This represents the highest monthly average of detentions in the past six years. The Amnesty International's Annual Report also noted that more arbitrary detentions , discriminatory layoffs by state agencies and harassments in self-employment with the aim of making them silent in criticism. Regarding any Progress in education Amnesty International reported that advances in education were undermined by ongoing online and offline censorship. Cuba remained mostly closed to independent human rights monitors. Relating to arbitrary arrests and detentions the report added that human rights and political activists continued to be harassed, intimidated and arbitrarily detained in high numbers.
The Cuban Commission for Human Rights and National Reconciliation, a Cuban NGO not officially recognized by the state, recorded 5, arbitrary detentions in , compared to 9, in The subsequent transportation of African slaves to the island, which lasted over years, led to British military intervention and a determination "to put a stop to these abuses".
During the latter part of the Spanish colonial era in Cuba, human rights on the island became a particular international concern. After a visit to the region in , U. Senator Redfield Proctor estimated that up to , Cubans had died from starvation and disease within " Spanish forts ", essentially concentration camps.
After independence, and following a sustained period of instability, the —33 government of Gerardo Machado proved to be authoritarian. Machado extended his rule until Fulgencio Batista led an uprising called the Revolt of the Sergeants, as part of a coup which deposed Machado in Batista then became the strongman behind a succession of puppet presidents until he was himself elected president in According to Hugh Thomas , the post-Machado period was marked by violent reprisals, mass lynchings and a deterioration towards corruption and gansterismo throughout the island.
From , Cuba had a multiparty electoral system until Fulgencio Batista President from — staged a coup with military backing on March 10, In , Time magazine wrote: "Cuba's fanatic, poorly armed rebels last week tried to smash President Fulgencio Batista with the ultimate weapon of civilian revolutions: the general strike. Fulgencio Batista got ready for the strike by offering immunity to anyone who killed a striker and by threatening to jail any employer who closed shop. The strike was short-lived: "With the upper hand, Batista drove boldly around the city while his cops proceeded to make their supremacy complete.
When a patrol car radioed that it had clashed with rebels and had 'a dead man and a prisoner', the dispatcher ordered: 'Shoot him. Two hours later their stripped, tortured and bullet-torn bodies were turned over to relatives. Total dead: In , Fidel Castro and his forces succeeded in displacing Batista from power. At that time there were fundamental changes in the judicial and political process. During this transitional period there were some concerns voiced about due process. The "Cuban National Reconciliation movement", a U.
In the s, violent confrontations known as the Escambray Rebellion between the Cuban government and armed opposition were ongoing, but had declined by the early s. The group asserts that by the time international human rights movements flourished in the s, the most severe period of repression was over, making non-partisan retrospective assessments of the period difficult. The reconciliation movement also cite the difficulties in assessing accounts of abuses that are commonly split upon partisan lines.
According to the group, Cuban exiles who were often the first to denounce the Cuban government, largely shared an anti-Communist ideology and overlooked violations committed by other regimes, whilst many left leaning observers did not give the claims of Cuban victims due consideration.
After coming to power in , Fidel Castro's government built a highly effective machinery of repression , according to Human Rights Watch. Various estimates have been made in order to ascertain the number of political executions carried out on behalf of the Cuban government since the revolution. Within the first two months of the , Castro's government executed more than Batista officials,  with Latin American historian Thomas E.
Human rights in Cuba - Wikipedia
Skidmore says that there had been executions in the first six months of The Black Book of Communism estimated that between 15, and 17, people were executed by the state. The vast majority of those executed directly following the revolution were policemen, politicians and informers for the Batista regime who were accused of crimes such as torture and murder, and their public trials and executions enjoyed widespread popular support among the Cuban population.
Most scholars agree that those executed were probably guilty as charged, but their trials did not follow due process. Some Cuban scholars maintain that had the government not applied severe legislation against the torturers, terrorists, and other criminals employed by the Batista regime, the people themselves would have taken justice into their own hands.
In a "Tribunal on Cuba" was held in Paris to present testimonies by former prisoners of Cuba's penal system to the international media. The testimonies presented at the tribunal, before an international panel, alleged a pattern of torture in Cuba's prisons and "hard labor camps". These included beatings, biological experiments in diet restrictions, violent interrogations and extremely unsanitary conditions.
The jury concurred with allegations of arbitrary arrests; sentencing by court martial with neither public audience nor defense; periods in hard labour camps without sufficient food, clothes and medical care; and the arrests of children over nine years old. The number of reported executions in Cuba declined during the s and by the s they were restricted to rare high-profile cases, notably the execution of General Arnaldo Ochoa in Ochoa, once proclaimed "Hero of the Revolution" by Fidel Castro, along with three other high-ranking officers, was brought to trial for drug trafficking.
This offense carries a maximum sentence of 20 years, but Ochoa and the others were convicted of treason and promptly executed. Opponents of the Castro government outside of Cuba expressed skepticism about the legitimacy of Ochoa's arrest and execution. Although Cuba has been politically connected to the Soviet Union since the United States broke off relations with Cuba shortly after the prime minister Fidel Castro came to power in , few considerable allegations regarding the political abuse of psychiatry in this country emerged before the late s.
In August , the Marxist historian Ariel Hidalgo was apprehended and accused of "incitement against the social order, international solidarity and the Socialist State" and sentenced to eight years' imprisonment. A Human Rights Watch report notes that the Interior Ministry's principal responsibility is to monitor the Cuban population for signs of dissent. Before advancing to a new school or position, the individual's record must first be deemed acceptable".
The opposition movement in Cuba is a widespread collection of individuals and nongovernmental organizations, most of whom are working for the respect of individual rights on the island. Cuba officially adopted the civil and political rights enumerated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in One of the key principles in the declaration was the insistence on Freedom of expression and opinion. The Cuban constitution says that free speech is allowed "in keeping with the objectives of socialist society" and that artistic creation is allowed "as long as its content is not contrary to the Revolution".
Books, newspapers, radio channels, television channels, movies and music are supposedly censored, although a lot of foreign media, particularly movies and music, have notably been heard and seen without any police interference. The media are operated under the supervision of the Communist Party's Department of Revolutionary Orientation , which "develops and coordinates propaganda strategies".
Human rights groups and international organizations believe that these articles subordinate the exercise of freedom of expression to the state. The Inter-American Commission on Human Rights assess that: "It is evident that the exercise of the right to freedom of expression under this article of the Constitution is governed by two fundamental determinants: on the one hand, the preservation and strengthening of the communist State; on the other, the need to muzzle any criticism of the group in power.
MODERN TANGO WORLD #7 (Havana & the Caribbean)
Thus the exercise of the right to freedom of expression is restricted by the lack of means of mass communication falling outside state control. Individuals who belong to these groups face systematic harassment, with the government putting up obstacles to impede them from documenting human rights conditions. In addition, international human rights groups such as Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International are barred from sending fact-finding missions to Cuba. It remains one of the few countries in the world to deny the International Committee of the Red Cross access to its prisons.
A Reporters Without Borders report finds that Internet use is very restricted and under tight surveillance. Access is only possible with government permission and equipment is rationed. E-mail is monitored. Foreign journalists are systematically expelled from Cuba, e. Human Rights Watch states that " freedom of assembly is severely restricted in Cuba, and political dissidents are generally prohibited from meeting in large groups. This often puts at risk the individuals who belong to these associations of facing harassment, intimidation or criminal charges for activities which constitute the legitimate exercise of the fundamental freedoms of expression, association and assembly.
The Cuban authorities only recognize a single national trade union centre, the Central de Trabajadores de Cuba CTC , heavily controlled by the State and the Communist Party which appoints its leaders. Membership is compulsory for all workers. Before a worker can be hired, they must sign a contract in which they promise to support the Communist Party and everything it represents [ citation needed ]. The government explicitly prohibits independent trade unions, there is systematic harassment and detention of labor activists, and the leaders of attempted independent unions have been imprisoned.
The right to strike is not recognized in law.
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Bans are enforced by "Rapid Brigades", consisting of members of the army and police in plain clothes, who beat and disperse any demonstrators. If accepted by the government and approved by public vote, the amendments would have established such things as freedom of association , freedom of speech , freedom of press , as well as starting private businesses. Another important project is the establishment of the Assembly to Promote Civil Society. The Assembly to Promote Civil Society in Cuba is a coalition of independent civil society groups with the stated aims of forming a democratic culture, developing a social movement, strengthening the Assembly's organization, communicating among groups to promote the civil society, using all available means to combat poverty and seeking the betterment of the community's life conditions, developing a true knowledge of Cuba's history, in all its dimensions: economic, social and political, undertaking activities and projects aimed at the protection and conservation of natural resources and the ecosystem, and promoting a true culture on labor rights.
Cuba placed a moratorium on the use of capital punishment in However, an exception was made when, in , three Cubans were executed for a ferry hijacking in which Cuban passengers and two young French female tourists were held at gunpoint. The hijackers were attempting to reach Florida, USA in order to seek asylum.
No one was harmed in the incident but the gang held knives to the throats and threatened to kill them if the vessel was not given enough fuel to carry them to the United States. Human rights groups including Amnesty International have long been critical of what the Cuban authorities have termed "Acts of repudiation" actos de repudio. These acts occur when large groups of citizens verbally abuse, intimidate and sometimes physically assault and throw stones and other objects at the homes of Cubans who are considered counter-revolutionaries.
Human rights groups suspect that these acts are often carried out in collusion with the security forces and sometimes involve the Committees for the Defence of the Revolution or the Rapid Response Brigades. The level of violence of these acts have increased significantly since As of January 14, , all Cuban government-imposed travel restrictions and controls have been abolished.
Visa requirements for Cuban citizens are administrative entry restrictions by the authorities of other states placed on citizens of Cuba. In , Cuban citizens had visa-free or visa on arrival access to 61 countries and territories, ranking the Cuban passport 69th in the world. Persons holding dual Spanish and Cuban citizenships are now allowed to travel freely, using their Spanish passport in lieu of a visa for countries normally requiring a visa for the Cuban passport. Moreover, ever since that date, the Cuban government extended the allowable time abroad from 11 to 24 months, allowing Cubans who return within the month time frame to retain their status and benefits of "Cuban Resident of the Interior".
Should the citizen remain out of Cuba for more that 24 months, then his status would change to "Cuban Resident of the Exterior" and he would lose his privileges within. By this change, there is no longer such a thing as "illegal" or "unauthorized" travel, and therefore persons who leave Cuba via unconventional means boats etc. Prior to January 13, , Cuban citizens could not travel abroad, leave or return to Cuba without first obtaining official permission along with applying for a government issued passport and travel visa, which was often denied. It was common, in those days, that certain citizens who were authorized travel primarily medical personnel and other professionals deemed essential to the country were not permitted to take their children with them overseas.
In the event that Cuban doctors defect to the United States when they are sent to a "mission" out of Cuba to any foreign country, any children left behind would not be allowed to join their defector parent for a minimum of ten years, even if they had received a foreign visa, and regardless of their age. Even discussing unauthorized travel carried a six-month prison sentence. From through , some 1. In the early years, a number of those who could claim dual Spanish-Cuban citizenship left for Spain.
Over time a number of Cuban Jews were allowed to emigrate to Israel after quiet negotiations; the majority of the 10, or so Jews who were in Cuba in have left. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, many Cubans now reside in a diverse number of countries, some ending up in countries of the European Union. A large number of Cubans live in Mexico and Canada. I could understand it, it was like reliving it, like if I was looking at a movie of times gone by 53 years ago. So exact, so precise, to truthful in every word written or spoken. It was an emotional experience…][…And then I went to.
I would like to gratefully and sincerely thank Fernando Pruna for his guidance, understanding, patience, and most importantly, his confidence. Solange Podell for her extreme kindness and the precious documents she gave me. Denise Darcel for our sweet conversation I will never forget. Lulette de Betancourt fo her wonderful anecdotes. Eudelia Pruna for her memories about September Pedro Fuentes-Cid for his jail stories. Cornell Daily Sun, Dec 9, Most delightfully written, with such a sense of timing and vivid dialogues. You are such a proficient writer, so gifted, so delicate in the handling of words.
Simply said, my French is not that sophisticated. But, still, I can detect the signs of the thinker, the person that turned himself into me for two long years to feel what I felt and to do what I did. Like an actor who takes the part of another person and becomes that person for as long as the work lasts. Such duplicity of personalities, such transformational ability can only be done by a gifted mind like yours, my dear friend. But you did it and I know that you could do it from the first day.
It has impressive and luxurious rooms typical of the residence of the presidents of the Republic. At present, it houses the Museum of the Revolution and it exhibits in its rooms an ample collection that illustrates the last stage of the wars for the independence of Cuba. Likewise, it exhibits vehicles and airplanes used in different actions of the clandestine struggle in the cities. These exhibitions display works from the earliest days of the colonial times and the foundation of the Cuban Academy down to Contemporaneity.
Its construction was finished in December, and at that time it was described as one of the most modern and beautiful buildings of the city. At present, the building houses several offices belonging to Cuban and foreign companies. It currently maintains its functions and exhibits a statue of Hemingway at the corner of the bar sitting on the same seat he used to sit on.
Known for having staged important artistic presentations, its remarkable historical value make it a fundamental site for the history of Cuba, since in its halls the constitution of the Republic was signed in During some time, it was a museum, but after the passage of Hurricane Wilma it underwent a rigorous restoration in order to turn it into an archaeological museum. From its beginnings, it displaced other avenues of the city as the hub of social life. Around it, the houses of the most notable people of the city assembled. It has 1 km of length and its sections are guarded by eight statues of lions made of bronze.
In it took its current physiognomy after a remodeling that provided height to the central walk, which was illuminated with elaborate lampposts and adorned with benches of stone and granite floors. At its northern end is a statue of Cuban poet and patriot Juan Clemente Zenea. The hotel opened its doors in and has maintained its service uninterruptedly, hosting some of the most important figures that have visited the island.
Its gallery shows a collection of black and white photographs of its most distinguished guests among which are Josephine Baker, boxer Joe Louis and Al Capone, who stayed on the sixth floor. It is also the meeting place for baseball fans. Its fountains and lighting system have been recently restored.
Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes. The building, decorated with neoclassical motifs, was erected in and rebuilt in Renaissance style in The present neo-baroque building dates from when it headquartered the Centro Gallego. This majestic building is topped by a At the foot of the statue of the Republic is located a diamond of 24 carats that belonged to the crown of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia and that indicates km 0 of the central road of the Island.
This cacique ruled the area before the arrival of Columbus. Designed and sculpted in by Italian architect Giuseppe Gaggini and commissioned by Conde de Villanueva, it was built in white marble of Carrara in neoclassical style with three meters of height. In his right hand, it holds a horn of plenty and on the left the coat of arms of the city. Parque de la Fraternidad Monte, Reina, Amistad and Prado streets It was located in its current site in , occupying the grounds of the old Campo de Marte, to commemorate the th anniversary of the discovery of America by Christopher Columbus.
Its present aspect dates from from the times of the renovation carried out by Jean Claude Nicolas Forestier. Busts and statues of the heroes of American independence circle the park. You may now tour it assisted by a guide and may also visit its Casa del Habano to purchase or enjoy the best cigars in the world at its own home. It has become a sample of the microcosm of the city. Occasional fishermen, street musicians and street vendors are a common sight at all times. Today it is a busy place frequented by visitors for rest and relaxation, as well as skating, capoeira and skateboarding. If you want to enjoy a genuine drumming and a real rumba, this is the place to learn about and have a live first-hand experience with this manifestation declared by UNESCO World Heritage in Currently, at the entrance you can see the two columns that bordered its entrance and the pedestal of the statue of King Carlos III.
Nowadays it is the key center of the city and the site of most of the places of interest for tourists located downtown. Hotel Nacional de Cuba O and 21st streets, Tel. Since its foundation, it has been the flagship hotel of Cuba and the setting for innumerable events and site of preference of many of the famous of the world-wide scene.
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Its history is also linked to the Mafia and its times of greatest influence in the Island. Proclaimed National monument in , it is located in the coastal outpost of Punta Brava. The perfect place to taste an excellent Habano or a refreshing Mojito, is one of the favorite places for tourism in Havana, which is why it was declared by the World Travel Group as the Leading Hotel of Cuban tourism since It puts on a spectacular Cuban show marked by good music, singing and dancing performed by important cabaret figures in Cuba.
Its stage offers every night a display of talent and creativity designed for the enjoyment at one of the best and most emblematic cabarets in Cuba.
On L street is the majestic staircase, the scene of protests, political ceremonies and youth demonstrations since its early days. Crowned by the statue of the Alma Mater, which was the work of sculptor Mario Korbel and finished in , it is the symbol of this university that receives and dismisses its students on the top of La Colina. Perhaps the most impressive building on the Colina is the Aula Magna the main lecture hall , a place of great events and richly ornamented with marble panels and paintings by Armando Menocal.
Ferrara returned to the Island carrying a considerable amount of objects belonging to Bonaparte, like a plaster funerary mask that was made two days after his death, his pocket watch, a toothbrush, a molar, a lock of hair and the pistol he used at the Battle of Borodino. The majesty of its architecture, combined with the exquisite curatorship of its rooms and collections, make it a museological referent.
It takes its name from the large number of monuments, sited throughout its different sections, erected in honor of several presidents of Cuba and Latin America. It is famous for being the meeting point of the urban tribes that have occupied numerous sections of the walk in an almost official way.
Quinta de los Molinos Ave. It took its name from two tobacco mills located in this area between and Today it displays impressive collections of endemic and exotic flora and fauna, which can only be seen in its 4. It also has a bonsai garden and the first Mariposario Butterfly Garden of Cuba. Designed by Italian sculptor Giovanni Nicolini, it was made in With a classic style, it is considered one of the most beautiful sculptural ensembles in the city. Declared as National Monument in , thousands of visitors come here every day.
With 57 hectares of extension, it has more than funerary monuments among which are mausoleums, chapels, tombs and galleries. It is considered the largest cemetery in America. Divided into 16 blocks like a Roman military camp, it has well-defined areas that mark the social origin of its occupants. The highlights are its central avenue, Ave.
She was buried with the creature between her feet, and years later, when her sarcophagus was opened, she had the remains of the creature in her arms. Since then, it has become a place of worship for many women without children who pray and take offerings to ask to become mothers. Independencia and 20 de Mayo street. Its construction was completed after the Triumph of the Revolution. Presided over by a gigantic statue of Jose Marti, it is the highest point of the Capital, with a total height of The tower has an impressive viewpoint that allows appreciating the city in its entire splendor.
According to legend, it was built by an important personage of the political scene of the Island for his lover, while the color of the house alluded to the eyes of the lady. Miramar Trade Center 5th Ave.
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It is the headquarters of numerous foreign companies. It also hosts several airline commercial offices and major international offices such as the Japanese Embassy.