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Formerly: Front page of Sign. XXIX f. Formerly: Suppl. Formerly: A l l. Ambras, A l l MSSiy which are now lost, complete ones as well as fragments, S, e, h, n,and r ,are excluded from our present study, even though some 3 information and p a r t i a l r e p r i n t s e x i s t. Furthermore, we intend to combine a l l the MSS into one composite group, no matter how many or how few s t r u c t u r a l markers are to be found i n any i n d i v i d u a l MS.

This i s contrary. In our study the fragments w i l l have an equal s t a t i s t i c a l weight within the passages contained i n the. I t i s our opinion that fragments can y i e l d valuable information concerning the p a r t i c u l a r portion s of the text which they do carry. Also missing f o l i o s of the nevertheless so-called complete MSS w i l l be taken into consideration. A new section s t a r t s at the precise l i n e where the number of MSS including fragments relevant to the portion of text i n question changes.

A change occurs at l i n e where the MS F commences. In t h i s manner the text i s devided into 49 " l i n e groups. Lines are i n 11 MSS The next average i n i t i a l w i l l be the one which i s attested i n the second highest number of MSS, i n our example the i n i t i a l at l i n e This w i l l be the one which i s registered i n the t h i r d highest number of MSS: the one at l i n e It should be pointed out that the entire number of i n i t i a l s i n the same number of MSS has to be either accepted or not accepted.

In each one of the 5 MS-number groups, the cut-off point w i l l thus be at the number of i n i t i a l s which most nearly approximates the st a t i s t i c a l average.. From each line group the following number of i n i t i a l s can be accepted for the model MS by taking 3 as the lowest common occurrence at the same ,. Not once i s i t necessary, to accept an i n i t i a l which occurs i n 2 MSS only or to discard an i n i t i a l which i s attested i n 17 3 or more MSS. If the 49 l i n e groups were to be considered separately, however, only a t o t a l of as opposed to average i n i t i a l s would f i n d t h e i r way into the model MS.

Admittedly, the r e s u l t would be more accurate within each i n d i v i d u a l l i n e group i f t h i s group were to be regarded as a separate e n t i t y. Seen i n the larger perspective, however, the o v e r - a l l r e s u l t i s more r e l i a b l e when a l l l i n e groups i n one MS-number group are treated as one composite group.

This would give these smaller groups too much importance.

Furthermore, we have shown how many of these average i n i t i a l s are represented i n each i n d i v i d u a l MS. Like Linke we s h a l l a t t r i b u t e a numerical value to each MS; unlike Linke, however, we intend to r e t a i n the value of the MSS as i t i s expressed i n percentage points rather than replacing i t by the numbers of an o r d i n a l scale. Before-we employ the c r i t e r i a described i n our t h e o r e t i c a l example, attention should be drawn to the f a c t that only MSS without any gaps H, W, B, N, E, R,and P can a c t u a l l y correspond to the i n i t i a l s of the model MS.

In the case of MS M, the t o t a l number of average i n i t i a l s can not be , but only , since M has a gap from 7 l i n e groups. Rankes Kollationen erweiterten und verbesserten Apparat besorgt und mit einem Nachwort versehen von Werner Schroder B e r l i n , , ff. Jahrhundert, Sitzungsberichte Akad. MUnchen, P h i l. According to Hans Hugo Steinhoff, t h i s fragment i s "nicht nachweisbar:" G o t t f r i e d von Strassburg: T r i s t a n.

Erster T e i l. Text, ed. In his c o l l a t i o n of t h i s Fragment "Fragmente einer T r i s t a n h a n d s c h r i f t , " ZfdA,19 , , Gregor Kutschera quotes from a l e t t e r by Anton MBrath, an a r c h i v i s t at the Castle Schwarzenberg i n Bavaria, who found t h i s fragment, "fttr i n i t i a l e n i s t an einigen s t e l l e n l e e r e r raum gelassen, doch sind d i e -selben nirgends ausgefUhrt," p.

Kutschera's c o l l a t i o n and information i s thus based on second-hand evidence, we f e l t that t h i s fragment could not be considered f o r our study. Burnt during WWII. Ranke,Gottfried von Strassburg: T r i s t a n und I s o l d. Text, 13th Ed. Dublin, Zurich This would be further away from the desired "average" of When c a l c u l a t i n g to the nearest one hundredth of a percentage point the order of the top four MSS i s : 0: In the previous chapter a serie s of paragraph d i v i s i o n s a model MS was established which w i l l be the point of departure for a s t r u c t u r a l analysis of l i n e s the Vorgeschichte.

These l i n e s were chosen p a r t l y because they form the smallest narrative complex wit h i n the e p i c , 1 while s t i l l containing a s u f f i c i e n t number of na r r a t i v e units to enable us to detect possible s t r u c t u r a l patterns w i t h i n the e n t i r e complex, and p a r t l y on the assumption that the f i r s t portions of the epic were 2 probably copied more accurately by the scribes than were l a t e r sections. In t h i s chapter we s h a l l examine how the paragraph d i v i s i o n s of the model MS divide the content of the Vorgeschichte, whether a new paragraph d i v i s i o n coincides with a new narrative u n i t , whether one can speak of narrative units within the framework of these paragraphs, etc.

Further-more i t w i l l be shown how the paragraphs of the model MS are linked s t y l i s t i c a l l y with the preceding nar r a t i v e , how strongly or weakly the d i v i s i o n s are documented i n the MSS, and at which points i n the text there are other d i v i s i o n s i n the MSS which were not accepted i n the model MS because they did not meet our c r i t e r i a same occurrence i n at l e a s t 3 MSS.

Only the MSS F and N mark the beginning of the passage containing t h i s warning by an i n i t i a l l i n e The second paragraph according to our model MS begins at l i n e Within t h i s passage the word occurs 8 times. Furthermore, the two paragraphs are linked by means of an uninterrupted usage of pronouns: hie vahet man den bern mite: der r i c h e t einzele schaden, unz er mit schaden wirt beladen. In the paragraph we are t o l d that the fa c t that this, l o r d i n Parmenie always returned e v i l with e v i l brought about h i s downfall at a very young age.

This he does i n the paragraph , the beginning of which is marked by the same MSS as the previous paragraph division, however, with the added support from a paragraph sign in H: M H F W. S t y l i s t i c a l l y the short paragraph is a continuation of the preceding one with i t s uninterrupted sequence of pronouns: do v i e l sin gaeher abent an, der ime vor was verborgen und laschte im sinen morgen.

A new narrative unit commences, and the sequence of pronouns is interrupted: 76 der selbe hiez l i due Morgan. It i s noteworthy that the sequence of pronouns r e l a t i n g to Riwalin i s interrupted at t h i s l i n e , whereas the l i n k with the preceding i s established with the words "die selben. The flow of pronouns i s interrupted, and Riwalin's successful enterprise i s r e f e r r e d to b r i e f l y with the words "alsus gelanc. Within the lines of this paragraph Riwalin decides to spend the year of truce at King Mark's court; we are given some background information on the history of England and Cornwall in relation to Mark ff.

A number of separate narrative units have thus been crammed into one single paragraph. Of the above subdivisions only line is marked by an i n i t i a l in F only ; there is a paragraph sign in H at line F and N share an i n i t i a l at line which f a l l s within the account of the history of England.

No MS has an i n i t i a l at lines , , , 12 or In order to underline further the absence of structural dividers at points in the narrative where one might have expected them, Gottfried makes the new beginnings at the second line of a couplet, something which does not happen where the majority of the MSS show a paragraph division: Mit disen sinnen huob er an: er bevalch sin l i u t und sin lant sus kerte Riwalin zehant mit zwelf gesellen Uber se; nu sich diu z i t also getruoc, daz er ze Curnewale kam nu daz er do ze hove kam, Marke der tugende riche Riwalin i s welcomed by Mark before the new paragraph begins at l i n e er [Mark] sprach: 'got und mir willekomen!

As was the case at l i n e a short period of time has elapsed between the 2 paragraphs. The flow of pronouns i s interrupted at the d i v i s i o n , and the notion of the good and f r i e n d l y atmosphere at Mark's court i s c a r r i e d over from the "welcoming" passage of the preceding paragraph. F and B have an i n i t i a l , and H has a paragraph sign at line M and E mark line , and N line , both of which are subdivisions within the locus amoenus description. The guests are introduced into the i d y l l i c scenery in the new , paragraph ff.

S t y l i s t i c a l l y the paragraph division is indicated by the usage of the word "geselleschaft" rather than the indefinite pronoun "man," and at the beginning of the new paragraph the same joyous atmosphere is being alluded to which had been described toward the end of the preceding one: daz da mane edele herze van vrHude unde hohen muot gewan.

There is no interruption i n the sequence of pronouns, and the word "sehen" is being played on from line to , i. This i s not the same thing as when a si n g l e word or concept from the clos i n g l i n e s of a paragraph i s taken up again at the beginning of the following one' such as at l i n e Everyone does whatever he pleases we are t o l d i n l i n e s In the last. This introduction of Blanscheflur i s marked i n H only, not by an i n i t i a l , but by a paragraph sign.

Blanscheflur i s introduced i n very general terms: ein maget, daz da noch anderswa schoener wip nie wart gesehen. The flow of pronouns. The term "diu sae l i g e ougenweide" f o r Blanscheflur should probably be seen i n the same l i g h t as the usage of "Canele" or "Canelengres" f or Riwalin , The bohort begins at l i n e None of the MSS have an i n i t i a l or a paragraph sign at t h i s point, and also here, G o t t f r i e d stresses the absence of a d i v i s i o n by having the new section of the nar r a t i v e begin at the second l i n e of a couplet: hie mite huob s i c h der buhurt do von gesinde und ouch von gesten: The bohort continues into the next paragraph, the beginning of which i s documented i n 6 MSS: M H F W B N 0 E R P.

The r e a c t i o n of the l a d i e s , including Blanscheflur, to the knights i n general and to Riwalin i n p a r t i c u l a r i s dealt with i n the paragraph The l a s t l i n e s of the preceding paragraph describe how Blanscheflur pays very close attention to the l a d i e s ' praise of Riwalin, keeping i t to h e r s e l f that Riwalin has entered her heart, whereas the new paragraph begins rather abruptly by s t a t i n g that the bohort i s now M H F W B N O E R P 18 N N N N N D N N N N over: er truoc gewaltecliche i n i r herzen kUnicriche den cepter und die crone: daz s i doch also schone.

The word " r i t t e r s c h a f t " comprises a l l the knights, including 83 Riwalin, who took part i n the bohort. Riwalin and Blanscheflur are both referred to by name the f i r s t time they are mentioned in the new paragraph f. After the bohort is over, Riwalin rides over to Blanscheflur and greets her ff. The paragraph ends at the close of their conversation but before their words of farewell: '.

They both crown each other i n their hearts, but neither of them 19 knows of the other's feelings ff. Now Riwalin suffers the same kind of pangs as Blanscheflur had complained about ff. Riwalin leaves Blanscheflur after their conversation, the sequence of pronouns is discontinued, and the word "trahte" , alludes to the "gedanken" immediately prior to the "new" passage : do a l e r s t e huob ez s i c h mit gedanken under i n. Canelengres der kerte h i n i n maneger slahte trahte: er trahte maneger slahte, waz Bl a n s c h e f l i u r e swaere und d i r r e maere waere.

This shows that i t would be wrong to assume the beginning of a new paragraph whenever the fLow of pronouns, i s interrupted, or when a new narr a t i v e unit commences. The same features which occur at the paragraph d i v i s i o n s of our model MS also occur wi t h i n the frame of a paragraph. I t i s noteworthy that we do not encounter any of the above features i n the paragraph d i v i s i o n at l i n e Likewise i t deserves mentioning that l i n e 7 9 2 — i n spite of a l l the features of a. At l i n e the section of the narrative begins i n which Riwalin has to come to terms with the question of whether Blanscheflur loves 20 or hates him.

The image of the st r u g g l i n g b i r d i s developed i n the f i r s t p o rtion of the paragraph and i t i s applied to Riwalin i n the remainder of the paragraph Only 21 N and E show t h i s subdivision. The l a s t l i n e s of the paragraph i n which Riwalin f i n a l l y succumbs to minne are recapitulated at the beginning of the following paragraph: und Riwalin gewis b e l e i p , s i n Blanscheflur diu minnet i n : des was s i n herze und a l s i n s i n einbaereliche an s i g e l e i t , daz nieman do da wider s t r e i t.

Riwalin's love-sickness i s described from l i n e to the end of the paragraph. The word "senede" i n l i n e i s taken up again i n the. As was the case at l i n e , the pronouns r e f e r r i n g to Riwalin continue into the new paragraph. One might have expected that Riwalin's and Blanscheflur's love-sickness Would have been dealt with w i t h i n the same paragraph rather than having one d e s c r i p t i o n i n the second h a l f of a paragraph and the other d e s c r i p t i o n i n the f i r s t h a l f of the following one Not only that, the second portion of the paragraph i s taken up with the f i r s t s e c tion of Blanscheflur's inner monologue i i i which she reproaches Riwalin fo r her s u f f e r i n g.

The paragraph d i v i s i o n within the monologue occurs at a turning point: Blanscheflur ceases to reproach Riwalin and begins to r e a l i z e that her s u f f e r i n g i s due to love: 87 wa mite mag i c h geschulden daz, daz mir von ieman l e i t gescheher, den i c h mit vriundes ougen sehe?

The beginning of the paragraph summarizes the conclusion which Blanscheflur drew i n her monologue. The word "herzen" alludes to "herzen" i n the last, l i n e of the previous paragraph. This paragraph concludes the Kohgezit episode. The f i r s t 2 l i n e s of the new paragraph r e f e r to the e n t i r e group of paragraphs dealing with the hohgezit rather 26 than to the immediately preceding l i n e s : ez ergienc i n [Riw.

Geflügelte Worte, Georg Büchmann

A new nar r a t i v e unit begins with the paragraph ; G o t t f r i e d hastens to provide the s e t t i n g for the conception of T r i s t a n. Within 22 l i n e s Cornwall i s invaded, the enemy's forces are crushed, and Riwalin i s s e r i o u s l y wounded and c a r r i e d back to T i n t a j e l. Line where Blanscheflur's laments commence i s marked by an i n i t i a l i n F and by a paragraph sign i n H.

The pronouns even continue from the previous paragraph which—judging from 27 the paragraph d i v i s i o n s dealt with thus f a r — i s rather unusual. The Word "sinne" l i n e i s repeated i n the f i r s t l i n e of the new paragraph. None of the MSS mark t h i s l i n e , but B marks various stages of the conversation between the two lad i e s by a paragraph sign and The dialogue begins at l i n e and continues u n t i l approximately h a l f way through the following paragraph.

The paragraph d i v i s i o n occurs immediately a f t e r Blanscheflur has expressed her wish to see Riwalin, and before the governess agree! This paragraph d i v i s i o n. If l i n e i s not to be regarded as an i n t r o d u c t i o n to the d i r e c t discourse, i t w i l l have to be the c l o s i n g l i n e , standing alone, of the preceding paragraph: ouch jach diu meisterinne, s i braehte ein arzaetinne, und erwarp, daz man s i zuo zim l i e z. In contrast to l i n e , the usage of pronouns i s interrupted at l i n e The fac t that Blanscheflur. The scene i s often set before the new paragraph unfolds.

At l i n e the passage begins i n which Blanscheflur arouses Riwalin's desire. This i s marked by a paragraph sign i n H. At the end of the paragraph we are again prepared f o r the following one: ouch was er von dem wibe und von der minne v i i nach tot; wan daz im got h a l f uz der not, son kunder niemer s i n genesen: sus genas er, wan ez s o l t e wesen. We are t o l d that Blanscheflur contracted death when she conceived the c h i l d , but she does not know t h i s and concentrates a l l her e f f o r t s on Riwalin.

Both have but one desire: "sus was er s i und s i was er" It need not be, however. Line could be the end of a paragraph i n the same manner as l i n e i s the end of the paragraph "sus genas er, wan ez s o l t e wesen. Since the MSS M and E are rather poor s o u r c e s — a t l e a s t according to our evaluation s c a l e — t h e paragraph d i v i s i o n at l i n e should perhaps be disregarded. I t should also be noted that the usage of pronouns continues into the f i r s t l i n e of the "new" paragraph and then ceases.

Riwalin and Blanscheflur l i v e i n a state of b l i s s ; but before the paragraph i s over the scene i s set f o r the next group of paragraphs: Morgan invades Parmenie, and Riwalin prepares to return home without delay. H marks the beginning l i n e of t h i s new development by a paragraph 93 sign There i s a change of scene at the paragraph d i v i s i o n which follows upon the d e s c r i p t i o n of Riwalin's preparations to leave Cornwall.

While she i s lamenting, Riwalin enters to bid her farewell. This entrance a f t e r the inner monologue i s marked by several MSS, but not at the same l i n e : ff. H has a paragraph sign only.

Acta neophilologica

Blanscheflur f a i n t s ff. The new paragraph which 37 i s attested by an i n i t i a l i n 7 MSS begins i n the usual manner: by r e f e r r i n g to the person by name rather than by a pronoun and by repeating some of the words from the preceding paragraph: und trute s i sus unde so, b i z s i ze jungeste do z i r selber kam baz unde baz und ufreht von. Blanscheflur t e l l s Riwalin about her predicament i n a long speech from the fourth l i n e of the paragraph to the end of i t The paragraph d i v i s i o n at l i n e occurs immediately a f t e r 95 Blanscheflur's speech, and Riwalin's reply takes up the e n t i r e paragraph herre, iuwer h e l f e diu netuoz und got envilegez danne al s o , son wirde i c h niemer mere vro.

This paragraph d i v i s i o n i s well documented. On the other hand i t follows a pattern of "paragraph d i v i s i o n s w i t h i n dialogues. A p a r a l l e l s i t u a t i o n e x i s t s at l i n e which occurs immediately a f t e r Riwalin's response where Blanscheflur speaks again: swes i u nu s i ze muote, vrouwe, des bewiset mich, wan swaz i r w e l l e t , daz w i l i c h. Riwalin appears before Mark and 41 takes leave of him. G o t t f r i e d has 42 Riwalin and Blanscheflur elope at the end of the paragraph ff.

The en t i r e ship voyage takes place between the two paragraphs.


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In t h i s paragraph Riwalin and Blanscheflur a r r i v e i n Parmenie, Rual advises Riwalin to marry Blanscheflur i n church r i g h t away; he takes Blanscheflur to Riwalin's c a s t l e ff. One cannot speak of a unit i n the narrative i n t h i s paragraph. On the contrary a number of happenings are crammed together i n one. As was the case before Riwalin was wounded—which was necessary for the conception of T r i s t a n — G o t t f r i e d hastens to more important matters: Riwalin's being k i l l e d so that T r i s t a n can be born an orphan out of wedlock.

There are paragraph signs again i n H and B at l i n e None of the MSS mark the beginning l i n e of the passage i n which Riwalin i s k i l l e d. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that there i s no paragraph d i v i s i o n at l i n e where there could have been one according to the usual pattern established throughout t h i s chapter. Riwalin's death i s mentioned j u s t p r i o r to the l i n e i n which he i s referred to as "Canelengres der guote" In the passage introduced by t h i s l i n e , Riwalin's death i s taken up again: an d i r r e veigen lantwer wart der v i i clagebaere erslagen, den a l diu werlt wol s o l t e clagen, ob c l e g e l i c h i u swaere nach tode ntttze waere.

Canelengres- der guote, der l a c da jaemerlichen t o t. At the end of the preceding paragraph Blanscheflur's laments are being prepared by the b r i e f mentioning of the lamentation i n general caused by Riwalin's death: daz i c h nu v i i von ungehabe. None of the MSS mark the l i n e at which G o t t f r i e d concentrates, h i s e f f o r t s on Blanscheflur The model MS has a paragraph d i v i s i o n only 16 l i n e s from the preceding, one: at l i n e The remainder of the paragraph deals with Blanscheflur's r e a c t i o n to Riwalin's death. In l i n e s ff she goes into labour and gives b i r t h to a son.

None of the MSS show a subdivision at t h i s point. The statement that the c h i l d survived "genas" a f t e r the d i f f i c u l t b i r t h points to the n a r r a t i v e block which describes i t s Tristan's childhood. The quatrain i n t e r r u p t s the flow of the narrative at l i n e We are back to the lamentation over Riwalin's death with the added laments because of Blanscheflur's death.

This lamentation i s described i n the e n t i r e next paragraph apart from the l a s t 3 l i n e s which point to the following: und sagen wir umb daz k i n d e l i n , daz vater noch muoter haete, waz got mit deme getaete. Riuwe unde s t a e t i u triuwe nach vriundes tode i e niuwe, st der v r i u n t i e niuwe: daz i s t diu meiste triuwe, C w e r nach dem vriunde riuwe hat, T. Certain recurrent features could be observed at the paragraph d i v i s i o n s of the model MS. An i n t e r r u p t i o n i n the sequence of pronouns could be noticed at-most of.

Often the preceding a c t i o n — o r sometimes only the general atmosphere of the concluding passage of the preceding paragraph—was alluded to at the beginning of a new paragraph. I t should be pointed out, however, that the above features also occur at d i v i s i o n s i n the text which are not i n the model MS. The hohgezit begins, f o r example, 17 l i n e s into a paragraph; news that Morgan i s attacking "Parmenie reaches Riwalin 12 l i n e s p r i o r to a paragraph d i v i s i o n , thus jumping very abruptly from a d e s c r i p t i o n of the state of b l i s s i n which Riwalin and Blanscheflur are l i v i n g to the harsh r e a l i t i e s of l i f e.

On the contrary Blanscheflur's farewell words a f t e r her f i r s t conversation with Riwalin occur at the beginning of a new paragraph. Her inner monologue commences h a l f way through a paragraph and ceases at the end of the following one. The e f f e c t that Blanscheflur has on the opposite sex i n general i s described toward the end of a paragraph,, and the e f f e c t of her presence on the knights at the hohgezit i s described at the beginning of the following one, at which point the focus suddenly changes to the bohort and i t s p a r t i c i p a n t s C F i n a l l y i t seems that the weakly documented paragraph d i v i s i o n s of the model MS , , , , and should be regarded as paragraph d i v i s i o n s only with reservation.

Apart from these 2 in d i c a t i o n s there are no subdivisions of t h i s paragraph i n the MSS. W has "Tuch" which i s also an obvious error on the part of the rub r i c a t o r. The res t of the f i r s t words reads "us" as i n the other MSS. Da nun trotzdem nicht wenige Sonderlesarten und TextHnderungen von 13 s i c h i n 15 wieder-finden, so i s t jene Erscheinung wohl so zu erklHren, dass die wesentlich jUngere Hs.

Im ganzen l i e g t die Sache so, dass zuerst der Anschluss von E an M ein l o s e r e r i s t. The square brackets are i n Ranke's e d i t i o n. The church wedding alone was not enough confirmation of the marriage, at l e a s t as f a r as Morgan was concerned. B also has a paragraph sign at l i n e which i s rather puzzling since the rule that applies to N generally does not apply to B.

The analysis of the manner i n which the model MS divides the content of the Vorgeschichte shows that there are not infrequent changes of 1 2 scene, l o c a t i o n , or na r r a t i v e aspect wi t h i n the framework of a,paragraph rather than at the beginning of i t. In t h i s chapter we s h a l l therefore attempt to show that, i n s p i t e of the apparent a r b i t r a r i n e s s , the paragraph d i v i s i o n s which were accepted i n the model MS do i n fa c t "make sense" both i n terms of content and i n terms of form.

The f i r s t group of 74 l i n e s describes Riwalin and h i s f a t a l l i f e s t y l e that he always avenged the smallest wrongdoing , and the second group of 74 l i n e s depicts the Ubermfletec Riwalin i n a c t i o n the b a t t l e s between him and h i s l i e g e l o r d Morgan V In the following paragraph, which i s l i n e s long, Riwalin leaves Parmenie and a r r i v e s at Mark's court.

This paragraph can thus be Viewed as a t r a n s i t i o n a l paragraph between the n a r r a t i v e blocks "Riwalin i n Parmenie" and "Riwalin at Mark's court. Each of them i s now c e r t a i n of the other's love. It i s d i f f i c u l t to determine whether the f i r s t paragraph should be included among the preceding ones the more general d e s c r i p t i o n of the hohgezit , or whether i t should be regarded as belonging to a group of paragraphs i n which G o t t f r i e d provides Blanscheflur with an opportunity to f a l l i n love with Riwalin.

While i n the tournament Riwalin i s "exposed," so to speak, to Blanscheflur and Blanscheflur's as well as other b e a u t i f u l l a d i e s ' presence "uf der heide" and " i n der ouwe" i s indicated j u s t p r i o r to the d e s c r i p t i o n of the knights, p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the bohort ff. When included, t h i s problematic paragraph makes possible a c e r t a i n symmetry of content within the falling-in-love-paragraphs: - Riwalin "exposed" to Blanscheflur. Blanscheflur f a l l s i n love. Another problematic paragraph i s the one containing the lime-allegory Riwalin i s caught by the gelimetiu minne i.

Furthermore the haz versus minne question begins 6 just, p r i o r to the lime-allegory paragraph. Riwalin i s wounded. The two paragraphs and frame the ones which involve the meisterinne and which contain the conception of T r i s t a n. Riwalin i s c a l l e d upon to defend Mark's lands. He i s wounded. With the help of the meisterinne 88 -j Blanscheflur manages to see, Riwalin. Blanscheflur i s "wounded" she contracted death at Tristan's conception. Riwalin's and Blanscheflur's happiness. Riwalin i s c a l l e d upon to defend Parmenie.

Blanscheflur thinks of a means of seeing him. With the help of the meisterinne Blanscheflur gains access to Riwalin's room. Blanscheflur walks up to Riwalin, 1. Blanscheflur arouses Riwalin's desire; T r i s t a n i s conceived. Riwalin recovers. Riwalin's and Blanscheflur's happiness she knows nothing of her "wound". It does not l a s t long: Morgan invades Parmenie and Riwalin prepares to leave Cornwall. In-exactly h a l f t h i s number of l i n e s Riwalin prepared to leave Parmenie, and he a r r i v e d at Mark's court Their wedding. T r i s t a n i s born, but Blanscheflur dies.

The f i r s t and the l a s t n arrative block i n the Vorgeschichte complex thus both take place i n Parmenie, and they are of roughly the same length: and l i n e s r e s p e c t i v e l y. Riwalin prepares to leave Parmenie and a r r i v e s at Mark's court. J Ideal s e t t i n g and atmosphere fo r f a l l i n g i n love hohgezit Riwalin and Blanscheflur f a l l i n love.

Riwalin and Blanscheflur each r e a l i z e that they love and are loved i n return. Riwalin prepares to leave Mark's court farewell v i s i t tp B lanscheflur. They elope to Parmenie. Riwalin and Blanscheflur i n Parmenie. The f i r s t group of l i n e s which describes Riwalin i n Parmenie i s "mirrored" i n the l a s t group of l i n e s i n which both Riwalin and Blanscheflur are i n Parmenie. The group of l i n e s i n which Riwalin prepares to leave Parmenie and a r r i v e s at Mark's court i s "mirrored" i n a group exactly twice the s i z e l i n e s i n which Riwalin makes preparations to leave Mark's court and elopes with Blanscheflur to Parmenie.

The l i n e s which provide the i d e a l background f o r a developing love story the locus amoenus scenery, the joyous atmosphere, at the hohgezit, the distinguished guests enjoying themselves, etc. In terms of content one can perhaps speak of a c e r t a i n symmetry i n that, i n the second group, " i d e a l " circumstances f o r the conception of T r i s t a n are provided by Riwalin's becoming so s e r i o u s l y wounded that i t i s possible f o r Blanscheflur to persuade her meisterinne to help her gain access to h i s chambers.

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The c e n t r a l group i s thus the one, i n which the two protagonists f a l l i n love and become aware that they share the same f e e l i n g s. The numerical symmetry can be c a r r i e d one step further. Death of Riw. T ristan's childhood. He i s educated abroad and returns to Parmenie. Tristan's abduction. S i m i l a r l y i t i s not e n t i r e l y c l e a r whether the paragraph should indeed be grouped within the n a r r a t i v e block "Riwalin and Blanscheflur f a l l i n love," whether i t should be regarded as a prelude to the falling-in-love-paragraphs s t i l l w i t h i n the 12 group of l i n e s , or whether i t should be taken out of the group altogether and placed i n the preceding group, i.

A survey of d i f f e r e n t views of, f o r instance, the structure of the Literaturschau, within the s w e r t l e i t e episode of T r i s t a n may help to i l l u s t r a t e the extent to which opinions vary i n determining the border-l i n e s of n a r r a t i v e blocks. Louis Gravigny considers the episode of the swertleite to comprise l i n e s to , interrupted by the 13 Literaturschau, whereas Ursula Schulze regards the Literaturschau "mit ihren mehr a l s [? Petrus Tax concerns himself with the symmetrical 1 6 numerical structure of the Literaturschau i t s e l f , to which Ute Schwab objects as she wants to see the introductory l i n e s 4 5 8 9 - 4 6 2 0 incorporated into the numerical s t r u c t u r e.

Riwalin arid Blanscheflur f a l l i n loye. Consummation of t h e i r love T r i s t a n conceived. Riwalin arid Blanscheflur elope to Parmenie. A l l the paragraphs between l i n e s and are here considered as a "prelude" to the love story which commences at l i n e Riwalin leaves Parmenie and i s welcomed at Mark's court.

Blanscheflur's love-sickness. The remaining groups are unchanged from the pattern suggested previously, but the numerical r e l a t i o n s h i p between and can only be established i f the l i n e s between and , and and are regarded as two blocks o n l y. Furthermore the l a t t e r p o r t i o n of the prologue has s t r u c t u r a l l y become part of the Vorgeschichte, something which i s.

On the other hand the correspondence i n content between groups of re l a t e d sizes has been v i r t u a l l y l o s t i n t h i s composition. In deciding which of the two s t r u c t u r a l patterns i s more l i k e l y to have been intended by G o t t f r i e d — t h e one i n which symmetries of content as well as structure could be established with c a r e f u l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of one problematic paragraph i n p a r t i c u l a r , or one i n which there are numerical correspondences but only s l i g h t correspondence i n contents-the model MS can be of no further assistance.

However, i f we again examine the MSS we re discover that 21 the i n i t i a l at l i n e i s a large one i n the MS H, one of the 4 MSS at the top of our evaluation scale. Apart from t h i s they are lacking i n only three 5 4 instances: ,. HThe paragraph d i v i s i o n w i t h i n Blanscheflur's monologue should perhaps be counted among these. See below. Paris, See Curtius, p. The paragraph signs at l i n e s and are not shown i n t h e i r e n t i r e t y on our microfilm copy.

On the basis of the s e l e c t i o n method outlined i n chapter IV, i n i t i a l s were accepted f o r the model MS. When considering factors such as s i z e and at times also ornamentation of the i n i t i a l s i n the transmitted MSS, some,clearly stand out. Strasbourg M3 et l e s i n i t i a l e s dans les principaux manuscrits et fragments, Louis Grayigny examined the MSS5 M, H, F, W, B, 0, and R plus the fragments a, b, f, t, w, and z i n order to determine where large i n i t i a l s occur.

To be sure the s i z e of the i n i t i a l i s of prime importance when an attempt i s made to determine whether or not to designate i t as an ordinary one or as a large, one. Nevertheless, he does not consider the i n i t i a l I at l i n e as a large i n i t i a l although i t i s "exceptionnelement [ s i c ] haute 20 mm. This i n i t i a l covers 3 l i n e s , thus being larger than the surrounding ordinary i n i t i a l s which cover only 2 l i n e s. The i n i t i a l at line should be considered as a large i n i t i a l for the following reasons: It.

The only difference between the two is really that the I takes up a l i t t l e less room than" does the E, the latter by i t s very nature requiring more room than a thinner letter such as an I. Further-more i f we compare the I - i n i t i a l at line with the one at line , for example, a significant difference i s apparent. Both i n i t i a l s are of the "Roman let t e r " type, but the i n i t i a l at line covers 2 lines and i s written i n exactly the same manner as the other ordinary i n i t i a l s whereas the I i n i t i a l at line is considerably thicker and t a l l e r 3 lines.

Like the I i n i t i a l at line , the one at line is " J " shaped, but unlike the i n i t i a l at line , i t does not take up room within the frame of the written text, other than a small portion 8 of the bottom line. Since i t would have been pointless to indent the lines at the top of the following column, the indentation criterion for deter-mining the nature of this i n i t i a l i s therefore eliminated. The only difference i s that part of the i n i t i a l reaches downward, outside the frame of the written text. Furthermore, i t i s noticeably t h i c k e r and s l i g h t l y ornamented, none.

Again i t would have made no sense to indent the following l i n e s i n the next column. Since we do not know the MS S Which served as the source f o r the s c r i b e of Hi, i t i s impossible to determine whether or not these two i n i t i a l s were supposed to have been of the large type. By leaving one f u l l l i n e between the two empty spaces, he c l e a r l y showed that the f i r s t i n i t i a l was supposed to be of the large category covering 3 l i n e s , and the second one of the ordinary kind covering 2 lines -.

Moreover, by leaving much less room sideways f o r the L than he had l e f t f o r the S , the scrib e gave the 12 rub r i c a t o r even more chance for misunderstanding. The f i r s t part of t h i s statement i s correct; h i s contention, however, that the i n i t i a l E at l i n e i s of the large type i s not acceptable.

The conclusion to be drawn i s therefore that there are no large i n i t i a l s i n MS F. We are of the same opinion with regard to the i n i t i a l s G and E. The I, however, should 16 be included among the ordinary i n i t i a l s. NP" Auswahl, p. However W's tend to be s l i g h t l y l arger than, f o r example, N's or T's, and the general appearance of t h i s i n i t i a l i s exactly the same as that of any of the ordinary i n i t i a l s. None of the extant fragments has large i n i t i a l s , and none of them has preserved the l i n e s i n which the large i n i t i a l s occur i n the complete MSS.

Unfortunately the po r t i o n i n 0 i s lacking where the i n i t i a l s at the l i n e s 1, 41, , and would presumably be, and the same i s the case i n M as f a r as the section containing the l i n e s , , and i s concerned. If we look at the text of the Tristan-romance i t becomes obvious that by f a r the majority of the large i n i t i a l s are printed at those points i n the text where there i s a quatrain, i.

There i s a minimum of one MS containing a large i n i t i a l at the following quatrains: Line 1, 41, , , A comparison w i l l also show that no MS r e g i s t e r s a large i n i t i a l at the l i n e immediately following a quatrain. Not only does Ranke p r i n t a large i n i t i a l at the beginning of a quatrain,he also p r i n t s one at the l i n e immediately following the 29 quatrain. There i s absolutely no evidence to be found i n the MSS f o r t h i s.

This becomes e s p e c i a l l y evident when we look closely, at the written text of those l i n e s ; l i n e i n W. Ranke i s consistent i n p r i n t i n g large i n i t i a l s only at the beginning of and immediately following a quatrain. HMFWE" p. NP" Auswahl,p. A t l i n e the I was never printed. Since the s c r i b e l e f t no room f o r i t within the frame of the text, i t was presumably meant to be of the " J " -shape. Unfortunately the f i r s t l i n e s lacking. However there are enough exceptions to t h i s rule that there i s no doubt that a l l the i n i t i a l s should be c l a s s i f i e d as belonging to the same kind.

HME" Auswahl, p. Perhaps i t was meant to be written alongside the frame of the text "J" l i k e at l i n e s , , and The fact that there are indications of large i n i t i a l s i n the MSS plus the fact that these i n i t i a l s are somehow re l a t e d to the quatrains made scholars wonder whether or not they had any s p e c i f i c meaning. The most obviously meaningful set of i n i t i a l s i s the one which forms the name D i e t r i c h. The d i f f i c u l t y l i e s i n making sense of the i n i t i a l s preceding the remaining quatrains of the' poem.

In his e d i t i o n of G o t t f r i e d ' s romance F r i e d r i c h Heinrich von der Hagen writes: Endlich hat G o t t f r i e d seinen T r i s t a n einem D i e t r i c h zugeeignet, welcher also wohl auch selber e i n Dichter oder doch ein Freund derselben war. Sehr wahrschein-l i c h i s t jedoch, dass das G und T des Anfanges der ersten und zehnten Strophe Gottfried's Namen i n seiner a l t e n Schreibart G o t f r i t andeuten; wenn man nicht das T l i e b e r auf seinen T r i s t a n , dessen e i g e n t l i c h e r Eingang damit anhebt, deuten w i l l , wie.

Decades l a t e r i n his chapter on "Meister G o t t f r i e d von Strassburg" i n his Minnesinger-edition, von der Hagen leans more towards the idea of considering the T at l i n e 41 to be r e f e r r i n g to T r i s t a n rather than regarding i t as the l a s t l e t t e r of the name of the poet:. Und es i s t g l a u b l i c h , dass b e i G o t t f r i e d auch das I, womit die Reimpaare einschreiten, den Namen I s o l d bezeichnet, und dass ebenso das Anfangs-I und -T der nHchsten Stanze und des Absatzes den s i e b i l d e t Z.

The most i n t e r e s t i n g statement, however, i s to be found i n the footnote which von der Hagen attached to t h i s passage. Von der Hagen refer s to an "uberzShliges S" but he does not say exactly which S he thinks i t i s. Neither does he explain how the completed poem was to " r e c t i f y " t h i s unused S. Ca r l von Kraus sees i n t h i s "Uberzihliges S" the main reason why von der Hagen's observation remained l a r g e l y unnoticed: "Dass s i c h das akrostichon durch das gedicht h i n z i e h t , hat schon vdHagen gesehen: aber er hatte von den i n i t i a l e n , , sowie , 1 1 nicht notiz genommen [von ersteren, w e i l 40 i n MB fehlen?

He arr i v e s at t h i s conclusion after having supplemented von der Hagen's l i s t of l e t t e r s by f i v e : the l e t t e r s around the quatrains , , and Von Kraus does not comment. In t h i s a r t i c l e he shows g r a p h i c a l l y how "mit dem T, dem R, dem I, dem S e i n e r s e i t s , dem I, dem S, dem 0, dem L anderseits das S p i e l getrieben wird, wobei die Buchstaben des mHnnlichen Namens die des weiblichen umschliessen" p.

He knows that there are more quatrains i n the romance than the ones which he deciphered, and he draws the a t t e n t i o n to these "incomprehensible" q u a t r a i n - i n i t i a l s : D , I , U , 0 , D , T , A , S , and D B e i t r. This i s evident when he states i n regard to the l e t t e r s D ,. Both statements agree e n t i r e l y with. Ranke's e d i t i o n but 25 are contrary to the actual evidence i n the MSS. In the 's Louis Gravigny studied von Kraus', Scholte's and other 26 critics'works-on the a c r o s t i c s and reached the conclusion that much more was intended on GottfriedVs-part then these c r i t i c s had found.

In fact he i s convinced that G o t t f r i e d not only stopped the romance at a precalculated point, but that he also l e f t information about the would-be length of the poem: ". G o t t f r i e d n'est pas mort de mort v i o l e n t e ; i l a l a i s s e son oeuvre inachevee, sans pour autant l'abanddnner a un point quelconque: avant de mourir, G o t t f r i e d a p r i s soin de terminer l a p a r t i e de 1'oeuvre q u ' i l avait entreprise" Diss. RANKE permet de construire des groupes de mots ou phrases, qui ont un sens, correspondent au theme p r i n c i p a l de 1'oeuvre et sont l i b e l l e s dans une langue qui puisse avoir ete c e l l e de G o t t f r i e d " Diss.

The centre i n i t i a l s , however, can be used whenever necessary f o r both l e f t and r i g h t hand combinations. By combining these i n i t i a l s i n whichever order he pleases without crossing from the l e f t to the r i g h t hand side of the t a b l e , Gravigny finds eight d i f f e r e n t ways of s p e l l i n g the name Isolde.

I t should be noted that Gravigny only counts forward, i. Combining the large i n i t i a l s of h i s "Ranke-table" see above, p. Comme nous 1'avons vu dans l e s t r o i s premieres p a r t i e s de cette etude, G o t t f r i e d t r a i t e d'autres sujets que 1'Amour, mais l e theme p r i n c i p a l de 1'oeuvre est 1'Amour" Diss. The "jeu d ' i n i t i a l e s " also provides p r o o f — a t l e a s t i n Gravigny's own v i e w — o f h i s concept of the composition and the would-be length of the romance.

The c e n t r a l section of the poem i s thus of exactly the same length as the prologue, and the nar r a t i v e blocks and the end of the extant v e r s i o n of Tristan comprise the same number of l i n e s Having established the beginning of a mirror pattern before the poem breaks o f f , Gravigny deduces that the completed poem was to have comprised exactly l i n e s Diss. Very l i t t l e regard i s paid to the content; he thus takes no cognizance of the f a c t that the quatrain introducing the Minneexkurs i s l e f t as an appendix to the portion of n a r r a t i v e preceding the c e n t r a l section.

In order to make his "jeu d ' i n i t i a l e s " work Gravigny has to perform c e r t a i n manipulations. Secondly, h i s ca l c u l a t i o n s only hold true when he 33 considers the diphthong "AE" to be two separate vowels "A" and "E", something which i s by no means congruent with medieval p r a c t i c e. Furthermore, Gravigny uses an i n i t i a l as many times as he deems necessary i n order to achieve the desired t o t a l of l i n e s.

In t h i s way, Gravigny i s almost bound to come up with words or phrases of a desired number of l i n e s. Gravigny studied the Heidelberg MS i n order to f i n d support for h i s view of the structure of T r i s t a n. That the l a t t e r i n i t i a l i s an ordinary one i s due to "des raisons techniques," Gravigny explains i n his a r t i c l e EG, p. Gravigny thus finds that, on the one hand, " l e s grandes i n i t i a l e s du manuscrit de Heidelberg confirmaient l a nouvelle composition decouverte" Diss. On the other hand, he finds that the i n i t i a l s of h i s "jeu d ' i n i t i a l e s " are not at a l l supported by the MS H: "par contre nous devons, a l a suite, de 1'etude du meme manuscrit, admettre que l e caractere de grandes 15,6 i n i t i a l e s donne par F.

RANKE aux 37 grandes i n i t i a l e s figurant dans son e d i t i o n de l'oeuvre, n'est pas nettement prouve pour toutes ces i n i t i a l e s " Diss. The examination of the MS H did not a l t e r Gravigny's concept of the "jeu d ' i n i t i a l e s , " however. He maintained that using Ranke's 37 large i n i t i a l s f o r the "jeu d ' i n i t i a l e s " would be p e r f e c t l y j u s t i f i e d i f he was able to construct "des groupes de mots ou phrases, qui ont un sens, correspondent au. EG, p. However, since Ranke's excerpts of T r i s t a n do not include the passages containing the l i n e s and , Fourquet expresses, caution i n a footnote: h i s suggestion i s only v a l i d "sous reserve q u ' i l se confirme que 0 et T sont signales" par des i n i t i a l e s dans l e s manuscrits " EG, p.

These i n i t i a l s are very well supported by the MSS. Man muss mit Entstellungen durch die Handschriften rechnen" p. Our study shows, however, that support f o r t h i s i s lacking i n the MSS; only the l e t t e r which introduces the quatrain i s marked by a large i n i t i a l , and only H has any i n i t i a l s immediately 48 following the quatrains.

But because analogies were drawn from these a c r o s t i c s to the l e t t e r s surrounding the other quatrains, a great many i n i t i a l s appeared which f a i l e d to "make sense" von Kraus, Fourquet's B u l l e t i n - a r t i c l e. Ranke's e d i t i o n only added to the confusion by allowing scholars such as Scholte to believe that a l l the quatrain i n i t i a l s were well founded i n the MSS B e i t r. I t was not u n t i l Fourquet discovered from Ranke's Auswahl that there are discrepancies between the MS t r a d i t i o n and the large i n i t i a l s of Ranke's 52 e d i t i o n that the pieces f e l l i nto place.

VIII of the introduction. Ranke, l i n e s ff. IV, p. S TAN.. Oktober dargebracht von Freunden und SchUlern, ed. Gravigny apparently does not know Fourquet's a r t i c l e i n Etudes Germaniques. It i s thus questionable whether the old French word " e s t o i r e " can be considered to q u a l i f y as a word G o t t f r i e d might have used. The reason why i t ends i n an "a" rather than i n an "e" i s , Gravigny argues, that the "a" l i n e i s also used i n the words staete and saelde Diss.

Fourquet never s p e c i f i e s exactly which two i n i t i a l s from a group of four he uses except i n the case of the SDES group. ZfdA, 50 , p. In t h i s regard Fourquet states, "Cet a r t i c l e nous avait echappe, du f a i t de l a guerre; nos considerations parues au B u l l e t i n de l a Faculte des Lettres de Strasbourg f e v r i e r n'ont plus d' i n t e r e t , cette decouverte the Umarmungsspiel"] une f o i s connue " EG, p.

The other MSS s t a r t the l i n e i n the same manner as any other ordinary l i n e. As discussed e a r l i e r , an i n i t i a l of the " J " shape was' prone to become l o s t since i t most often would be written i n the margin rather than i n a preempted space i n the text. I t seems rather u n l i k e l y , however, that the scribes of both the -yX and the branch, except f o r H, would independently have "overlooked" the I - i n i t i a l i n t h e i r source.

Perhaps Ranke's stemma should be modified so that H goes back to a copy i n which the I - i n i t i a l appeared Z , and M plus the other MSS go back to a copy i n which t h e. Another p o s s i b i l i t y i s to group the l i n e s with formations such as , , and where the rhyme i s abab. The same legend employed as on p.

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MLA Ostrau, Nicolay. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, APA Ostrau, N. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Chicago Ostrau, Nicolay. Until now, scholarship has examined the medieval body as the primary site of emotional expression. This project proposes a new reading that reveals the interconnectedness between the feelings of the literary characters and the narrative topography through which they move. Spaces and places open a window into the itinerant hero or heroine's inner world.

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