The literary historian Patrick Ward has highlighted how in writing in English the Young Ireland movement borrowed the codes, conventions and epistemologies of British and Anglo-Irish representations of the Gaelic Irish population 3. In Canada the anglophone writers and nationalist intellectuals who followed the example of McGee were attempting to create a new national narrative that would supersede not only the enduring historical divisions that existed in Britain and Ireland, but also to incorporate the non-British and non-Irish ethnicities they shared the new dominion with.
Although John Reade was twelve years younger than McGee, his involvement in the Canadian literary scene preceded that of McGee by two years. Reade was born on 13 th November in Ballyshannon in Co.
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In the year of his arrival, at the age of just nineteen, he founded the Montreal Literary Magazine 9. For the next sixty years, Reade would devote himself to the development of a national literature in Canada. As a trained but ultimately unsuccessful Anglican minister, Reade felt keenly that the prejudices and sectarianism of the old country should be left behind there.
The Sussex woods were bright and red on that October morn; And Sussex soil was red with blood before the next was born; But from that red united clay another race did start On the great stage of destiny to act a noble part This idea of a shared Norman culture between British and French-Canadians was a prominent feature of late-nineteenth-century Canadian nationalism This was in line with prime minister John A. However, within twenty years the political and economic ties that were holding Confederation together were on shaky ground. The execution of Louis Riel in had intensified already existing tensions between British and French Canadians.
This, coupled with poor economic performance nationally, led some commentators to suggest that Canada would eventually be annexed by the United States Since the publication of his poetry in , Reade had moved away from creative writing and had increasingly turned his attention to Canadian historical scholarship. He wished to preserve much of the heritage of aboriginal people as a way of laying the foundations for a national culture.
Reade hoped to develop a sense of enlightened imperialism where intermixing between cultural groups would allow the nation to uncover its latent vitality. He painted a picture of a multi-national Canada, where, through a liberal education system, different nationalities would eventually meld into an idealized Canadian subject. There is a yearning in these articles for cultural hybridity, an amalgamation of the most positive aspects of each ethnic identity.
Reade placed special importance on seeing a place for Native peoples in this hybridization of Canadian identities.
It was believed that this blending of races would help to establish good will and peace between whites and natives. Intermarriage between various ethnic groups such as the English, the Scottish, the Irish and the French should become a model for other new immigrant groups to adapt to an inter-ethnic rather than multi-ethnic Canada.
This was the first time a Canadian writer had been acknowledged in such a way by a European nation Reade felt that such genius and distinctiveness could be better developed by greater dialogue between the English-speaking and French-speaking peoples of Canada. Leitrim in His father was a policeman in the Irish Constabulary who was eventually dismissed from his position over an argument with a local landlord.
Drummond emigrated with the rest of his family to Montreal in However, his verse writing in the broken English of the French-Canadian habitant was considered much more vigorous and animated. His poetry readings were particularly popular at the time amongst a largely English-speaking Canadian audience. The popularity of his poetry was largely due to the fact that it focused more on country people and their trials and tribulations than it did on the beauty of the natural landscape.
Unlike the stifled formal language of the educated urban bourgeoisie, Drummond communicates the unassuming, frank opinions of his habitant characters in order to show his anglophone Canadian audience how the habitant enjoys life without the pretensions of material desire or social aspiration. In the late nineteenth century many French-Canadians left Canada looking for work in the larger towns and cities of urban New England. Drummond saw this as a troubling development, as Canada would be losing much of what made its culture distinctive.
He also remarks on how Bateese seems corrupted by the values of his new country and how his culture and family environment would be better protected if he stayed in Canada:. I say "For w'at you spik lak dat? However, when their work was reviewed in the francophone press, reviewers were likely to focus on their Irish origins. Mais M.
Throughout much of the nineteenth century Anglo-Irish Protestant writers would develop an increasingly Romantic literary vision as their political power on the island began to diminish. This would ultimately culminate in the largely Protestant-led Irish Literary Revival of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Protestantism had developed a strong disapproval of the mystical and tended to emphasize the mind over the heart and the literal over the emotional.
These Protestant writers also hoped that celebration of a common Irish folklore would help to undermine religious differences in Ireland. I only mean Christianity that is of Christ A Canadian identity had to be broad enough to embrace not only different kinds of ethnicity, but even ethnicities that may have had a history of enmity towards one another. In Canada where Saxon and Celt needed to live and work alongside one another, old animosities would have to be abandoned without too much reflection.
The vastness of Canadian geography dwarfed Irish political histories. Couverture souple, texte francais. Size: 8vo - over 7 in- 9 in Tall.
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