Therefore the National Standard implementing EN should have a National Annex containing all Nationally Determined Parameters to be used for the design of buildings and civil engineering works to be constructed in the relevant country. EN E Section 1 General 1. It relates to all circumstances in which a structure is required to give adequate performance. However, a rectangular silo may contain internal ties. NOTE: When particles are large compared to the silo wall thickness, account should be taken of the effects of single particles applying local forces on the wall.
EN E 6 Only hoppers that are conical i. Other hopper shapes and hoppers with internals require special considerations. These cases include a chisel hopper i. NOTE: These phenomena are not well understood, so the use of this standard does not guarantee that they will not occur, or that the structure is adequate to resist them. These normative references are cited at the appropriate places in the text and the publications are listed hereafter. For dated references, subsequent amendments to or revisions of any of these publications apply to this European Standard only when incorporated in it by amendment or revision.
For undated references the latest edition of the publication applies including amendments. ISO Basis of design for structures: Notation. EN E 1. This normally arises as a result of an eccentrically located outlet see Figures 3. This expedient arrangement reduces the hopper height whilst assuring reliable discharge 1.
The silo is close to the full condition 1. The air may be introduced either by aeration or by the filling process. A solid may be said to be partially fluidized when only part of the weight of particles is supported by the interstitial air pressure gradient 1. The flow channel can intersect the vertical walled segment mixed flow or extend to the surface of the stored solid pipe flow 1. Flow may occur against the silo wall if the outlet is eccentric see Figures 3. The slot is parallel with two of the silo walls and its length is equal to the length of these walls 1. The following additional symbols are specific to this part.
The symbols used are based on ISO EN E phce horizontal pressure in flow channel during eccentric discharge phco asymptotic horizontal pressure at great depth in flow channel during eccentric discharge phe horizontal pressure during discharge phe,u horizontal pressure during discharge calculated using the simplified method phf horizontal pressure after filling phfb horizontal pressure after filling at the base of the vertical walled segment pho asymptotic horizontal pressure at great depth due to stored particulate solid phse horizontal pressure in static solid distant from the flow channel during eccentric discharge phT horizontal increase in pressure due to a temperature differential pn pressure normal to hopper wall due to stored particulate solid see Figure 1.
EN E pvb vertical pressure evaluated at the level of the base in a squat silo using Expression 6. EN E Section 2 Representation and classification of actions 2. NOTE: The magnitude and distribution of the design loads depend on the silo structure, the stored solid properties, and the discharge flow patterns that arise during the process of emptying.
The inherent variability of stored solids and simplifications in the load models lead to differences between actual silo loads and loads given by the design rules in Sections 5 and 6. For example, the distribution of discharge pressures varies around the wall as a function of time and no accurate prediction of the mean pressure or its variance is possible at this time. Where larger eccentricities occur, the loads shall be represented by unsymmetrical pressure distributions.
NOTE: The characteristic values are not based on a formal statistical analysis because such data is not currently available.
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Instead they are based on historical values used in earlier standards. The above definition corresponds to that given in EN These patch loads should be expressed in terms of a local horizontal pressure ph on the inner surface of the silo. NOTE: The load magnifiers C are intended to account for uncertainties concerning the flow patterns, the influence of the eccentricities of inlet and outlet on the filling and discharge processes, the influence of the form of the silo on the type of flow pattern, and the approximations used in transforming the time-dependent filling and discharge pressures into time-independent models.
For silos in Action Assessment Class 1, the load magnifier also accounts for the inherent variability of the properties of the stored solid. EN E 13 For silos in Action Assessment Class 2, unsymmetrical patch loads may be alternatively represented by a substitute increase in the symmetrical load that is related to the unsymmetrical patch load magnitude. Any part of the procedures for a higher Action Assessment Class may be adopted whenever it is appropriate. EN E 5 The Action Assessment Class for a silo should be determined by the conditions of the individual storage unit, not on those of an entire silos battery or group of silos that may be situated in a complete facility.
Table 2. Rules for small silos are simple and conservative because they have an inherent robustness and the high cost of materials testing of stored solids is not justifiable. The consequences of structural failure and the risk to life and property are covered by the Action Assessment Classification of EN and EN EN E Section 3 Design situations 3. For silos, the design situations shall be based on the flow characteristics of the stored particulate solid, as determined in accordance with Annex C. The actions transferred from adjoining structures should be considered. Special attention should be paid to unattached feeders that may transfer loads to the silo structure through the stored solid.
EN E should be considered to ensure that the design is appropriately safe for all limit states. The value of each property that should be adopted for each load case is given in Table 3. Table 3. NOTE 2: Hopper normal pressure pn is usually maximized if the hopper wall friction is low because less of the total hopper load is then carried by wall friction.
Care should be taken when choosing which property extreme to use for the hopper wall friction to ensure that the structural consequences are fully explored i. EN E The largest eccentricity in the solids trajectory ef should be used to assess the magnitudes of these pressures see 5. Squat silos with concentric gravity discharge and silos with top-surface mechanical discharge systems that ensure internal pipe flow see Figures 3. NOTE: An anti-dynamic tube of appropriate design may also satisfy the conditions for internal pipe flow. EN E a Concentric mixed flow b Fully eccentric mixed flow c Partially eccentric mixed flow Key Flow channel boundary Flow zone Effective transition Effective transition: varies around silo circumference Stationary Stationary Effective hopper Figure 3.
Other outlet opening conditions should be treated as accidental design situations. The special provisions that are required for this case see 5. First, the stored solid may form an angle of repose, as for other solids. Second, consideration should be given to the possibility that the top surface may be horizontal see Figure 3. If this is the case, the eccentricities associated with filling ef and et may be taken to be zero, and the filling level should be taken at its maximum possible value.
EN E 12 Where a silo storing powder has an aerated bottom see Figure 3. The eccentricity of the resulting flow channel and the resulting value of eo should be evaluated with respect to the fluidized zone, and not relative to the location of the outlet. Where a hopper contains internal structures, the pressures on both the hopper and the internal structure should be evaluated using a rational method.
NOTE: Elongated outlets present special problems. Where a feeder is used to control the discharge of the solid from the silo, its design may affect the solids flow pattern in the silo. This may produce either mass flow or fully eccentric mixed flow, or fully eccentric pipe flow in the silo. The crack control should comply with the crack width limitations of EN appropriate for the environment in which the silo is situated.
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One load cycle is equal to a single complete filling and emptying, or in an aerated silo see Figure 3. The effects of fatigue should also be considered in silos affected by vibrating machinery.
This pressure should be used only for the design of the opening cover and its supports. Silos should have appropriate relief protection for such unexpected events, or the silo designer should ensure that they cannot occur. EN E 9 Where vibrators, air cannons or gyrating live bottoms form part of the silo installation, the alternating loads caused by them should be considered with respect to the limit state of fatigue.
The vibrations caused by pneumatic conveying systems should also be considered. Some of the solids that are prone to dust explosions are identified in Table E. The pressure exerted on structures near a silo as a result of an explosion within it should be determined. Didius completes a victory over the Celtiberians in Spain.
The tribune of the plebs M. Livius Drusus tries to legislate for total Italian citizenship. The Italian city of Asculum massacres its Roman citizens and prepares for Roman reprisals. Social War between Rome and its Italian allies. The consul L.
Roman Timeline of the 1st Century BC | ehonahyjabim.tk
Julius Caesar passes a law, the lex Julia de civitate Latinus et sociis danda , which gives the citizenship to those Italians who had not taken up arms against Rome. The proconsul Man. Aquillius invades the Pontic territories with the militia of Asia Province and the army of King Nicomedes of Bithynia. King Mithridates of Pontus invades Greece and issues an edict that all Romans and Italians are to be killed. The number of dead reaches about , people. Cornelius Sulla marches upon Rome , the first in history to do so.
Marius marches on Rome with L. Cornelius Cinna, and after a short battle, he occupied Rome. Marius and Cinna are made joint consuls. Proscriptions against Sulla's supporters. This ceased when Marius died of a third and fatal stroke in 86, during his seventh consulship. The orator M. Tullius Cicero completes his first work on rhetoric, De Inventione Rhetorica.
The new Italian citizens enfranchised by the lex Julia, lex Pompeia and lex Papiria are redistributed throughout all thirty-five tribes of Rome. The Roman governor of Spain and future triumvir M. Licinius Crassus joins forces with Sulla. Cornelius Sulla lands in Italy at the port city of Brundisium, and wages a civil war against the remaining Marian forces. The battle of Clusium, which is indecisive occurs under the Marian general Gn. Papirius Carbo against L.
Battle of Faventia, in which the Sullan general Q. Caecilius Metellus Pius defeated the army of Gn. Papirius Carbo. After suffering defeats by Mithridates, Murena is recalled to Rome on the pretext of celebrating a triumph.
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Cornelius Sulla and Mithridates agree to a new peace treaty. Papirius Carbo flees to Sicily, where he is captured by the Sullan general Gn. Pompeius Magnus and executed in the town of Lilybaeum. Sulla appointed dictator and reforms the constitution. Julius Caesar is forced to divorce his wife by Sulla, but he refuses and flees to Asia and joins in the campaign against Mithridates. The start of the Sertorian War under Q.
Sertorius in Spain, one of the remaining Marian generals. Julius Caesar goes with an army under L. Licinius Lucullus to suppress a revolt at the city of Mitylene on the island of Lesbos. He is awarded the corona civica oak crown for saving a cohort from destruction. Tullius Cicero has his first major case defending Sex. Roscius against the proscriptions of Sulla. He wins, and publishes the trial as Pro Sextius Roscius Amerino. Death of L. Cornelius Sulla , in a villa outside the city of Puteoli. The revolt of the anti-Sullan consul M. Aemilius Lepidus. Routed by Q. Lutatius Catulus at a battle near the Quirinal hill at Rome.
Julius Caesar conducts his first trial. He prosecutes the governor of Macedonia , Gn. Cornelius Dolabella Minor. The remnants of the defeated army of the rebel Lepidus join the forces of Q. Sertorius in Spain. Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus Pompey arrives in Spain. Servilius Vatia ejects the pirates from Pamphylia, destroying the stronghold of a pirate admiral known as Zenecities.
The Roman general Gn. Pompeius Magnus is defeated in a battle with Q. Sertorius near the River Sucro and later enters an indecisive battle near the town of Saguntum. Third Mithradatic War. Creation of the new Roman province of Bithynia, later renamed Bithynia-Pontus.
Cyrenaica also made a Roman province. Antonius makes slight inroads into the pirate menace in the western seas, thereby helping Pompeius Magnus against Q. Licinius Lucullus defeats a Pontic squadron off Lemnos under an admiral named Archelaeus. End of the Sertorian War. Sertorius is killed in Spain, murdered by his legate M. Perperna Viento. Licinius Lucullus engages in a battle with an invading force of Thracian tribes, and defeats them. Antonius transfers his fleets to the Aegean region, where he firstly suffers a naval defeat off the island of Crete, and then is defeated again in a land battle on Crete.
Licinius Crassus. The 6, survivors are crucified down the length of the Via Appia. Marcus Tullius Cicero prosecutes the governor G. Verres on behalf of his Sicilian clients. The kingdom of Pontus is annexed and created into a new province by L. Licinius Lucullus. Birth of Cleopatra , queen of Egypt. Pompeius Magnus. The ex-consul Q. Caecilius Metellus fights two hard campaigns against the pirates of Crete , subdues the island and annexes it as a Roman province. The tribune A. Gabinius passes his lex Gabinia.
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This gives a command to Gn. Pompeius Magnus , who is given unlimited imperium on water to fight against the growing pirate menace. A law passed by a tribune of the plebs, the lex Manlia, gives Pompey the command against the two kings Mithridates and Tigranes. Death of Mithradates. Cicero elected Consul. Caesar elected Pontifex Maximus. Julius Caesar is elected as praetor. Caesar elected Consul and the First Triumvirate is formed by M. Licinius Crassus , Gn. Pompeius Magnus and G.