PDF Los grandes problemas de México. Culturas e identidades: Tomo XVI (Spanish Edition)

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Sharpe-Valadares's introduction puts the work into historical context, while the footnotes help the reader with obscure references and offer translations of long quotations in French. Sharpe-Valadares also provides the positivist background of Floresta's doctrines, and points out how Auguste Comte's concept of female moral superiority influenced her idea that religion and moral values should remain the cornerstone of women's education xxiv. In this sense Floresta retains a traditional view of female virtue. Yet as a woman, Floresta avoided the trap of biological determinism, because she did not believe that race or sex hindered intellectual ability.

This edition of Nisia Floresta's work fills in the gap of the missing female voice of the nineteenth century, and will be of interest to feminists and to all those interested in remedying this absence in the intellectual history of Brazil. Paul B. Dixon's study of Machado de Assis's Don Casmurro relies on the tension between the distinct discourses of realism and myth used in the novel.

Dixon explores the underlying mythic themes, tropes and structures which furnish the work's non-ironic base. The study demonstrates how the narrator's mythic sensibility contrasts with the actual events of his life which provides the ultimate irony and ambiguity of the text. Bento Santiago, as a lawyer, personifies the patriarchal insistence on fidelity, obedience, hierarchy and honor. According to the study, this impasse reached by the characters is that of conflicting world views, deliberately set in opposition to question the basis of our judgments and knowledge, and perhaps even to question the patriarchal suppositions of authority and authorship.

Dixon takes the issue of paternity which lies at the center of the novel, and applies it to a metaliterary interpretation of the text and questions the traditional authority vested in the patriarchal hierarchy of author-reader to the matriarchal non-hierarchical text-reader. Dixon's study sheds new light on the underlying myths which contribute to the novel's irony and its universality. Dixon deliberately avoids the discussion of Capitu's guilt or innocence which would close down the epistemological problem of the novel whose ultimate concern lies in the lack of grounding of our beliefs and the insufficiency of any real sense of knowledge.

The introduction presents an overview of the poem, discussing the poetic legacy of the Nobel Prize winning Chilean poet, the poetic form of seventy-seven romances , the motif of the journey, the characters of the epic, the poetic influences on the author, and biographical information contained in the poem. Chapter 1 provides an in-depth analysis of the narrative and poetic structure of Poema de Chile.

Mistral, the author asserts, would write almost identical lines into the drafts of poems delaying the decision of which line to use. Chapter 2 traces origin and inspiration and the plan for organizing the poem. By way of background, Chapter 3 reviews Mistral's uses of the anecdote of the journey along with some of her actual journeys which are juxtaposed to the imaginary journey presented in Poema de Chile. The psychological dichotomy between the poet's decision to remain in exile and her preoccupation with and patriotic ties to the homeland are elucidated. Chapter 5 provides a detailed analysis of Mistral's choice of companions for the imaginary journey through Chile.

The symbols of Indian child and deer, according to the author, merge. In the final chapter, the critic focuses on the narrator of the poem. One possible defect of the book, that of repetition, seems unavoidable and is offset by the depth of the study. The author relates Mistral's work habits to the content of the poem and illuminates the ideas contained therein. Symbols that appear in this poem that coincide with symbols constant in other works of Mistral are identified, analyzed and discussed in depth.

For Mistral scholars the book provides a useful point of departure for understanding and analyzing this poem and earlier poems as well. This biography, a useful attempt to illuminate corners of the life of the Mexican poet, is perhaps only a beginning of an effort to unravel the enigma of her life, and death. Bonifaz accepts too uncritically the official version of her accident in Tel Aviv.

A lingering suspicion of that version is hard to erase. Some day, perhaps, there will be an objective effort to discover what exactly happened in the Mexican Embassy on August 7, No doubt, as current critical theory tells us, all biographies and autobiographies are fiction, or, at best, partial truths. The author selects certain facts at will, embellishes them, and suppresses others. No historical life, in all its complexity, can be squeezed within the covers of a book. As reader, I have acquired a sharpened realization of the depth of suffering and solitude that Rosario experienced from her childhood on.

Bonifaz was a close childhood friend of Rosario's, and what he writes, we may assume, has the quality of testimony. Her younger brother Benjamin's death devastated her parents, and this loss made her more precious in their eyes. Later both parents died, within weeks of each other, leaving Rosario both alone and free. Some years later came marriage to Ricardo Guerra, the birth of Gabriel, and the divorce papers, which she received in Tel Aviv.

Orphaned and divorced, she said of herself. And she compared herself to an oyster, enclosed in its shell, no more or less. And yet we have that other Rosario that her friends gave witness to: the sparkling wit and splendid conversationalist, the concern for others, and endless love for life in all its forms. I can't leave something for awhile and then come back to it. Perhaps the translator was trying to be too literal, hewing to the at times florid prose of the biographer. This reader is grateful for the moving photographs of Rosario, from her childhood to her departure for Israel why are there none of her parents?

In short, this work has its strengths and weaknesses; as witness to many facets of her life, it should be made available to all students of Castellanos. The edition offers a good and helpful overview of the thinking on race that prevailed in Latin America at the turn of the century. The three studies attempt to cover a representative sample of different Latin American countries and how creole elites imported and adapted Eurocentric racist ideas in order to justify their privileged status.

Important in Skidmore's study is his critique of the Brazilian myth of a successful and happy miscegenation -that prevails to this day- but which his analysis of immigration policies and census records undermines: the darker the poorer. Aline Heig's analysis of the reception, transformation, and application of these ideas in two very differently constituted countries, Cuba and Argentina, points out how little the elite's ideology in each country had to do with the social and racial reality of those countries.

In the case of Argentina, Sarmiento, Bunge, and Ingenieros continued to espouse Anglo Saxon superiority and Indian and blacks inferiority at a time when Indians and black constituted a rapidly disappearing group. Heig's comparison between Argentina and Cuba further brings out the fact that, regardless of racial composition, the elites of both countries reached surprisingly similar conclusions on race and therefore had more in common with one another and their European models than with their own country's reality.

Disappointingly however, she focuses on the latter's studies in criminology and their similarity with Italian models, while overlooking his very important theorization of the processes of transculturation at work in Cuban culture since the Conquest. Alan Knight's study of Mexico during and after the Revolution would serve as a critique of the two previous chapters since he greatly complicates the notion of race to include the all-important question of the construction of race by culture.

He shows how, in many cases, the perception of racial characteristics has more to do with the perception of ethnicity, religion, language, culture, and class rather than with race itself. The present work, culmination of nearly a decade of research, consists of preface, abbreviations and symbols, introduction, a corpus divided into Spanish American and Brazilian Portuguese terms, references i.

As Stephens states early on, it is a broad-based work, geared specifically to speakers of English; and whose entries incorporate historical, literary, political, sociological, anthropological, linguistic and colloquial information. More precisely, he goes on, such entries tend to refer to phenotype; ethnic, national, regional or geographic origin; social class; religion; and combinations thereof. Further commentary, set in brackets, may conclude the entry, offering some or all of the following information: etymological observations; the part of speech or type of phrase in which the entry generally appears; derivatives; variants; synonyms; antonyms; and cross-references to entries of similar usage or meaning in both Spanish and Portuguese.

Of particular value are the parallels drawn with English-language terminology. Regarding the corpus of the dictionary, there is the pervasive, legitimate and, for the investigator, complex realization that, in the naming process, social factors impact heavily on racial ones, thus making for unavoidable ambiguities in classification.

Indeed, one result, found in both of the work's main sections, is what appears to be an over-zealous inclusion of regionalisms, particularly around peasant life, many of which lack appreciable ethnic or racial connotations. In addition, entries which seem to lack a significant, if not the significant definition, sometimes arise. In point of fact, it is used more to denote underprivileged, short-term farm laborers, and not necessarily from the Northeast, either. Such limited shortcomings, however, are more than outweighed by the advantages of having under one cover a well-organized and thorough reference tool on Latin America's racial and ethnic terminology, up to and including relevant border parlance.

This is especially evident in the detail with which Stephens catalogs and cross-references spelling variations, as well as in his more extensive entries, dealing mostly with race. His work, thus, fills a vacuum, promising to facilitate future research for readers in many of the convergent fields associated with Latin American studies. Este libro consiste en un estudio concienzudo, sagaz, ameno, de un tema importante. Experiencia y conciencia Pero los estudios que se incluyen en este libro son desiguales.

Visitas de Extraterrestres a las Culturas Prehispánicas de México

Bibliographies of bibliographies perform an extremely useful function in the scholarly world and this one is a welcome addition to such works on the areas and countries of the Western Hemisphere. Its author is a librarian at the Ponce campus of the University of Puerto Rico and is the compiler of several other bibliographies that deal with Puerto Rico. Pages are a classified annotated bibliography of bibliographies that have dealt in any way with Puerto Rican topics. To some extent, they reflect the importance of the item or its complexity.

Pages provide Author, Title and Subject Indexes. Certain sections might interest the readers of Hispania more than others. The coverage is remarkably thorough and comprehensive as it includes books, bibliographies that appear in journals or as part of ERIC, M. The annotations are most useful and the volume is extremely up to date. It was published early in and includes material published as recently as Metuchen: Scarecrow Press, , ix, pp. For its comprehensiveness and excellent annotations this bibliography should remain for a long time the standard work in its field and anyone interested in Puerto Rico and its culture will find themselves indebted to the perseverance and scholarship of Fay Fowlie-Flores.

Southern Illinois University-Carbondale. One of the reasons Latin American modernism in the European sense of the word was so successful is that it corresponded to an economic heyday of continental culture. Not only were many prominent Latin American writers able to hobnob in New York, London, Paris, Berlin, and Rome with the cultural leaders of the day and, in the process, become known from the recognition that the latter bestowed on them , but centers like Rio de Janeiro, Mexico City, Buenos Aires, Montevideo, Santiago, and Havana enjoyed a level of economic prosperity that made the nourishment of a Creole Bohemia and modernist set viable.

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Certainly, Spanish American vanguardismo and Brazilian modernismo are eloquent demonstrations of the close ties between economic conditions and the level of artistic production. One is struck by the fact that, given the enormous productivity of Latin American modernism, a bibliography such as this one has not previously been compiled.

But, then, poetry, outside of work on a handful of prominent figures like Paz, Neruda, Vallejo and Borges by derivation from his prose , continues to be the understudied genre of Latin American literature, with even work on drama and the theater overshadowing it. The organization of their project is simple and straightforward: provide coverage of general works and then provide coverage for the individual countries in alphabetical order.

Within each section there is a listing of Reference Works, followed by Sources from the Period especially useful, since the economic prosperity allowed for a huge output of literary reviews, manifestoes, and early critical studies, in addition to the works themselves , Individual Works i. The latter is a single alphabetical listing by critic as opposed to perhaps a more arguably chronological listing.

Although the entries as a whole are accompanied by descriptive annotations, the latter are particularly useful for the critical studies, indicating scope, points of contention, conclusion, critical approaches, and relations to other critical studies. Although annotated bibliographies often only mean repeating in English as an annotation the descriptive content of the title, Forster-Jackson provide useful coverage.

What is more, and again because of the proliferation of material during the period, some of the references are not easily available in any but the most extensive research collection, and in this scene the annotations play an important discriminating function. It should, however, be noted that it is the user who will be doing the discriminating, since the annotations do not in any event assess the cultural and intellectual importance of the references -i. Historically, this term only makes sense in Spanish and only refers to the Spanish American poets.

Brazilian literary history speaks of modernismo , never vanguardismo , and there is some discomfort in making Brazil toe the taxonomic line along with Spanish America, and then moreover in English. Perhaps using the English modernism or simply a chronological designation would have avoided the ever-touchy problem of how to interface Spanish American and Brazilian literature without implying that Brazil merely fits in between Argentina and Chile, with language and, therefore, sociocultural differences being of minor consequence.

This sort of caviling aside, one is pleased to see Brazil represented, since Brazilian literature usually gets ignored by Latin Americanists. Since that country had one of the most spectacular modernist productions in all of the continent, the decision to incorporate Brazil in the listing is particularly important. The bibliography, which enjoyed the support of the National Endowment for the Humanities and fine computer resources, is superbly prepared.

Accuracy is exemplary.

Numéros en texte intégral

Vanguardism in Latin American Literature constitutes a fine bibliographic standard and will be a widely consulted reference work. This well-written volume of critical commentary on the work of Adolfo Bioy Casares takes its place on the narrow shelf of book-length studies devoted to the close friend of Jorge Luis Borges and the husband of Silvina Ocampo. In the second chapter the critic explores his detective fiction, a genre he cultivated with Borges with remarkable success.

Guirnalda con amores , a book often overlooked by critics, is the subject of chapter 3. Bioy's interest in humor and dictionaries, an interest he likewise shared with Borges, is studied in chapter 4. The last two chapters are summaries of the themes and techniques found in the first five chapters. The sixth deals with the author's predilection for island settings in his early works and his later preference for settings either in the city of Buenos Aires or in the province surrounding the city. The volume contains an extensive bibliography of primary works and critical studies as well as an onomastic index.

Camurati clearly recognizes the signal importance of these two works, but she successfully makes a case for renewed critical attention to his later novels and short stories. His use of humor, for example, is not evident in the first two works. The idea that Bioy Casares primarily uses island settings is another result of critical emphasis on his first two novels.

It contains examples of his use of humor and dreams, the latter either a foretaste of life after death or a nightmarish vision of earthly existence. In the final pages of the novel the dedication of the photographer, the book's protagonist mentioned in the title, to artistic endeavors triumphs over his feelings of love and desire. Implicit in Camurati's conclusion is that Bioy Casares throughout his career has shown equal dedication to the task of producing fine literature.

There can be no doubt that Camurati is a well-informed critic of the prose fiction of Bioy Casares. Her study is carefully organized, carefully documented, and free from any technical errors; the ones that do occur are primarily in the first two chapters.

Henry B. Nicholson ()

I think Peavler has chosen a felicitous classification; he arranges the stories in a kind of continuum that goes from those works containing a maximum of fantasy and unreality to those based on reality. The key to the classification is verisimilitude in terms of character depiction, ambience, and the narration of the events in the work. Whether Peavler's comments cover one page or are limited to fifteen lines, he manages to strike at the core of each narration as regards theme, meaning, or technical aspects.

Peavler handles well the ambiguities, uncertainties, and temporal-spatial displacements that give these stories their particular Cortazarian dimension and aesthetic appeal. When necessary, Peavler reviews the opinions of other critics concerning particular texts, and then either corroborates or refutes these interpretations. In some cases, Peavler interprets the stories he discusses here as involving real events, whereas many previous critics have considered these same events as imaginary or hallucinatory.

Peavler presents a good analysis of El examen , but correctly dismisses it as unimportant artistically. Rayuela, modelo para armar , and El libro de Manuel are analyzed very soundly, but I feel that Peavler should have given more of his critical attention to these novels than he has elected to do. Peavler is to be congratulated for writing this very useful, informative, and critically sensitive book. I recommend it with much enthusiasm. Jaramillo, unveils historical realities embedded in the work, and the second, by the author himself, highlights its historical underpinnings and salient motifs.

But the liveliest exchange of ideas informs the section focusing on Colombian sociologist Orlando Fals Borda's four-volume work, Historia doble de la Costa. The first piece, by Raymond Souza, presents a balanced, coherent introduction to Fals' study, emphasizing both its factual and literary contents. While undoubtedly based on sound academic principles, Bergquist's lengthy critique may nevertheless strike some readers as pedantic, especially in light of Fals's forceful, point-by-point rebuttal.

Ricardo Feierstein Argentina, has earned attention for a series of novels, each developing the concerns of its predecessors. His first work won sporadic notice, applying concepts from architecture Feierstein's profession to narrative. In the late s, Feierstein became a much more interesting writer by centering on a set of issues. He examines unexpected outcomes of Israeli statehood, such as the undiminished vigor of Jewish life in the Diaspora and the inevitably imperfect correspondence between Jewish and Israeli cultural identity.

Also explored are the effects on collective and individual self-image or shifting from vivid utopianism kibbutz or 60ss left to business as usual; the puzzle of Latin Americanness enters in. Middle-aged discontent grows more acute; the humdrum professional career confronting the hero of Escala is one of unemployment, and the character's response to crisis has escalated from unhappiness and anger to disorientation and memory loss.

While these factors start Mestizo on a cheerless note, a story of recovery quickly reveals itself. The background -newly recivilianized Argentina- suggests renewal, and Mestizo pays tribute to human understanding as friends and family help David search for memory and self. Even the police, who need David to recall a murder, wait patiently for him to heal himself by his own methods. These include taking oral histories from immigrant Jewish Argentines quite absorbing material , recreating in conversation the days of heady activism and violent repression, and even such painless therapies as sharing the rapture of a great soccer triumph with a teenage son.

David's amnesia is the symptom of an uneasy relation with the Jewish heritage and Argentine past, recent political history, and other troubling legacies. As the title hints, healing comes through acceptance of the mixed and unspecifiable nature of one's cultural and social being. It is fair to say that readers have been more drawn to Feierstein for thematic than formal innovations.

A new restraint also characterizes the use of dialogue. This is not to suggest that Feierstein has foresworn experiments with form one episode in Mestizo is narrated as a screenplay, another as a comic strip or weighty debate the hero once sits between a pro-Palestinian Arab and a Jew voicing anxiety over Israeli and Jewish survival. But here he tactfully lets readers decide what to focus on. Mestizo 's afterword by Avellaneda skillfully summarizes where the novel stands in the author's oeuvre.

Avellaneda justly presents Mestizo as an example of fiction with a documentary component, and sees its unmarked structure as artlessness suited to testimonial literature, with its field-notes effect. Mestizo appears in Mild's series Imaginaria, a thoughtful list of creative works elaborating Jewish thought and concerns. Ocho Mundos is a text intended for use by beginning or early intermediate learners of Spanish.

This new edition of Ocho Mundos differs from previous editions in that the primary focus of the text has shifted from the development of reading skills to the acquisition of vocabulary and the development of vocabulary skills. In this edition of Ocho Mundos , the readings are intended to be used primarily as a means of reinforcing vocabulary acquisition and secondarily as a means of acquiring and practicing reading skills. The text is divided into eight chapters, each of which focuses on a different theme of cultural or social interest. Among the themes covered in the text are: the family, student life, holidays, refugees, life in the future, mysterious occurrences, travel, and communication.

In addition to a specific thematic focus, each chapter also focuses on one of several verb tenses usually introduced during the first year of Spanish instruction. The tenses studied in order of presentation include: present, preterit, imperfect, future, conditional, perfect tenses, formal commands and subjunctive. Each chapter contains a vocabulary list which presents words and expressions related to the overall theme of the chapter, three reading selections also related to the overall theme of the chapter, and a variety of vocabulary and grammar exercises.

There are also communicative activities which allow learners an opportunity to express themselves in some manner or to interact with other learners in pairs or small groups. Finally, all reading selections in each chapter are accompanied by post-reading activities designed to test learners' comprehension of the passage and most are also accompanied by pre-reading activities designed to activate learners' previous knowledge of the topic.

With respect to the reading selections, the first is a pedagogical text, in most cases written by the author. The other two are adaptations of articles that appeared in Spanish language periodicals. Each reading selection in a particular chapter is intended to highlight both the vocabulary and the verb tense which correspond to that chapter.

By correlating reading selections with the introduction of particular verb tenses. The reading selections deal with a variety of interesting topics which should appeal to a wide range of learners. However, they seem somewhat contrived due to the fact that they have been manipulated to conform to the thematic and grammatical focus of the different chapters. By simplifying and glossing the reading selections while at the same time strictly controlling the vocabulary and grammar they contain, the author does not challenge the learners to go beyond what they already know.


This contradicts the empirically supported view that learners can indeed comprehend vocabulary and grammatical structures to which they have not been exposed. Regarding the vocabulary and grammar exercises included in the text, the majority are mechanical in nature. Learners are asked to fill in the blanks with words or verb conjugations, match words with their equivalent in the other language, and complete cloze passages.

One exception to these types of exercises are the pair and group activities included in each chapter. These activities, which generally take the form of interviews or group discussions, provide good opportunities for interaction between learners. Similarly, while most of the exercises and activities associated with the readings are traditional and mechanical e. These types of pre-reading activities have been shown to facilitate comprehension. In conclusion, Ocho Mundos may prove to be useful in a first-year Spanish course; however there are several caveats to consider before adopting it.

First, the vocabulary and grammar presented in Ocho Mundos are too limited for it to serve as the basic text in a first-year Spanish course; however, Ocho Mundos could be used to complement and reinforce the vocabulary and grammar presented in a standard basic text.

Secondly, with some exceptions, the activities and exercises included in Ocho Mundos are traditional and mechanical. Therefore, instructors must devise more interesting and less traditional activities to be used instead of or at least in conjunction with the activities and exercises found in Ocho Mundos. Finally, the reading selections strictly limit and control learners' experience with reading in Spanish. Consequently, instructors using Ocho Mundos should also expose their learners to truly authentic texts in Spanish in order to broaden the learners' experience with reading in Spanish and challenge them to go beyond what they already know.

For these reasons, Ocho Mundos may prove to be useful in a first-year Spanish course, but only as a supplement to other materials and not as the basic text nor as the only source of activities or reading materials. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Readers of Hispania were recently treated to a thorough assessment and bibliography of studies dealing with Spanish historical linguistics see Thomas J. Hispania 73 [], Several hundred copies were evidently offered as a Christmas gift to the clients of a particular banking institution.

Hence, the lack of a bibliography and the usual critical apparatus. The text itself consists of eleven chapters designated and arranged as follows: 1. La Familia Indoeuropea; 2. As the above index shows, the author has managed to cover the salient topics pertaining to the subject. These are presented, moreover, in a straightforward and at times delightfully humorous manner.

Many readers will no doubt appreciate the author's ability to transform what is potentially a very dry and technical mass of material into a highly-readable and entertaining narrative. It is somewhat difficult, of course, for a specialist in the area of Spanish philology to predict the reaction of a neophyte audience to Alatorre's presentation. The chapters on literary development seem extremely uneven and sketchy. One also wonders to what extent a non-specialist reader will be able to comprehend, much less appreciate, the synthesized explanations of sound change such as that afforded the development of the Old Spanish sibilant system in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries of the phonological differences between Castilian, Galician-Portuguese, Mozarabic, Leonese and Aragonese.

While the author had promised to avoid using the technical vocabulary of the specialist i. It is clear that Alatorre writes with expertise and affection about the language he remembers having been introduced to in written form at the age of four. The general reader who is curious enough to follow him in his journey throughout the centuries will no doubt find much along the way to stimulate the palate.

The entries, relating to the Spanish-speaking world and Brazil, were taken from previous works of this nature, but the compilers, both law librarians, also contributed additional terms by gleaning the treatise reviews of the various U. They subsumed the legal abbreviations if the documents already contained a list; otherwise, they perused the materials in search of such abbreviations. To be even more complete the compilers solicited contributions from colleagues in the field. The result is the present dictionary wherein each of the entries has the following annotation: 1 the acronym as it appeared in the original work, 2 the meaning of the phrase in Spanish or in Portuguese unfortunately written without accent marks , 3 the country or countries of origin of the term and finally, 4 the English translation.

The previous listings of legal abbreviations, brief though they may be, should have been noted either in the introduction or in a bibliography. Likewise, a cross section of the types of materials consulted for legal abbreviations as well as the U. Since so few bilingual reference books are extant on the fields of Spanish and Portuguese laws, a very brief bibliography of nine or ten titles would indicate not only the scope of the field but more importantly other valuable resources for the user: Louis A.

Eugene P. Sheehy's Guide to Reference Books lists six additional tools. Since the legal system of the Iberian world derives from sources different from those of the English-speaking world, it may be possible that the English translation is only an approximation due to the absence of a more precise term in English. Useful would be a glossary of deceptive cognates and other words difficult to convey to the English monolingual: amparo, asesorar, contestar, declarar, and demandar. Latin American Legal Abbreviations fills a need in legal reference; however, the disparateness of Roman and Anglo Saxon legal systems requires more scholarly accouterments for the user.

This plus more attention to source of materials would have considerably enhanced the present work. This volume, dedicated to the memory of Joseph H. Silverman , states that its principal objective is to offer a number of points of view on teaching Spanish Golden Age drama on both the undergraduate and graduate levels. By editorial de sign, the first essays are more applicable to undergraduate courses, while the rest are geared more for graduate teaching. In brief prefatory remarks, Hesse outlines some chronological stages in the development of approaches to the teaching of Golden Age plays, leading up to the great variety of modern approaches manifested in the eight essays which comprise this collection.

With the advent of New Criticism, scholars came to scrutinize with much greater care the texts themselves. Hesse cites the work of A. Parker in , and the reactions published in by James A. Parr as significant contributions to the development of a more modern and relevant approach to criticism which would come to examine the form, structure, imagery, irony, language, and human values found in a play. Many of these new perspectives are exemplified in the work of the eight colleagues who are at the same time both noted scholars and experienced teachers of Golden Age drama.

Anne M. Donald T. In applying this approach to the teaching of Fuenteovejuna , Dietz avowedly shifts emphasis from Lope's play to the affective reaction which the play produces in his students. Only after weeks of discussing the basic human concerns elicited by the reading of the play does Dietz engage in traditional study of its historical background and artistic qualities.

Susan L. DiPuccio attempts to rectify an unfortunate misconception according to which the apparently nihilistic premise of the discipline has been overemphasized. In deconstructing El pintor de su deshonra , DiPuccio shows how deconstruction can contribute two useful aids to literary criticism: it encourages the critic to look for multiplicity of meaning, and it prevents reducing the text to a set of maxims that conveniently suit the critic's, the reader's, or the author's preconceived notions on life and literature.

Hesse and Vern G. Williamsen, completes the volume. Any overall evaluation of this monograph would have to recognize the scholarly value of the essays therein published. Collectively, however, and particularly in light of the plays which they analyze, they do not represent a balanced overview of Spanish Golden Age theater. No other Golden Age dramatist is represented.

As individual essays, they are good, although the orientation of most is scholarly rather than pedagogical. There is no doubt that this volume will be valuable to all devotees of Spanish Golden Age theater, even though the avowed pedagogical thrust of the title seems somewhat misleading. The twelve chapters adhere to an unvarying format. Each opens with a discussion of a literary period, its major authors, and their best-known writings, followed by an anthology of brief excerpts from selected works, questions on the chapters's content, and a self-test composed of multiple choice items. A basic bibliography containing twenty-three items, an onomastic index, and an answer key to the self-tests complete the volume.

While this manual does not improve on the coverage and critical insight of Anderson Imbert, whom he frequently quotes, it is, without question, the most up-to-date work of its kind currently available. Shimose, a Bolivian poet, has written a highly readable narrative, but the flow of his prose is plagued by lengthy catalogs which, regrettably, appear all too often. In some cases he provides plot summaries or a few remarks about content or significance but in others he merely lists authors and enumerates principal works. Sketchy treatment is given not only to minor literary figures but also to the contemporary period as a whole.

By way of contrast, the older literature receives considerably more space e. Armando Valladares and Luisa Valenzuela are likewise absent from the chapters on contemporary writers. This erratic coverage can convey a false impression of the relative worth of a particular work or author in comparison with another and may prove confusing to the unwary. His historical exposition, more descriptive than critical, fails to elude the usual hazards of this type of writing inevitable errors, inconsistent coverage, and infelicitous classifications.

In addition, the overly abbreviated anthology selections actually hinder comprehension by not allowing readers to get a feel for the works presented. To his credit, Shimose disguises his nationalistic pride, offering a fair and equitable assessment of authors regardless of their origin. His inclusion of many obscure writers especially Bolivians not found in the standard reference sources and his listing of pen names are two of the volume's major virtues. These features, combined with the currency factor, make this a useful reference source for student and scholar alike.

However, as with all works of this nature, it should be consulted with a certain amount of caution. Taking his cue from a statement made in by Harri Meier that the complex field of Spanish expressions of futurity has yet to be studied. Gerhard Bauhr has undertaken the challenge for peninsular Spanish. He analyzes the two primary methods of expressing the future, cites percentages from his corpus, and then suggests possible factors that determine the use of one form over the other.

His corpus is drawn from fifty theatrical works written between and by such authors as Antonio Buero Vallejo, Carlos Llopis, Jorge Establier Llopis, Miguel Mihura and Alfonso Sastre, but his preliminary discussion of previous work includes four studies of American Spanish as well as three of peninsular Spanish. After citing previous work in the field, Bauhr addresses the concept of verbal temporality.

Bull and Guillermo Rojo Bauhr's example sentences involve such verbs as nevar , clarear and desmayar , which communicate the natural consequence of a process that is already present at the moment of utterance. Bauhr next examines the future constructions in the light of aspect and concludes that they are both aspectually neutral. The final section of the book analyzes the distribution and use of the two future constructions in various syntactic environments. As a scholarly work, Bauhr's effort is exemplary. The text is admirably free of errors, there is a table of abbreviations, a series of tables of distribution figures, and an excellent index.

There is also a five-page summary and a five-paragraph abstract, both in English. Each selection in the corpus is given with enough context for readers to grasp its essential meaning, and errors that occur within the cited material are designated by sic. Although teachers of Spanish and generalists can be enlightened by the differing grammatical environments that elicit one or the other of the future constructions and may enjoy scanning the corpus, the technical arguments that Bauhr elaborates are basically there for the delectation of linguistics specialists. These Negros Congos are members of ritualistic societies which celebrate during the pre-lenten Carnival season in historically-syncretic, African-and-Hispanic ceremonies.

Their celebrations are characterized by speech patterns peculiar to them called congo speech. Lipski's stated purpose 2 and his plan of attack 8 are to describe linguistically the Costa Arriba congo speech patterns generally incomprehensible to the uninitiated, and to measure the evolution of this speech with regard to patterns of creolization and African influences on the Spanish of Latin America.

He succeeds brilliantly in both efforts. The five chapters that comprise this text present an overview of the congos , their speech, and their rituals. The rituals, inherently tied to their speech patterns, are in fact demystified in this book. Chapter 1 defines concretely and concisely the topic and the methods Lipski plans to use.

Chapter 2 handles morphological, syntactic, and semantic traits of the speech, ranging from verbal restructuring to those vestigial attributes shared with speakers of American Spanish varieties found in the United States. The third and fourth chapters deal with phonological traits of congo speech and comparisons with general Panamanian Spanish; herein Lipski's work reveals interesting correspondences between congo speech and other American Spanish varieties.

Finally, in chapter 5, Lipski speculates on the possible bases for congo speech patterns and characteristics; he strongly suggests that congo speech shows little or no connection with creole or bozal Afro-Iberian dialects. The references are minutiae of useful sources referring to Spanish dialectology and creole studies in several languages. The appendix occasions a view at what Lipski really undertook; it provides a script of many hours of taped interviews which give ample indication of the author's dedication to details.

Indeed, he acquired the characteristics of a cultural anthropologist by becoming a part of the Costa Arriba Congo community over a period of months in the mid s. The dearth of typographical errors specifically, p. Although the early pages of the text assume some prior knowledge of linguistics, the text would certainly be accessible not only to linguists, but also to anthropologists, sociologists, historians, folklorists, and other scholars interested in this area of study.

We as linguists can only hope Lipski will continue in his prodigious ways of producing superior, in-depth essays on little studied areas of Spanish dialectology. The novel in question, then, has suddenly sprung into a place of prominence in the Galdosian canon, with new accessibility being offered to general readers and specialists. The tragic ending -which presents the murder of the protagonist by his absolutist uncle- is that found in the manuscript, and is more in accord with the overall Galdosian vision of the Spain of Fernando VII.

The reader not familiar with Madrid and Spanish is probably left confused and the reader familiar with both, annoyed. For six of the novel's forty-three chapters Walter Rubin supplies historical notes. This reader did not find them especially helpful and wonders if a short, general historical introduction to the historical personages and issues of the times might not have been more advisable. They have supplied in an attractive, sturdy trade-paperback format an important Spanish novel of the nineteenth century in English.

1. Introduction

Finally, classes in Latin American studies may find this picture of Spain during the time of American independence movements most revealing. The problems posed by such an enterprise are insurmountable. The resulting juxtaposition of humor and lyricism, poetic heights and occasional prosaic plunges, together with a potpourri of themes, is as disconcerting here as it is in the original. This is not a collection to be read from cover to cover; instead the book should be opened at random and savored bit by bit. And when he succeeds -which is certainly not always- he soars.

That's a hard thing for any translator to capture, especially when there is humor involved. Perhaps only another wizard of words would effectively recreate in English his brilliant and peculiar style. This novel is by no means an easy read, in the original Portuguese or in Rabassa's excellent translation, though in either case the reader's effort is well worth while.

In other words, the English like its Portuguese predecessor , reads well what Rabassa translation does not? This current edition of Avalovara is actually a re-edition of a translation that appeared in , published then by Alfred A. Given the novel's inherent structural and thematic challenges to the reader, however dedicated and resourceful, one wonders as to the motivation of the University of Texas Press certainly much less commercially-minded than the usual publishing venture , for the market will surely be at least somewhat limited.

The translation, besides opening the novel to a non-Portuguese-reading public, also points toward the translator's interpretation of the text. The current volume, then, is an act of critical scholarship, informed by the original novel and informing its subsequent readings, whether in English or in Portuguese. So Rabassa's translation should make Lins's text more accessible to readers, even if they are able to read Portuguese. The translation will serve as a useful tool for all students of the novel, given the multilingual light it can shed on it.

Throughout the novel, the translator succeeds in conveying the acute linguistic sensibility that characterizes the Brazilian original, making the reader in English feel the Portuguese behind and within his translation. The Portuguese text is like a yolyp, contained within the English version. Other languages also figure in this polyglot: expressions in Latin it is a palindrome in this language that describes much of the novel's basic structure , Italian, and French often are left in the original.

On occasion, even Portuguese figures in the text, though with the English equivalent in parentheses. This technique is not awkward at all, but rather serves to enhance the ratified aura of Lins's work. The question of who this is stands as only one of the mysteries of Avalovara. What is no mystery is that the translator would invest the kind of time and effort required to produce this sort of rendering. Helena Parente Cunha's Woman Between Mirrors Mulher no espelho , one of the most striking and innovative novels to appear in Brazil in the nineteen eighties, is finally available in English thanks to a joint effort by Fred P.

Ellison and Naomi Lindstrom. This sensitive and highly readable translation should be welcomed not only by the general English-speaking public, but most especially by students and teachers in Comparative Literature and Women's Studies courses, who now have access to another quality text by a contemporary Third World writer. Woman Between Mirrors bears unquestionable evidence that post-modern self-consciousness does not have to yield a cold and cerebral text, as is the case with so many North American metafictionists, but can be used, rather, to generate a fictional text in which innermost feelings and powerful emotions unabashedly play a central role.

This is not surprising since, as the meditation on the nature of writing in Chapter 19 clearly indicates, fiction is viewed here as a liberating enterprise, to the extent that it allows one to recreate reality and transcend the repetitive banality of the quotidian. It is also important that during this transformation the protagonist becomes increasingly identified with Afro-Brazilian culture, not only because an analogy is developed between the enslavement of Blacks and the oppression of women, but also because the recovery of African roots by the protagonist represents the recovery of primordial freedom.

In translating this magnificent novel, Ellison and Lindstrom were particularly successful at finding an American English equivalent for Parente Cunha's mellifluous poetic prose, without falling into a lofty, overblown rhetoricity. It is hard to find fault with this superb translation, but I would like to point out two problems that seem to be out of line with the quality of Ellison and Lindstrom's work.

The second problem is somewhat more serious. While in first grade, the protagonist is embarrassed by not knowing the meaning of bote , a less common Portuguese word for a small boat than barco or barquinho. The translators choose to use the English word boat , whereas perhaps a less common word such as dinghy might have been preferable. It seems unlikely that such a bright child as the protagonist wouldn't know the meaning of boat , although, at that age, it is conceivable that she wouldn't know what bote in Portuguese or dinghy in English meant.

This suggestion, however, is not meant to denigrate in any way the excellent translation by Fred Ellison and Naomi Lindstrom. We are lucky to have translators as sensitive to the nuances of the Portuguese language as our two colleagues from the University of Texas. Finally, I would like to call attention to the translators' preface, which contains an enlightening and lucid discussion not only of the problems they faced in translating Parente Cunha's novel, but of problems faced by translators in general. This interesting preface is a welcome complement to a first-rate translation.

A resposta, caso fosse dada, seria longa e transcenderia o escopo desta resenha. Os contos oferecem ao leitor a complexidade do universo seniano, bem como sua leveza no escrever e em compor teias e tramas. Her work has been making its way into English largely through the efforts of Ellen Watson, who has been publishing translations of Prado's poems in anthologies, magazines, and a chapbook. The Alphabet in the Park offers a worthy, albeit monolingual, sampler of Prado's work. The Wandering Religiosity of the People of Jalisco: Traveling Virgins, Apparitions in Non-Places, and Border-Smuggling Saints This article aims to demonstrate that popular Catholic traditions in the state of Jalisco, Mexico do not simply represent a residue of the past but rather bestow continuity and territorial anchorage on new situations of mobility, displacement, and emergent prefigurative identities.

The need for roots that characterizes contemporary life cuts across and reconfigures the most traditional of practices, those which in Mexico, as elsewhere in Latin America, are intimately associated with popular Catholicism. How do the effects of mobility manifest themselves in popular religiosity? The present essay illustrates and analyzes this phenomenon by way of several examples taken from a broader investigation into wandering religiosity, Marian apparitions in non-places, and the invention of patron saints for migrants.