Next, we present rigorous theoretical models to characterize optical properties of OSCs. The key physical quantities, as well as the pros and cons of different models, are described in detail. After that, we show some theoretical results to unveil the fundamental and device physics of plasmonic effects in typical OSC structures.
Finally, we conclude the chapter and identify future opportunities in this field. N2 - The book chapter provides a systematic study on plasmonic effects in organic solar cells OSCs. Sha, Wallace C. Choy, Weng Cho Chew. However, there are sometimes problems with film-thickness uniformity and uniform doping over large-area substrates. In addition, the materials that deposit on the wall of the chamber can contaminate later depositions. This "line of sight" technique also can create holes in the film due to shadowing, which causes an increase in the device series-resistance and short circuit.
Organic vapor phase deposition OVPD, Fig 6 b allows better control of the structure and morphology of the film than vacuum thermal evaporation. The process involves evaporation of the organic material over a substrate in the presence of an inert carrier gas. The resulting film morphology can be tuned by changing the gas flow rate and the source temperature. Uniform films can be grown by reducing the carrier gas pressure, which will increase the velocity and mean free path of the gas, and as a result boundary layer thickness decreases.
Cells produced by OVPD do not have issues related with contaminations from the flakes coming out of the walls of the chamber, as the walls are warm and do not allow molecules to stick to and produce a film upon them. Another advantage over VTE is the uniformity in evaporation rate. This occurs because the carrier gas becomes saturated with the vapors of the organic material coming out of the source and then moves towards the cooled substrate, Fig. Depending on the growth parameters temperature of the source, base pressure and flux of the carrier gas the deposited film can be crystalline or amorphous in nature.
An extra layer of donor-acceptor hetero-junction at the top of the cell may block excitons, whilst allowing conduction of electron; resulting in improved cell efficiency.
Various type of components are applied to increase light trapping Light in-coupling effects in thin organic solar cells. By these use of flexible substrates and substrates, easier methods to provide light trapping effects to OPVs are introduced such as polymer electrodes with embedded scattering particles,  nano imprinted polymer electrodes,  patterned PET substrates   and even optical display film commercialized for liquid crystal displays LCD as substrates.
Recent research and study has been done in utilizing an organic solar cell as the top cell in a hybrid tandem solar cell stack. Because organic solar cells have a higher band gap than traditional inorganic photovoltaics like silicon or CIGS , they can absorb higher energy photons without losing much of the energy due to thermalization, and thus operate at a higher voltage. The lower energy photons and higher energy photons that are unabsorbed pass through the top organic solar cell and are then absorbed by the bottom inorganic cell.
Organic solar cells are also solution processible at low temperatures with a low cost of 10 dollars per square meter, resulting in a printable top cell that improves the overall efficiencies of existing, inorganic solar cell technologies.
Organic Solar Cells: Materials, Devices, Interfaces, and Modeling
One major area of current research is the use of non-fullerene acceptors. While fullerene acceptors have been the standard for most organic photovoltaics due to their compatibility within bulk heterojunction cell designs as well as their good transport properties, they do have some fallbacks that are leading researchers to attempt to find alternatives. Small molecules are also being heavily researched to act as donor materials, potentially replacing polymeric donors. Since small molecules do not vary in molecular weights the way polymers do, they would require less purification steps and are less susceptible to macromolecule defects and kinks that can create trap states leading to recombination.
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List of semiconductor materials Crystalline silicon c-Si Polycrystalline silicon multi-Si Monocrystalline silicon mono-Si Cadmium telluride Copper indium gallium selenide Amorphous silicon a-Si. Growth of photovoltaics Timeline of solar cells. Nanocrystal solar cell Organic solar cell Quantum dot solar cell Hybrid solar cell Plasmonic solar cell Carbon nanotubes in photovoltaics Dye-sensitized solar cell Cadmium telluride photovoltaics Copper indium gallium selenide solar cells Printed solar panel Perovskite solar cell.
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