimon! Perry Rhodan sees that it is up to him to intervene. The chilling cover is by Johnny Bruck. This adventure was translated into English as Life Hunt. The first edition was published by Ace in with a cover by Gray Morrow, together with short stories by Forrest Ackerman and Matt Graham, and the twelfth chapter of a serialization of "Cosmos", a story written by 18 different science fiction authors.
An important mission on the Ara-world Tolimon seems to have broken down, and Perry Rhodan appears accompanied by Gucky to pull his agents out. As the planet's Ara government hunts the Mutant Corps agents Perry Rhodan and Gucky arrive, impersonating an Arkonide inspector and his faithful manservant.
Rhodan's disguise is solid, but not without its flaws so Gucky serves as a distraction, encouraging the planet's zookeeper officials to spend more time plotting to kidnap Gucky instead of double-checking Rhodan's credentials. And so they do, following Gucky on a merry chase as he simultaneously scans the area for the missing agents' telepathic signatures. Our expectations are not disappointed.
Teaser for the next adventure: Accidents can destroy the best of plans! So it happened on the Ara-world Tolimon when Perry Rhodan, the purported inspector of Arkon, was confronted unexpectedly with the existence of a real inspector. Perry Rhodan and his people nevertheless were able to put the dangerous planet far behind them But no less dangerous is the world to which they flee! This adventure was translated into English as The Pseudo One. The first edition was published by Ace in with a cover by Gray Morrow, together with a short story by Forrest Ackerman and Robert Lowndes, and the thirteenth chapter of a serialization of "Cosmos", a story written by 18 different science fiction authors.
The fact that the real inspector doesn't travel with a Gucky wasn't enough to give it away? Pushkin's plot works where you're talking about an environment with marginal communication networks; in the Perryverse with near-instantaneous communication across lightyears the idea that Perry can bluster his way past career bureaucrats with a fishy cover story and an exotic pet is just too much. For what it's worth, you don't get the sense this episode is intended to be taken seriously.
Much of it is just the broad slapstick humor of Gucky's shenanigans. Officious people in uniform lose their pants, for example. Gucky has his fans. One of them I ain't. A mission on the Ara-world Tolimon almost led to a catastrophe, averted in the end by the "fake inspector. Escaping the zoo-planet Tolimon, Perry Rhodan and his team look for an out-of the way system where they can lie low until they can be sure they haven't been followed.
They comes upon Isan, a planet whose blasted surface is uninhabitable due to the effects of a nuclear war. Isan's remnant population, reduced to some , from a pre-war population of 3 billion, lives in a number of underground bunkers. And still they fight. Things are pretty bad in the bunker Fenomat, where food supplies are exhausted and the survivors are surviving on chemically-treated textiles.
Worse, they discover that survivors in the nearby bunker Sallon are digging a tunnel toward them, presumably for no diplomatic purpose. Just as the force from Sallon arrives and the battle begins, so also arrives Perry Rhodan. With hypno-beams and the Mutant Corps it's quick work to take over both bunkers.
Though he captures both bunkers' command centers Rhodan doesn't capture Bellal, the erstwhile leader of Sallon. Bellal leads a guerilla campaign and plots to kill Rhodan. The assassination fails but in the attempt Bellal kills Rodrigo de Berceo, the sixteenth-century Spanish count Laury Marten rescued from the zoo. Recall that Laury's crush on Berceo is what started the whole mess.
You'd think she'd be devastated by his death, but no: the last few hours on Isan have convinced Laury that Berceo was hopelessly stuck in the 16th century and not somebody she could stand long-term. Actually, she's sort of relieved he's dead. And yes, it's just that creepy. Anyway, Rhodan eventually captures Bellal and wraps thing up. He calls in some supplies from Earth, which he hopes will be just the first shipment in a long-term trade relationship between Earth and Isan. Teaser for the next adventure: Dear Perry Rhodan reader! This adventure was translated into English as Unknown Sector: Milky Way I assume because Americans can't say "Damned" in the title of a book with a significant juvenile audience.
The first edition was published by Ace in with a cover by Gray Morrow, together with short stories by Barrington J. Bayley and Greg Akers, and the fourteenth chapter of a serialization of "Cosmos", a story written by 18 different science fiction authors. The story so far: For Atlan, the lonely one of time, the centuries are like only a day for he has a mysterious cell-vibration activator. He has studied humans since the beginnings of known history and he helps humans when such support at the same time advances his own plans. Atlan wants to return home to Arkon, the world of three planets!
Atlan has come to love the brave little barbarians of Terra -- even if he sometimes does not want to admit it. Atlan feared the atomic war that threatened in and retreated to his deep-sea base -- but when he woke from his deep sleep 69 years later he found a world completely changed! Atlan finds himself near the fulfillment of his longings -- Only one thing stand in his way: Perry Rhodan, administrator of the Solar Imperium!
Perry Rhodan, who thinks only of the welfare of humanity, must deny Atlan the voyage home. But can Perry Rhodan do that? Or is Atlan the better opponent thanks to his many centuries' experience? In the exciting duel on the hot planet Hellgate it was Perry Rhodan who proved himself the better! Atlan has been detained by the Solar Secret Service, but his thoughts are already occupied with the possibilities of a second escape.
Will Atlan achieve his wishes' goal? Atlan may be a prisoner of the secret service but Rhodan sees him as a future ally, so his detainment is quite liberal. He is even allowed out of his comfortable quarters to lecture at the University of Terrania, an opportunity he uses to mix socially among the students and to groom allies of his own.
Atlan escapes Terrania, jets around the world to throw followers off his trail, hatches a new plan to escape the solar system, adopts a new identity, and makes his way to Venus to meet up with countercultural contacts. From a series perspective, the point is to establish setting: Earth and Venus have changed in dramatically since we last visited them fifty years ago, turning into zippy worlds of the future.
The story ends in a showdown as of course it must: this one taking place in a museum on Venus. Atlan gains the upper hand in this one and very nearly defeats Rhodan -- then suddenly realizes that he likes Rhodan and wants to be his friend and so concedes. It isn't any more plausible than it sounds, but that's how it goes. Teaser for the next adventure: Atlan is no longer a danger to the Solar Empire's existence, for the Arkonide has now clearly recognized that that resisting Perry Rhodan's plans is pointless and even deterimental to his own plans.
But then something happens which nobody could have expected: Perry Rhodan's wife Thora is abducted, and the mutants rebel This adventure was translated into English as Again Atlan! The first edition was published by Ace in with a cover by Gray Morrow, together with short stories by Forrest J. Ackerman, Francis Flagg, and Taimi Leith Saha, and the fifteenth chapter of a serialization of "Cosmos", a story written by 18 different science fiction authors.
Those indecisive women, huh?? Those indecisive men, huh?? At least he's an equal-opportunity eyebrow-raiser. The story does blame their situation on a "girlish trick" lit. The Atlan thing, though is weird because Atlan says, "Well, if I can't beat him I'll join him" just as he's about to beat him. One nice thing about the Laury-Rodrigo story is its reversal of a familiar trope.
Although Star Trek came later, it makes a good example: every couple of weeks Captain Kirk fell in love with some gorgeous local girl for a single episode only to see her killed near the end, evoking anger and regret. In this one, we have the young woman adventurer falling in love with a gorgeous local man. How gorgeous? Well, just look at the exclamation points: Mixed blood -- Aztec blood and Spanish blood had united in Count Rodrigo to a masculine beauty! How his eyes glowed! How lordly his mouth appeared!
His nose was a little too large, and exactly this excess gave his masculine face the accent of a glowing warrior, of a proud man! Per trope, adventure follows. In contrast to the Captain Kirk version, though, in which the adventurer questions his commitment to a life of lonely adventuring we find Laury increasingly irritated by Rodrigo's 17th-century habits and assumptions: After Rodrigo explained at length and detail how the arrangement of a man's personal affairs would have to confront the fact of his love, Laury's enthusiasm for the Spanish-Aztec count weakened.
Rodrigo's inability to adapt quickly to his 21st-century environment makes him a nuisance and even a danger: One night, after she had looked after the injured Gucky, Laury found the count in the aggregation chamber. With a multitool he had removed the deckplate of the defense-field generator and was tracing the routes of colorful circuits in the shine of powerful flashlight. As Rodrigo heard Laury's steps he stood, turned, and smiled at the girl. Even to the reader Rodrigo becomes pathetic. Finally he succumbs to a terminal case of foolhardiness when he runs outside the facility's defense shield.
All of this may still be according to trope, as the beloved finds it difficult to adapt to the adventurer's world. But the Kirkish anger and regret? Forget that: Laury Marten bore Rodrigo's death calmly. Rhodan was happy that she already had seen for some time how her suddenly-ignited love for the Aztec-Spanish count had played a girlish trick.
So: it's an interesting gender-reversal of a trope that was already tired when Captain Kirk started doing it worth pointing out because this story precedes Star Trek , but the indifference to Rodrigo's death is a bit weird. The authorial tone toward the character is so different from one adventure to the next that I wonder whether one author thought a dashing sixteenth-century count would make a great recurring character, and the next just said, "Hell no I'm killing him.
That sounds more like the situation with Marla McGivers. With Kirk you could just kill the girl off and move on, but Marla had to be left behind with her improbable love interestand we only have Khan's word for it how it worked out afterwards. The story so far: Despite clever moves on the galactic stage, Perry Rhodan's pursuit of power and recognition for humanity in the universe has remained piecemeal, for the means available to humanity, measured on the scale of the universe, have been too small.
Ralph Sikeron, a Mutant Corps agent on the planet Volat, goes silent after one last transmission: "Three Bells," code for extreme danger to Earth. Perry Rhodan sends Fellmer Lloyd to investigate. Lloyd quickly inserts into Volat disguised as an Arkonide colonist. Hoping to search through his Sikeron's office, where the missing agent worked under the cover of a Springer merchant.
Lloyd discovers that the office has already been broken into. She tells Lloyd that several others have already come looking for the missing agent, and that before he disappeared Sikeron had confided in her that he might someday disappear and that a friend might come looking for him, and that she should direct the friend to the "All-Wise Mother" of the insectoid indigenes, the Volaters. Though Sikeron's office has been well turned over, Lloyd discovers one ominous clue: an appointment calender, with a delivery marked with the term "Overhead. After some chasing and shooting, Lloyd makes his way deep into the jungle where the Volaters introduce him to their All-Wise Mother.
The Mother tells him what she know about Sikeron's situation: in particular, she knows that Sikeron's enemy was actually two people working together. Lloyd returns to the colonial city, puts together a team to rassle up more clues. It turns out that it is not the Overhead who threatened Sikeron, but two of his former henchmen who have since found service with Perry Rhodan.
They are mutants with moderate powers and suspect character whom Rhodan did not offer the life-extending cell-bath. They resent this slight, and intend to avenge themselves by revealing Earth's location to Arkon. To foil the plot, Lloyd must find a way on board the traitors' spaceship, in whose computer the Earth's coordinates are stored. Then escape, if possible. Teaser for the next adventure: Two members of the Mutant Corps, the Terrans' strongest force for Peace in the galaxy, have broken their allegiance to Perry Rhodan.
But nothing is yet lost, for it seems the two mutants have not yet divulged their knowledge to any strangers! Whether they will continue to remain silent when their situation becomes critical, is another question This adventure was translated into English as Shadow of the Mutant Master. Hughes, Jr. Since Earth's apparent destruction in , fifty-six years have passed. But Lloyd's craft was shot down while escaping the planet. Lloyd is left stranded but able to send the distress signal "Three bells" back to Earth, along with the news Sikeron was murdered by Gregor Tropnow and Nomo Yatuhin, two traitorous Mutant Corps agents who plan to reveal Earth's location to Arkon.
Perry Rhodan decides to intervene personally, with help from Andre Noir and Gucky. But just before the jump to Volat they get the news that Gregor Tropnow has kidnapped Rhodan's wife Thora. Because alien apocalypse is insufficient motive, I guess.
Adventure follows: Rhodan's space-jet is shot down as it arrives on the planet, they are attacked by hypnotically controlled panther people, they meet up with the Volats and Fellmer Lloyd, and Gucky scouts the enemy headquarters. Rhodan hatches an elaborate plan that involves 1 calling Arkon for reinforcements in response to a local uprising, 2 starting a fight with Tropnow's and Yatuhin's forces, then 3 convincing the Arkonides when they arrive that the traitors' forces are actually anti-Arkon rebels.
If the plan works, then Arkon itself will destroy the forces that would have supported it, and will distrust the traitors' news of Earth should any happen to leak anyway. Spoiler: Rhodan's team very nearly escapes with Earth's secrecy intact, except that the Springer Talamon happens to be on-planet and recognizes Rhodan as he leaves. Teaser for the next adventure: The two traitors from the ranks of the Mutant Corps can no longer betray anything, but Talamon has informed the Robot Regent that Perry Rhodan remains among the living. The galaxy's power-political situation already precarious -- and now it happens that even on Earth, political elements activate, working to overturn the current order This adventure was translated into English as The Dead Live.
Ackerman, and the seventeenth chapter of a serialization of "Cosmos", a story written by 18 different science fiction authors. The first colonist adventure! The story so far: The Robot Regent of Arkon has been informed that the destruction of Earth was nothing more than a cleverly planned bluff -- and thus the moment that Perry Rhodan has been secretly dreading comes dangerously near, of a showdown between the Solar Empire and Arkon. Is the Terran Empire really strong enough to protect itself against the most powerful attackers But Perry Rhodan, the Solar Administrator has still more worries!
Recently, elements on Earth have become active who work toward the overthrow of the current political order. Horace Mullon is an agent for the Upright Democrats, an underground organization who regard Perry Rhodan as a dictator who must be removed in order to restore democracy to Earth.
Horace arrives in Terrania on a mission to figure out how to do this. He meets another discontent, Walter Hollander of the Natural Philosophers. The Upright Democrats and the Natural Philosophers have incompatible philosophies but share a single goal -- and so Mullon and Hollander make a temporary pact to eliminate Rhodan. They fail. As punishment Rhodan sends Mullon, Hollander, and their revolutionary compatriots into exile. Rhodan has a vision of spreading humanity throughout the galaxy, establishing colonies with a variety of political strategies.
Mullon and Hollander of course are unhappy with their fate, but Mullon comes to peace with it and looks forward to establishing a democracy in his new home. When Hollander leads a mutiny on the colony ship, Mullon realizes that Hollander would be a leader even worse than Rhodan, and organizes the countermutiny. Teaser for the next adventure: In a highly civilized political system like the Solar Empire there is no longer any death penalty!
And so they have become interstellar colonists! Will these exiles be able to master their fate? This adventure was translated into English as Solar Assassins. The first edition was published by Ace in with a cover by Gray Morrow, together with short stories by Donald A. Wollheim, and the twentieth chapter of a serialization of "Cosmos", a story written by 18 different science fiction authors.
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So far the Solar System's galactic position remains a secret -- so far Arkon can dispatch no war fleet, even if the Robot Regent wanted to take such a step But suddenly there occurs an event that makes allies of Terra and Arkon! Since learning that Rhodan is still alive, the Robot Regent of Arkon has been sending a continuous broadcast requesting that Rhodan contact it. He worries that the Robot Regent will be hostile but the interview takes an entirely different direction: the Regent asks Rhodan for help.
The Arkonide empire has been under attack by some mysterious invisible force that attacks without warning, is able to remove all of a planet's fauna from colonists to insects overnight. What Arkon describes is clearly a threat to Rhodan's plans as well so he agrees to help. But no sooner does the meeting wrap up than the unseen force attacks Mirsal III and victims simply disappear. Rhodan is helpless to do anything but evacuate his own forces, but sees losses among them as well.
A series of clues leads Rhodan to believe that the force will attack nearby Mirsal II next. What has happened to the Mirsalese Nobody knows yet, but a trail seems to loom, leading to a planet nearer the same system's sun, which will have to be followed if one wants to engage the weird enemy! This adventure was translated into English as Return from the Void. The first edition was published by Ace in with a cover by Gray Morrow, together with a short story by Coil Kepac, and the twenty-first chapter of a serialization of "Cosmos", a story written by 18 different science fiction authors.
The story so far: Terra and Arkon are allies again, for events have occurred that threaten all life in the Milky Way. The "Attack from the Unseen" represents a danger, in which all intelligent life in the galaxy must stand together find defenses, unless they want to disappear without a trace like the population of Mirsal III.
And it comes to this, that two superbattleships-- one built on Earth and the other on Arkon -- advance together at light-speed to the second planet of the sun Mirsal, where the weird adversary begins its next attack. The population of Mirsal II are humanoid. Their civilization has reached approximately the same level of development as Earth at the end of the 20th century.
If the Mirsalese should fall victim to the weird adversary without a fight Perry Rhodan wants to prevent their downfall and dispatches a team of specialists By generating a defensive field, the team is able to ward off the encroaching disappearance-force, though they still have no idea about its nature. The defence-field gives them some flexibility to investigate and to organize an evacuation.
They cannot save everyone, though, and Peres counts among the victims. Whatever the invisible force may be, it seems with few exceptions to disappear living beings only. By examing inorganic objects left behind through radioactive testing, they discover that that objects caught within the force age thousands of years. These findings lead Rous to speculate that the invisible force is actually a different space-time place intersecting our own for reasons yet to be determined. Rous adapts one of the generators of their defensive field, making the generator produce a tightly concentrated field that links the planes in a way that makes it possible to visit the other plane within a bubble of their own space-time.
Rous and Lloyd discover that time moves glacially slow in the other plane, 72, times slower in fact: 20 hours pass in our universe while only a second passes in the other. Inhabitants of the other universe are like granite statues. Rous and Lloyd rescue Peres, but otherwise it's an information-gathering expedition. When they return they find the attack from the unseen accelerated so that the defensive field can no longer hold. A partial evacuation proceeds, but the adventure closes with Rhodan's team marginally wiser but no closer to a counterstrategy than before.
Teaser for the next adventure: The "hole in space" has once again swallowed all life on a planet -- though three Terran special agents have managed not only to outwit the uncanny adversary but to ensure that at least a fraction of the Mirsalese population were saved from the "great disappearance. Atlan, time's lonely one, reports from 10, years in the past -- though past and present converge with each other, for Atlan has already encountered the uncanny This adventure was translated into English as Attack from the Unseen.
The first edition was published by Ace in with a cover by Gray Morrow, together with short stories by Ralph Hughes and Adrian Hayworth, and the twenty-second chapter of a serialization of "Cosmos", a story written by 18 different science fiction authors. Scheer Tagline: Arkonides defend the solar system - 10, years ago. The story so far: For Atlan, the lonely one of time, the centuries are like only a day, for he has a mysterious cell-vibration activator.
Since the beginning of human history Atlan has dwelt on Earth-- as observer and helper of humankind! Has Atlan played out his secret role as mentor to humanity, now that he has learned about the concentration of power and the civilization achievements of the Solar Empire under the leadership of Perry Rhodan? No and again no! Atlan's knowledge of history and his experiences with the mysterious ones from the other dimension make this old and yet so young Arkonide a key figure in galactic events!
Atlan reports -- and what he reports combines a 10,year past with the present into a dramatic whole The story sounds chillingly familiar to Atlan, who relates his memories from 10, years ago Back then, Atlan was sent to investigate charges of corruption against the administrator of the Arkonide colony on Venus. After sorting out that mess, he approved an emigration of 50, colonists to the next planet over, where they settled a large island they named "Atlantis" in Atlan's honor. Shortly afterward, Atlan was called away to serve in a war against methane-breathing invaders of the Empire.
But soon Atlan was recalled again to the colony on Venus, which had been attacked by an invisible enemy and depopulated parts of the planet. Rhodan arranged a an evacuation of Venus, and prepared for a full-on attack by the unseen enemy. When the assault came it arrived as a wave of destruction, against which conventional weapons were useless. But the Arkonide ships are able to slow and weaken the field temporarily with "impulse converters.
Atlan and a few survivors escaped to Atlantis, though they knew it Earth was almost certainly the next target. The Arkonides prepared against that day, evacuating all but 10, settlers, equipping all of their ships with impulse converters, and building a survival dome deep beneath the ocean. One more unexpected gesture of help arrived from a mysterious source. Second, there was always the tactical need, as Brecht saw it, to minimize the enthusiastic support that Hitler and the NSDAP were receiving from the people. Such support could only be explained away by suggesting that wide-ranging, cross-class support for the Nazi regime was motivated more by fear and intimidation rather than ideological conviction.
Well, the population has the SS on its back, and besides it is without a political will in any direc- tion: BBJ State interference in. Scene 1 ends, for example, with a random shooting. The hapless judge in Scene 5 is confronted with a politically difficult case, the repercussions of which leave him fearful for his future career: one false move and he might be dis- patched to the remote reaches of Pomerania or even a concentration camp.
His predicament is aggravated by the intimidating presence of large num- bers of SA men in the courtroom on the day in question, suggesting that he could become the target of outright violence. The surgeon in Scene 6 also senses that his career could be on the line; he himself risks being sent to a camp if he correctly diagnoses how a patient from Oranienburg KZ received his multiple injuries. In other scenes, a married couple even fear denunciation at the hands of their son and immediately assume that this will result in imprisonment.
A doctor in Scene 8 fears his career aspirations may be compromised because his wife is Jewish. In Scene 18, an old woman whose son-in-law has been grumbling about the quality of life under National Socialism and whose daughter keeps a written record of the increases in the cost of living is overcome with fear as her daughter is led away by two SA troopers for interrogation.
In virtually all scenes, the characters in Furcht und Elend, fearful of being spied on, denounced, or of inviting unwelcome political attention, are continually looking over their shoulders — either literally or metaphorically. Denunciation and its repercussions — from a visit to local Gestapo headquarters through to being sent to a concentration camp — remain more often a possibility than a fact.
Much of the torture is thus psychological. Real violence is kept largely in the wings: only in two Furcht und Elend scenes do outright atrocities occur on stage, and in both cases it soon becomes a matter of violence interrupted rather than taken to the absolute limit. Elsewhere, threatening gestures accompanied by fears of what might happen tend to dominate the picture.
In the case of the dramaturgical writings, Gestus has proved to be a rather contentious concept, largely because of its overlap- ping aesthetic and political connotations. Unter sozialem Ges- tus ist der mimische und gestische Ausdruck der gesellschaftlichen Beziehungen zu verstehen, in denen die Menschen einer bestimmten Epoche zueinander stehen. BFA [The object of the A-effect is to alienate the social gest12 underlying every incident. By social gest is meant the mimetic and gestural expres- sion of the social relationships prevailing between people of a given period.
BT ]. This explanation is kept deliberately nonspecific and hence subject to mod- ification, depending on the period and society under scrutiny. Social intercourse might now, for example, be that between an informer and the person spied on, a HJ member and his conservative parents, or concentration camp prisoners and their overseers. BFA —27 [The play demonstrates typical behavior of people from various classes under fascist dictatorship, [. The gestures found in a dictatorship. But thanks to this final sentence the idea now becomes regime-specific rather than merely a component feature of a new technique of acting.
There is, in fact, hardly a scene in the Furcht und Elend complex that does not bear traces of the social semiotics of fear, intimidation, and circumspection on the part of the people whom we are invited to observe, as they try to survive in the shadow of National Socialism. What is rather surprising, given that this is the case, is the sparse role allocated to stage directions in bringing out the Gestus in any particular inci- dent.
One can only speculate about why this is the case. Brecht as author knew the subtexts the actors had to bring out, and since Furcht und Elend was a work in the production of which he would remain the principal source of advice, there was perhaps less need for lengthy stage directions. If so, too many recommendations about staging detail would have been superfluous between two such experienced, like- minded men of the theater.
Those representing the regime gave the right signals, while oth- ers were anxious not to be denounced either falsely or with justification for saying the wrong thing or failing to abide by the socio-political codes of the day. We will come across examples of such revealing silences in the scenes explored in subsequent chapters.
But it is worth being prepared in advance for the fact that the Furcht und Elend scenes depict many different kinds of silence, most of them accompanied by some sort of physical Gestus. This occurs in a variety of contexts, and is some- times repeated more than once in the early scenes. Although most of these utterances occur when the threat comes from prison guards — and especially in con- centration camps where verbal communication was often forbidden — such warnings also cumulatively suggest that daily life has been so threatened by the possibility of being overheard by spies or informers that the whole of Third Reich Germany has virtually become a concentration camp.
The appropriate interpretive model here would appear to be a Nietzschean-cum-Freudian compensatory one. Yet such fear is rare in the Furcht und Elend scenes in which Nazi per- petrators appear. A more common phenomenon in the scenes dominated by the middle class is the palpable fear of those administrators and state officials Beamten who have either been coordinated gleichgeschaltet as a consequence of the NS takeover or who wish to please their new masters but are unable to adjust to the changed circumstances.
Whether certain forms of fear can be dismissed as quasi-paranoid or are seen as justifiable will depend on the eye of the beholder — that is to say, his or her political standpoint. The fear of a member of the professional middle classes that he might lose his job may meet with little sympathy on the left-wing, just as the fear of a couple of drunken SS men running riot in a proletarian district would cut no ice with the Popular Front. It was only with The Private Life of the Master Race, the Second World War American stage-adaptation conceived at a time when hostilities were reaching a crescendo of mutual annihilation on the Eastern Front, that the fear of the perpetrators was presented as being substantially different from the paranoia and nervous overreaction of Nazi functionaries on the Home Front.
The Private Life is no longer dominated by fear experienced by the proletariat, the petty bourgeoisie, SA, and Gestapo. Fear is now less often presented within the framework of class warfare: those soldiers on its armored troop carrier are from virtually all classes. The war has to a considerable extent broken down class barriers; all are now united in a sense of impending doom. In contrast, the description of the Panzer soldiers in the American version leaves nothing to the imagination. Presumably, it is extreme fear that makes them resemble inanimate objects.
Of course, the focus in Furcht und Elend is of necessity on forms of fear in a country on the way to war, but still not yet officially at war. Although we encounter a number of SA and SS, few soldiers are on stage in any production of the play. The scene, good family drama though it may be, offers no exemplary resistance to the Third Reich and thus merely serves to illustrate what the Comintern would see as the cynical capitalist and petty-bourgeois greed characteristic of Third Reich Germany. The scene begins with all the trappings of a rousing left-wing Naturalist melodrama. A widowed mother of two children, the older of whom already suffers from bronchitis, is grieving at the loss of her husband, the family breadwinner and a resolute critic of the NS system.
For expository reasons, although their inclusion is explained at plot level by their wish to give the bereft family emotional support, two neighbors, a working-class man and his wife, are also present. The man, we are led to assume, was sent to a concentration camp because he had complained about the current starvation wages at his place of work. The fact that his body has now turned up in a sealed metal container triggers further suspicion, even if it means that those present in theory still have access to the concealed evidence.
Although no one is supposed to open the box, the neighbor is tempted to do so. In the antifascist struggle, even the events of such a straightforward scene as this one, pointing to the ugly truth behind the lies, virtually become an act of defiance. If this were its sole or principal purpose, one might won- der why the SA had even bothered to return the body, insulated from pry- ing eyes or not.
Corpses were rarely released from concentration camps or even buried in the s. The zinc box itself is obviously an image of concealed facts, but it also represents a physical intrusion into an intimate scene of family grief, as well as a devi- ous form of political entrapment. Although divided at the outset about whether or not to open the box, they gradually realize the price that they would pay if found to have done so.
Die Kiste kann zubleiben. And they might come for you too. The box can stay shut. This decision is arguably not a surrender to force majeure, but a prudent recognition. As this scene demonstrates, the time for concerted action was, as a consequence, not yet ripe. How- ever, the moral and political dilemmas facing the participants in this scene cannot be reduced to a simple fear factor, whether it is a matter of the fear of the victims or that of the perpetrators.
Nor can it be contained within the framework of material deprivation i. Brecht almost seems to be testing his audience or readers by questioning what their response would have been. Not cowed, he spoke out against the sub- subsistence wages he and his comrades were being paid and he paid with his life for having done so. The broader problem is that in doing so he may have underestimated the potential consequences. In all likelihood, his family will have to suffer substantial financial burdens in the years to come, his relatives will live under the perpetual threat of collective Sippenhaft,21 fear of losing their jobs, of inadvertently drawing further attention to their political allegiances, and of imprisonment or dispatch to a correc- tive detention camp Erziehungslager.
All these putative reprisals could have an impact on any or all of them.
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The awareness of this predicament. Yet her belief that the dead man will not be forgotten at least gives all present the strength to carry on with the struggle. It offers a typical picture of the financial and ethical problems facing the petty bourgeoisie during the Third Reich. According to R. Meanness was always shrouded in a little cloak. But nowadays the cloak is made of synthetic material, FM The talk that SA man Gnauer feels they should all listen to on the day in question is given by an officially sanctioned expert.
In most circles, this would eventually be popularly associated with the infamous Butter-oder-Kanonen question alluded to in a number of Furcht und Elend scenes. Hermann Goering, plenipotentiary for the implementation of the second four-year plan, was later to make explicit the relationship between extreme food shortages at the national level and the underlying strategy for military vic- tory, suggesting that the German people had to choose between the two, while leaving them in no doubt as to which option a good patriotic Ger- man should support.
BFA —44 [Certain of our national comrades have been known to judge the comprehensive measures which the government takes in the interests of the whole people, according to the degree of sacrifice demanded of the individual judging. Thus suppose we take nutrition in the context of the Four-Year Plan: a certain amount of petty grumbling might be heard to the effect that there are slight shortages of milk here and of fat there. Those concerned will be surprised to learn from science that such a shortage of fat for instance may constitute a positive act of kindness to their body.
FM ]. He thus misses the pseudo-scientific NS radio propaganda on behalf of diminished fat intake, only to have left by the time the radio is switched on again. Thus the one man in this scene with sufficient medical competence to be in a position to question the lies being peddled is not present to challenge them not that the family would have probably believed him, in any case. The fact that all the theater audience needs to hear in this scene is the first and last parts of a much longer broadcast suggests that everything in between is utterly predict- able.
Nevertheless, Medizinalrat Seifner does manage to sign off by striking some disturbing new notes. BFA [Too fatty a diet is more likely to cause disease. A low-fat diet guarantees greater energy and longer life. It is not for nothing that the worker is better fitted for physical effort than the so-called intellectual. His sup- posedly inferior diet is in reality the better of the two. Alluding to the Versailles Treaty is intended to imply that the gov- ernment has firm geo-political measures in hand to overturn the effects of defeat, while conveniently not frightening the population by revealing that the ultimate consequence will be yet another expansionist war.
What began as a specialist radio essay ends up sounding more like a piece of encoded pro-war propaganda. In a Third Reich pinning its reputation on having brought about a spiritual revival seelischer Aufschwung in , the proclaimed virtues of autarky have even been reduced to the level of defending a low-fat diet by the latter half of the s! The equivalents of a prologue and an epilogue supplied by the two extracts are ingeniously linked to the family discussion by the motif of ersatz products which includes simulated feelings.
Grumblers are alluded to, but only to be dismissed as not worth taking seriously. Husband and wife devote much mid-scene time to rehearsing a series of duplicitous pseudo-arguments meant to justify not submitting the patient to the risks of an operation, while at the same time insinuating that it would be kinder to keep her at home than put her in a clinic thereby again making serious inroads into their finances and taking refuge in the argument that she should be allowed to die in peace. Das wird nie mehr so billig sein.
With hindsight, some of the earlier exchanges about what to do with Tante Frieda become increasingly sinister. Tante Frieda has a right to be more afraid of her own kith and kin than of dying of cancer. We see that to the bookbinder, a petty bourgeois supporter of the regime whose SA uniform typecasts him as such, politics is more a matter of opportunism than ideological conviction.
One can understand why Brecht might have had misgivings about retain- ing the scene. The principal justification for doing so would be as evidence of what effect fascism can have on some members of such an already grasp- ing family. Herr Gnauer and his daughter try to side- step pressing family responsibilities by escaping to their respective SA and BdM meetings. The father, when rightly charged with insincerity by Hans, seeks to exonerate himself by accusing his son of a lack of patriotism.
Indeed, it is difficult to discern whether the Gnauers ever become genuinely afraid of where their callousness is leading the entire family. In contrast, one can detect a sense of genuine spiritual isolation, far outweighing material disadvantage, in the words of their son who is being threatened with receiving no more pocket money from his father. His outspoken reaction is not motivated by greed, but by prudent pragmatism, followed by a rare ethical judgment: Dann kann ich nicht mehr zur Schule radeln. Neue aus Gummi kriege ich sowieso nicht mehr.
Nur Gummiersatz. Die Schule ist auch nur mehr Schuler- satz. Und Familie ist Familieersatz. My inner tubes are past mending now. Just ersatz rubber. Same way school nowadays is ersatz school. And this was a danger not only confined to the present. And, as Brecht was evidently well aware, it can even be projected back into the past, as a kind of historical legacy. Mai, Highway Robbery! Erpres- sung! If there was to be resistance from them, this would only be achieved with the aid of the working class.
Zu helfen vermag ihnen nur die Arbei- terklasse. Only the work- ing class can help them. He was in retrospect to show no sympathy for the motives of the men behind the 20 July Bomb Plot; see BFA As is well known, Brecht was deeply disappointed that the German proletariat, instead of liberating itself by rising up en masse against the National Social- ist dictatorship, had, along with Germany as a whole, to be rescued from itself by the Allied Powers, even if one of those powers was the Stalinist USSR.
During his exile antifascist period from until the end of hostilities in Europe, Brecht continued to pin his hopes on the Popular Front, the KPD, SPD, and other local clandestine resistance movements. Furcht und Elend and The Private Life reflect these hopes in their different ways. Ein erhebender Abend kann es ja nun auf keinen Fall werden. BFA [I understand your fear that the play may be too depressing. Still, I think it shows how fragile the Third Reich is in all its parts and aspects, that it is held together by violence alone. It shows the people whom this regime wants to drive into one of the biggest and hardest wars of all time.
BFA [Resistance, yes, the increasing resistance of every section of the pop- ulation is shown clearly. BBL —82 ]. The latter claim suggests that Brecht saw resistance as the inevitable dialectical counterpart to oppression and exploitation. Brecht would now appear to be experimenting with the Furcht und Elend material to try to answer his own question. Despite his confidence that extreme oppression would lead dialec- tically to acts of resistance and ideological rebellion, Brecht was never-. He gives a resounding laugh: FM Such grumbles are not an opposition: FM Apparent gestures of dissidence could be deceptive whichever class they came from.
Martin Broszat et al. However, even here we do not learn whether or not his words fell on deaf ears. But Brecht needed to convince audiences — and probably himself, too — that large-scale organized resistance would eventually grow from such small seeds, even if this had not happened yet. The long-standing, exclusive definition of resistance focusing only upon exceptional cases of fundamental and active opposition has pro- duced an idealized and undifferentiated picture of German resistance.
A revised definition that includes the less heroic cases of partial, passive, ambivalent and broken opposition — one that accounts for the fragility of resistance and the inconsistency of human bravery — may in the end inspire a greater intellectual and moral sensitivity toward the subject than a definition that includes only the exceptional greatness of heroic martyrdom. One can imagine the author of the Furcht und Elend scenes agreeing with much of this argument, even if his mistrust of the heroic conception of resistance and idealistic motives was motivated by very different political assumptions.
The tortoise is presented as a symbol11 of clandestine pacifist resistance:. Und wo die Kleine sich zeigte [. In stark contrast to this image of effective industrial sabotage, , part of the Steffinsche Sammlung also , presents a gloomy picture within Third Reich Germany of opportunities there for the taking, but not seized:. There is, however, more than one way of interpreting these conflicting treatments of the resistance theme. Alternatively, it could be read as an example of foreign resistance to fascism, an example held up as a model for the German underground.
Instead, many of the early Furcht und Elend scenes. Their hostility to the proletarian district they find themselves in may even be colored by a sense of bad conscience. When someone in one of the buildings eventually opens a window to find out who is there, the two men panic, shooting wildly in all directions until they hear the scream of some- one hit, upon which they decide to beat a hasty retreat. Schweykian Resistance? While the confrontation between the two men largely takes place on a one-to-one level, each prefers to treat his opposite number in generic terms.
They are merely sparring with one another. What we. The confident SA man is quick to taunt the worker by boasting that, later that evening, he will be taking part in an organized raid on a working- class district. He subsequently slips up, inadvertently revealing that Rein- ickendorf is to be the target, a crass blunder that makes it possible for the worker to rush off and alert his comrades of the attack to come. The worker also gains the upper hand in a number of other ways that evening.
Because of his taunts, the SA man gradually loses his dignity in front of the others present. Behind the mask of the ensuing teasing and baiting, the SA man is playing virtually the same game of agent provocateur that he and his comrades play among the queues of the out-of-work down at the labor exchange. However, this time the trick is part of an agreed wager between the two men. The infuriated SA man then tries to draw the worker onto more dangerous political ground by forcing him to grumble about conditions in the Third Reich.
Too shrewd and experienced to fall into such a trap, the worker merely assumes the role of moaner after assur- ances that he is simply being asked to play a part in a charade and his words will therefore not be subsequently held against him. Apparently playing the part of archetypal grumbler with such evident relish, the worker at the same time dissociates himself from the complaints he relays to his handful of lis- teners by feigning to be an ardent supporter of National Socialism. The SA man is clearly disap- pointed. Everything so far has been too tame for his liking. Audiences are clearly invited to test subsequent Furcht und Elend scenes in the light of this claim.
The worker cleverly covers himself by attributing his anecdote to Ley, a man notorious for his social gaffes. This assumption emerges from his retrospective. There the Dramaturge is asked by the Philosopher to comment on the acting style of the Paris premiere of Furcht und Elend.
Denn das Lachen schien die Dummheit zu betref- fen, die sich hier zur Gewalt gezwungen sah, und die Hilflosigkeit zu meinen, die da als Roheit auftrat. Das Lachen der Zuschauer hatte sehr viele Schattierungen. Auf das Spiel von Ursache und Folge. For this laughter seemed to apply to the stupidity that found itself having to make use of force, and to the helplessness that took the shape of brutality. Bullies were seen as men tripping over, criminals as men who have made a mistake or allowed themselves to be taken in.
It was a happy laughter when the quarry outwitted his pursuer, a contented laughter when somebody uttered a good, true word. On the interplay of cause and effect. BMD 72—73 ]. The latter always cancels out any chance of the former — or it would do, if the worker had not managed to uncover the devious way the SA subvert the welfare system inherited from the Weimar Republic. Like the SA man protected by his brown uniform, the worker behaves with the confidence of someone who knows he is part of a large and potentially strong movement.
Significantly, the worker may have done more to serve the proletarian cause by alerting his comrades in Reinickendorf and learning about the chalk-cross trick than by scoring points off his opponent. Verbal point scoring amounts to little more than securing Pyrrhic victories, satisfying for worker and audience alike, but in the wider scheme of things merely raising the question of just what constitutes effective political resistance. Subverting National Socialist Propaganda In the early scenes of Furcht und Elend, radio is primarily associated with listening to prohibited foreign broadcasting stations.
In contrast, the live. BFA [Here we are with flywheels and driving belts in full swing all around us, surrounded by our comrades working as busily as ants. FM 65 ]. The interviews that follow are conducted in an enclosed location, not just to exclude back- ground noise, but in order to make the fragile situation easier to control. For the same reason, just three ostensibly representative workers have been selected to take part in the scripted interview.
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And a burly SA man stands menacingly over them to make sure no interviewee puts a foot wrong. The very details of the factory setting promise a lively send-up. The association of the fox with cunning, together with the noun Spinnerei two secondary meanings of spinnen are: to be crazy or to talk rubbish , makes a promising prelude to the duplicity to come.
As the individual one-to-one interviews increasingly depart from plan, the likelihood presents itself that the workers might in fact be taking revenge on a system that has already exploited them economically and, to cap it all, now wants to manipulate them for propaganda purposes. The series of exchanges between interviewer and workers initially sounds like some grotesque encounter between an obsessive control freak and a trio of bumbling stooges. Yet the workers may not necessarily be the gullible fools the interviewer takes them for. They could simply be feign- ing incompetence in order to make a mockery of the entire propaganda exercise.
Ja und so geht unter munteren Scherzworten die Arbeit leicht von der Hand, wie? Der Nationalsozialismus kennt keinen lebensfeindlichen Pessimismus, meinen Sie. BFA —6. Sedelmaier, how is it that we see nothing but these happy, joyous faces on every side? The deadly menace of pessimism is unknown under National Socialism, you mean. What are we working for, they used to ask. FM 66 ]. The fact that they habitually get their verb tenses wrong already makes them appear to be only quasi-inadvertently sabotag- ing the broadcast.
Also of the geranium plants which provide a magical touch of colour in the greyness of our working environment, by suggestion of Miss Kinze. As we later learn, after receiving a fresh coat of paint for the occasion, the factory was presented with a picture of Adolf Hitler standard issue in all German public buildings at the time and a generous supply of gerani- ums, yet the washroom still has only half a dozen taps for workers.
However, caution is required in interpreting this scenario. Again, this is something that radio listeners would not be able to see, whereas a theater audience will quickly realize that things have gone drastically wrong onstage. Real resistance only occurs towards the end of the scene in question — and when it does, it renders the guard speechless.
Wirst du Sau deine Internationale noch einmal singen? He is angry at having to waste both time and effort inflicting corporal punishment on someone who appears to be a KPD political prisoner. The response of the man ordered to act is initially one of discernible reluctance. He hits him. The second prisoner takes the whip and flogs the first. This is not the only episode in Furcht und Elend involving a punishment beating. Both guard and prisoner are shown to be trapped in the system, seemingly with no hope of being able to alleviate their predicaments.
BFA [The second prisoner beats harder still. The first prisoner starts singing the Internationale in a hoarse voice. The second stops beating and joins in the song. The SS men fall on the prisoners. In many cases, he recalls, it was a way of combating rampant demoralization and thus of fostering prisoner solidari- ty. In der Nacht vom Februar nach dem Reichstagsbrande verhafteten ihn die Urheber des Reichstags-. Er weigerte sich. Sie legten die Gewehre auf ihn an. Und er sang.
Er sang: Die Internationale. Am Abend des 9. Juli wurde ihm befohlen, sich beim Kommandan- ten des Konzentrationslagers [. Aber die Wahrheit kam ans Licht. On the night of 27—28 February, after the Reichstag Fire, those who had started the fire arrested him. For three years he was subjected to mental and physical torture in a concentration camp. He refused. They pointed their rifles at him. And he sang. On the evening of 9 July , he was ordered to report to the commandant of the concentration camp.
The man who had refused to commit suicide was to appear before the commandant carrying a length of rope. But the truth came to light. His death is for us a cause for lamenta- tion and grief. But beyond that, it will be the symbol of that bravery that fills us with pride when we think of Germany. That is to say, the progression could relate to an increase in the effectiveness of direct action in a given situation. In most versions of the play, that continuity.
The Private Life and Aurora editions help accentuate this by giving the exact location and year of each scene. The surgeon in fact continues to do his utmost to ignore his obligations under the Hippocratic Oath,32 as well as his own stated princi- ples of holistic diagnosis. Other patients, in contrast, soon begin to suspect that the new arrival is a victim of Nazi violence the man has been admitted with injuries allegedly resulting from a fall downstairs, whereas his physi- cal state makes either systematic torture or brutal punishment seem more likely causes.
The hospital matron tries to warn the surgeon that the case should be treated with extreme caution, but he merely attempts to pass the buck by ordering that the man be sent to the X-Ray Department straight- away. Yet nothing those harboring suspicions say or do in this scene amounts to resistance proper. The surgeon is accompanied on his rounds by a retinue of assistants and nurses, and when answering the question of what in his prehistory makes someone twice decide to tear off his bandages, the stage direction tells us that all heads turn in the direction of the one patient who clearly senses that something wrong is happening.
Most of those present merely observe events and, by not speaking out, engage de facto in what is, to all intents and purposes, little more than another cover-up, which could be read as an act of collec- tive complicity. Only at the very end of the scene does one of the assistants reveal that another patient recovering on the ward has been brought to the hospital from the Oranienburg concentration camp.
The episode thus ends on a sarcastic note, despite the ethical impasse, but not with a gesture of constructive resistance or even one of outright opposition.
Even then, certain structural anomalies would still remain. The ones in which a farmer furtively feeds his sow or a butcher hangs himself in such a way as to display his corpse in his own shopwindow hardly warrant their late position, particularly when judged on the accepted criteria for evaluating the efficacy of any act of resistance. In each case, agrarian constituencies, originally largely pro-NSDAP in the early s, are at this stage associated with dissidence and resistance.
Although German farmers and other agricultural workers had initially received many material advantages and financial concessions from the first Third Reich four-year plan —37 , small farmers and peasants began to suffer badly thereafter. Raw materials required for rearmament and the importation of much-needed cattle fodder were in competition with one another, and farmers as a result suffered from severe problems of supply, shortages of labor, and restrictions on food pricing.
This prior context has important implications for the way in which acts of potential resistance are treated in the second half of Furcht und Elend. However, for reasons that have been much debated, Brecht did not join them. The emphasis in both of these Furcht und Elend scenes is less on the fact that the German Condor Legion, together with a token force of some 50, Italian ground troops, was heavily involved in pro-Nationalist operations than on the cost of such an operation to Germans back in the Third Reich.
The fact that both scenes take place in is particularly significant, given the ever-changing fortunes of the warring Republican and Nationalist sides during the three years of the Spanish Civil War. Wegen Spanien. Gestern abend. Zur Strafe. Over Spain. Last night. As a punishment. Now it could lead to war. FM 85—86 ]. That is decent of them, the first boy decides. In other words, these acts of charity are very different from the corrupt pseudo- largesse of the NS Winterhilfswerk campaigns. Die wissen doch! They know how it is: FM While the boys benefit from such generosity, one of them has also learnt an important political lesson from the experience.
Once again, NS Volksgemeinschaft policies prove to be both patently duplicitous and in the long run counterproductive. Audiences are left to speculate about whether the soldiers have acted out of class solidarity with the boys, out of apolitical compassion, or in a spirit of pacifist opposition to a regime that is about to send them off to fight — and in many cases to die — on its behalf. These possible motives are, of course, not necessarily mutually exclusive.
After a short-lived episode in Popular Front history when Republican forces appeared to be gaining the upper hand with the help of the International Brigades, substantial organized Nationalist support from Germany and Italy eventually ensured Republican defeat. It is she who suspects that he was probably killed in action during the ongoing Spanish Civil War. The cause of his death whether preparing for a war or participating in one makes little difference. Die haben ja auch Frauen- Konzentrationslager. Was hat der in Spanien verloren! BFA [Let them come and get me, then! Let them just put me in one of those because I dare to mind when they kill my brother!
What was he in Spain for? FM 90 ]. I get on with my work: FM Das hilft doch nicht! Weil wir sonst verrecken, wenn wir ihnen nicht ihre Bomben- flieger machen? Und dann verrecken wir doch? BFA [Are we to keep quiet just because they might take your job away? And die just the same if we do? In this respect, the responses of Frau Fenn and her intrusive neighbor Frau Dietz might merit consideration as low-caliber resistance.
Yet the fact that such doubts are expressed only behind closed doors makes them seem less deserving of the term. It is not merely the dangerous act of seeking answers, but the nature of the questions asked and, in this case, the context that define genuine spoken resistance. Having listed a dozen examples of alleged resistance in his letter to Dudow, Brecht returns to the crucial question of how Furcht und Elend should end. The no at the end does not strike me as too little: BBL BBB and V.
Lenin in classic theoretical works of early interventionist socialism. Reiches , each of these election-based scenes is prefixed by the indication of an important electoral and plebiscite date in the history of the Third Reich. Of the press-ganged voters we are told:. Und fragten wir mit Erbarmen: Wo zieht ihr hin, ihr Armen? Dann riefen sie: in den Sieg! We asked them, all unknowing: Poor things, where are you going? Those manning the polling station, including the official in charge, are all in SA uniform. The uniform becomes a form of intimidation. The SA are not the only people present in this scene.