Continue its cooperation with civil society organizations in the follow-up to this review. Ensure that access to legal assistance upon detention is not delayed, that detainees have the possibility to communicate with a lawyer in private and that they are brought in front of a judge within 72 hours, as stipulated by law. Ensure that all victims of gender-based violence have effective access to appropriate resources, including legal assistance and protection measures. Review the use of incommunicado detention for offences involving terrorists or armed gangs, which may last for up to 13 days.
Develop a national action plan against racism and xenophobia. Improve measures to ensure the timely detection and investigation of cases of police abuse. Continue its efforts to curb violence against women and to eliminate their stereotyping role in the society. Continue to pursue open migration policy and regularize existing migrants with irregular status. Eliminate all forms of discrimination against the Roma community, migrants and religious minorities, and take necessary measures against the perpetrators of racially motivated acts against migrants and ethnic and religious minorities.
Consider the possibility to amend the criminal code to criminalize the trafficking in human beings for the purpose of sexual exploitation. Continue its efforts to guarantee the rights of women and to eradicate gender discrimination, and pay special attention to combat gender- motivated violence against migrant women.
Take all appropriate measures that serve the interests of the welfare and development of child migrants, who should have been guaranteed all rights provided for in national legislation and international law. Pursue its efforts related to the fight against racism and xenophobia by establishing, with a calendar for concrete action, a national and complete strategy for combating racism and xenophobia, as announced in its first national Human Rights Plan. Respond to all recommendations set out in the report of the Ombudsman relating to the protection of the interests of minors having behavioural problems and in difficult social situations - pay more specific attention to the rights of such minors to have appropriate educational and medical support - and effectively implement an internal common regulation and an efficient inspection system in centres to prevent and combat abuse.
Establish a mechanism guaranteeing the correct identification of victims of the trafficking in persons and provide them with adequate and comprehensive support, especially in the case of minors. Formulate and implement a national action plan against racism and xenophobia, with ample participation on the part of civil society and input from the Spanish observatory on racism and xenophobia.
Include immigrant women in irregular situations in all policies aimed at the prevention of and protection against gender violence. Implement the human rights goals adopted in resolution of the Human Rights Council. Strengthen policies that guarantee the human rights of migrant workers. Strengthen policies that guarantee the prevalence of human rights in combating terrorism.
Strengthen the policy of promoting children rights, with special attention to the trafficking in women and children.
Continue its untiring efforts against the execution of the death penalty - and wishes Spain success with the Prime Minister's initiative which is aimed at achieving the immediate abolition of the death penalty for minors and persons with disabilities, and at achieving a global moratorium by Accelerate efforts, under the Organization Act No. Reinforce its efforts to protect the rights of prisoners in police custody, including by duly investigating reports of ill treatment, prosecuting those responsible for confirmed abuses, and taking other appropriate preventive and corrective measures.
Strengthen work with the European Union and international partners to combat human trafficking, with a policy of prevention as a priority for its work plan. Undertake a review of its readmission agreements with respect to refugees and asylum-seekers, and amend them as necessary to ensure that they contain human rights guarantees in line with international standards. Continue to make efforts to implement and apply the Historical Memory Act. Continue to support the Support Fund for the Admission, Integration and Education of Immigrants, as well as to support the work of various civil society organizations that work in favour of immigrants and that receive public funds to that end.
Consider access to asylum procedures for victims of trafficking. Consider to adjust its legislation in order to specifically define the trafficking in human beings for the purpose of sexual exploitation. Ensure that persons deprived of their liberty have access to their fundamental freedoms at all times. Promote and carry out comprehensive education and training in human rights in the Spanish education system and in programmes for public employees, armed forces and military personnel at every level.
Ensure full respect for the rights of migrants, including through the strengthening of measures against acts of racial discrimination, xenophobia and intolerance. Ensure the effective enjoyment of the right to education, the right to work and the right to health for members of ethnic minorities and migrants. Adopt further measures to provide members of the police, prison and judicial staff with human rights training with specifically focused on protection of human rights of women, children, ethnic or national minorities, and also of persons of minority sexual orientation or gender identity.
Adopt specific measures to ensure the protection of the human rights of children of persons in detention or prison and to improve access to education for children with disabilities. Review the compliance of its anti-terrorism legislation allowing for incommunicado detention with international human rights standards.
Review the definition of torture in its national law so that it complies fully with that in article 1 of the Convention against the Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment. Consider instigating a national plan to combat violence against women and girls, including in relation to human trafficking. Consider taking steps to establish an independent police complaints mechanism with the aim to investigate all allegations of serious human rights violations by law enforcement officials.
Fully cooperate with relevant United Nations treaty bodies by implementing their recommendations pertaining to ending racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance. Provide intensive training to law enforcement officials to ensure that, in the performance of their duties, they respect and protect human dignity and maintain and uphold the human rights of all persons without distinction as to race, colour or national or ethnic origin.
Record and publish official statistics about incidents or reports on racially motivated crimes, and improve the collection of hate-crime data by law-enforcement officials and authorities. Step up its efforts to thoroughly investigate all acts of racial violence and punish those responsible appropriately, taking into account that the Committee against torture has expressed concerns about allegations that the authorities' responses to these acts are not always timely or adequate.
Take more effective measures to eliminate discrimination against non-citizens in relation to working conditions and work requirements, including employment rules and practices with discriminatory purposes or effects - and that legislation prohibiting discrimination in employment and all discriminatory practices in the labour market be fully implemented in practice and that further measures be taken to reduce unemployment among immigrants.
Widely distribute information on available domestic remedies against acts of racial discrimination and the legal means available for obtaining compensation in the event of discrimination. Consider modifying its criminal legislation so that the offence of human trafficking could specifically target trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation. Pursue its efforts to combat the persistence of traditional stereotypes regarding the role and responsibilities of women and men, namely by planning awareness-raising campaigns for the media and focused programmes in the education system.
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Put in place appropriate mechanisms to improve the situation of the Roma minority with respect to access to education, employment and health care. Take more efficient steps to prevent and punish violence against women in all its manifestations. Amend existing legislation on human trafficking to include a definition of trafficking in line with international law. Adopt a national plan of action to combat violence against women and girls and to ensure that all victims of gender-based violence have effective access to legal assistance and protection measures.
Clarify the definition of torture in its penal code, and enforce an absolute prohibition of torture under any circumstances. Thoroughly and independently investigate all circumstances surrounding its involvement in rendition programmes. Undertake a comprehensive set of measures, in practice and law, including developing a national plan of action against racism, to combat racial discrimination against foreigners and religious minorities, in particular Muslims.
Undertake immediate steps to establish an independent police complaints mechanism with a mandate to investigate all allegations of serious human rights violations by law enforcement officials in cases such as sexual violence in custody. Establish a national mechanism to identify all victims and take necessary measures to ensure access to the asylum procedure for foreign women who are victims of trafficking, or at the risk of being trafficked, who can show a need for international protection, as recommended by CEDAW, CRC, and the CESCR, in light of the serious efforts made by the Government of Spain to adopt a Plan to Combat Human Trafficking for the Purposes of Sexual Exploitation.
Take all appropriate steps to ensure the implementation of the Council on Women's Participation, created by Organic Law , in view of the important role played by non-governmental organizations and other civil society organizations in the promotion of women's human rights and gender equality, as recommended by CEDAW. Continue to adopt all legislative and executive measures against gender-based violence, with special attention to migrant victims.
Redouble its efforts to tackle the issue of violence against women, including domestic violence, by, for example, creating layers of legislative measures to safeguard victims as well as strengthening the overall implementation of relevant measures on this issue. Continue to address the issue of unaccompanied children arriving in Spanish territories and to consider implementing, as appropriate, the recommendations of UNHCR, human rights treaty bodies and special procedures.
Further strengthen the implementation of some of the provisions of the law on comprehensive protection measures to tackle gender-based violence. Intensify training and information programmes for law enforcement officials to ensure full respect for human rights during the performance of their duties. Take effective measures to investigate all allegations of serious human rights violations and abuses committed by law enforcement officials and private security guards. Take more effective measures to combat racial discrimination and intolerance, including by collecting and publishing official statistics about incidents on racially motivated crimes and promptly investigating and taking stern action against the perpetrators of hatred, racist and xenophobic acts.
Address and provide adequate follow-up to the recommendations of the Special Rapporteur for the protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms while countering terrorism, as a result of his visit to the country, in coordination with relevant ministries and by consulting civil society organizations. Increase programmes aimed at combating prejudices regarding the role of women in society, in order to complement the legislative and institutional efforts to achieve de jure and de facto equality between men and women.
Investigate, punish and redress crimes of enforced disappearance, regardless of the time of their occurrence, in the light of the continuous nature of the crime and in accordance with its international obligations. Take additional measures to prevent criminal offences, including assault, by police officers and prison guards from occurring, and ensure that the personal integrity of detainees is guaranteed.
Take immediate and all necessary steps to modernize its data and communication processes within its judicial branch. Bring the definition of trafficking in its legislation into line with international law - establish better processes to identify victims - and address the special needs of child victims. Respect fully the principle of non-refoulement and ensure effective access to asylum procedures, taking into account the objectives of UNHCR's Point Plan on Mixed Migration. Redouble its efforts to continue to incorporate into its educational system, at all levels, respect for human rights, especially those related to non-discrimination and tolerance for diversity.
Abolish all laws and regulations discriminating against immigrants. The 2 principal risk factors for completed suicide are suicide attempts—more prevalent in women—and the presence of a psychiatric disorder. It is necessary to establish healthcare programmes, assessment and monitoring for patients who have attempted suicide. The cases that are identified and attended to in hospital emergency services represent an opportunity to initiate these programs.. Suicide prevention should involve accurate detection, diagnosis and treatment of depressive disorders, schizophrenia, anxiety disorders, consumption of toxic substances and personality disorders, among other disorders..
In our field there are hardly any specific prevention programmes, intervention protocols or cumulative case records available; and even if they exist, internal and external evaluations are infrequent. Promoting sectored databases through agreements with forensic science institutes is recommended.. It is necessary to assess suicidal behaviour more thoroughly and systematically in the clinic, as well as to record the suicide risk assessment.. The clinician should encourage self-control, self-esteem and the ability to face one's own individual problems and should promote greater participation and integration in family and social environments..
The most effective strategies to prevent suicide include prescribing antidepressant medication to patients who suffer from depression and controlling access to means of committing suicide. Clozapine and lithium have been shown to have a protective effect against suicide in schizophrenic and bipolar patients, respectively. In any case, for patients with mental disorders and suicide risk, continuity of care and support should be ensured, in addition to appropriate treatment that includes verifying their adherence to the full dose of the medication.. Programmes directed towards doctors to improve competency in identifying mental disorders and their management have shown to be effective in decreasing rates of suicidal behaviour.
In addition, coordination between primary and specialised healthcare also help to decrease these rates.. In the last few years, multi-level educational programmes have been directed not only towards primary healthcare physicians, but also towards the general population and social agents teachers, firemen, law enforcement Protection of human and animal subjects.
The authors declare that no experiments were performed on humans or animals for this investigation.. Confidentiality of data. The authors declare that no patient data appear in this article.. Right to privacy and informed consent. The authors declare that no patient data appears in this article.. The authors have no conflict of interest to declare.. No employee from Adamed participated in any of the meetings or telephone conferences in which these recommendations were prepared, nor did they review or make any comments or suggestions about the content of this manuscript..
Please cite this article as: Ayuso-Mateos JL, et al.
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Rev Psiquiatr Salud Ment Barc. ISSN: Previous article Next article. Issue 1. Pages January - March More article options. Recommendations for the prevention and management of suicidal behaviour. Download PDF. Ayuso-Mateos a , b ,?? Corresponding author. This item has received. Article information.
Show more Show less. Table 1. Table 4. Introduction Suicidal behaviour is a major public health issue. Material and methods In this article we summarise the review of the available evidence on the epidemiology and impact of suicidal behaviour, risk and protective factors, evaluation tools for the assessment of suicide risk, international and local preventive protocols, educational interventions for health professionals, and potential interventions for at risk populations.
Results Based on this review, a panel of psychiatrists summarised and agreed with a set of recommendations about the impact, prevention and management of suicidal behaviour. Conclusion The recommendations on the prevention and management of suicidal behaviour were summarised in the ten conclusions reported in this article.
Palabras clave:. Introduction Suicide is a major public health issue, whose true significance is underestimated due to statistical limitations in documenting completed suicides, nationally and internationally. This information was the basis for an elaboration of the recommendations that make up final guidelines. Methods In preparing the recommendations for suicide management and prevention, the project coordinators JB, JS and JG , as representatives of the Spanish Biological Psychiatry Society, the Spanish Psychiatry Society and the Spanish Foundation for Psychiatry and Mental Health, established a small group of experts in charge of said review.
During this meeting they analysed the aspects most relevant to suicidal behaviour management, which served as a basis for preparing the final recommendations. This draft was distributed among all project participants for review, comments and approval. Below is all the information prepared by the group of experts, as well as the final guidelines approved by all the participants.
Epidemiological magnitude and social impact of suicidal behaviour Suicidal behaviour encompasses various phenomena, among which the most relevant are completed suicide, suicide attempt and suicidal ideation. Suicide risk in specific disorders. Figure 1. Table 2. Suicide risk assessment scales. Table 3. Outline of suicide prevention interventions. Figure 2. Figure 3. No employee from Adamed participated in any of the meetings or telephone conferences in which these recommendations were prepared, nor did they review or make any comments or suggestions about the content of this manuscript.
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