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It necessarily either corrects what is ridiculous or it propagates it. One has seen it do both of these things in turn in France. These are two very different and even opposed things; because the one is a petty passion and the other a great one. There is, between vanity and glory, the same difference that there is between someone in love with himself and someone in love.

Rather what they made than what they were seems to be its motto. Les ouvrages qu'un auteur fait avec plaisir sont souvent les meilleurs, comme les enfants de l'amour sont les plus beaux. Adrien de Valois, the creator of the natural history of metals hardly had a better destiny. Samson, the father of geography, walked on foot, at seventy years old, to give lessons in order to have food to stay alive. Corneille lacked soup broth when he was ill before he died.

La Fontaine was hardly better. However, I would like to know what people would respond to these three objections: among savages, people have not yet seen an example of: 1st, someone who is crazy; 2nd, a suicide; 3rd, a savage who has wanted to embrace civilized life; while a great number of Europeans, as much in Haiti as in the two Americas, after having lived with savages and coming back to their compatriots, return to the forest. Let someone respond to this without being verbose and without sophism. In effect, there is nearly no way to console peoples except to tell them that their ancestors were as unfortunate or more unfortunate than they are.

Presque toute l'histoire n'est qu'une suite d'horreurs. That is something that very well deserves the love and respect of their descendants! Miserable human institutions that, fit to inspire scorn and horror, expect to be respected and revered! He verified the well-foundedness of titles of nobility. He revealed this disastrous secret before Sulla. It is the comparison between the ancient Scaurus, Scipio, etc.

All gall is divided : gnomes and apothegms (Book, ) [ehonahyjabim.tk]

In a word, what makes Tacitus so effective is Livy. C'est la comparaison des anciens Scaurus, Scipion, etc. They want to keep us confined in a dungeon without an exit; similar to the wicked man in Dante who built a wall over the door to the prison where the unfortunate Ugolin was shut in. The histories of peoples who submit to despots are only collections of anecdotes. Il n'y a d'histoire digne d'attention que celle des peuples libres. L'histoire des peuples soumis au despotisme n'est qu'un recueil d'anecdotes. One finds in twenty English writers: Despotic countries, like France and Turkey.

It's unbelievable how much the brilliance of the century of Louis XIV has multiplied the number of people who think this way. Paris, ville d'amusements, de plaisirs, etc. What a consideration, and what matter for reflection! En france, il n'y a plus de public ni de nation, par la raison que de la charpie n'est pas du linge. It's right is to say foolish things, like that of ministers of state is to do them. Son droit est de dire des sottises, comme celui des ministres est d'en faire.

This way of evaluating people, authorized by law and custom, is one of the enormous vices of society, which by itself would be able to explain all of its other vices. Qu'est-ce que c'est qu'un cardinal? Americans are the worthy descendants of those famous republicans who expatriated themselves in order to flee tyranny [a note in the book mentions puritans]. This place has formed men worthy of combating and conquering the English themselves, in an epoch when these last had recovered their liberty and were able to form the most beautiful government that ever was [the book says after the revolution of to George III ].

The American revolution will be useful to the English themselves, by forcing them to newly examine their constitution and banish abuses from it. What will happen? The English, chased from North America, will throw themselves onto the islands and on French and Spanish possessions, and give them their government, which is founded on the natural love that men have for liberty, and which adds to this love itself. Such governments will form on Spanish and French islands, and above all on South America, which, having become English, will form new constitutions that will have liberty as their principle and foundation.

Thus the English will have the unique glory of having formed nearly the only free peoples in the world, the only ones, to speak properly, worthy of the name of man, since they will be the only ones who recognize and conserve the rights of man. But how many years won't be necessary to achieve this revolution? It is necessary to purge the French and the Spanish from immense lands, where they would only be able to form slaves, and transplant Englishmen there to provide the first germs of liberty.

These germs will develop and produce new fruit and will achieve a revolution that will chase the English themselves from both Americas and every island. A Frenchman, on the contrary, respects authority and scorns the law.

VIAF ID: 152816 (Personal)

It is necessary to teach them to do the contrary, and perhaps that is impossible, seeing the ignorance in which the nation is retained, an ignorance that mustn't be contested because of the learning that is found in the capitals. After this, decide. These are the soldiers of Cadmus: the first who are armed turn themselves against their brothers and hurl themselves on them. One does not play chess with goodness of heart. People know all of the attempts made before the great voyage of Vasco de Gama to the West Indies.

Virtual International Authority File

People are not ignorant of the many navigators who were convinced that there were great islands, and without doubt a continent to the west, before Columbus discovered it, and he himself owned papers by a famous pilot who had been writing with him about this [note in book: Palestrello, a Portugese navigator].

Phillip had prepared everything for the Persian war before his death. Many sects of heretics unleashed against the abuses of the Roman church preceded Luther and Calvin, and even Viclef. On sait toutes les tentatives faites avant le grand voyage de Vasco de Gama aux Indes occidentales. There is a maturity in everything that must be waited for. Happy the man who lives in this moment of maturity!


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We must hasten to elevate the nation to its height through good public education. Legislators should do the same as those clever doctors who, when treating exhausted sick people, get them to eat a good meal by giving them medicines that increase their appetite. In the same way, the confusion in our society, which is reorganizing itself, must seem like an excess of disorder. It is as though they would like the Augean stables to be cleaned with a feather duster.

One of those men who birth or favorable circumstances gave a high position read these truths, weakened them, modified them, understood a twentieth part of them and passed for a man who was disquieting, but who had esprit. He moderated his zeal for them and succeeded in everything. The philosopher was put in the Bastille. In the new regime, it is the philosopher who succeeds in everything; his ideas help him, no longer to be imprisoned, no longer to uncork the esprit of a fool so that he can be successful, but to bring the philosopher himself to high places.

Judge how the mob of people who are discarded through this order of things accustom themselves to it! Don't they say that this understanding is too complicated?

French Sandwich Bread Ep. 54

Let's suppose that people would employ a quarter of the time that they have given to stupefying the lowest classes to enlightening them; let us suppose that instead of putting a catechism of absurd and unintelligible metaphysics in their hands, people gave them one that contained the first principles of the rights of men and of their duties, founded on their rights; one would be surprised how far they would go after following this route, indicated by a good basic work.

Suppose that instead of preaching the doctrine of patience, suffering, abnegation of oneself and degradation to them, which are so useful to usurpers, people preached to them to know their rights and their duty to defend them, one would see that nature, who formed men for society, gave them all the good sense necessary for forming a reasonable one.

The young person listened to everything that he said and, with a very tranquil air, replied: "What do you want! When he arrives in my bedroom, his esprit changes. Said about a writer of books that have already been written. Dit d'un faiseur de livres faits. You are a real hussy; that is too much.

There, decay comes right after maturity. Les vieillards, dans les capitales, sont plus corrompus que les jeunes gens.

God and the king have paid the price for the foolishness of their valets. I was a madwoman, but I doubted myself, and, on this point, I was closer to wisdom than he was. He went a long time without loving the second Dauphine, and gave for his reason that she did not smell like a woman. He thought that this odor belonged to the whole sex. Il fut longtemps sans aimer la seconde Dauphine, et en donnait pour raison qu'elle ne sentait pas la femme.


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  • Her husband began to hate him as though he had accepted them, and people laughed with M. If he only knew how amusing he is! We must divert the honorable company. Il nous faut divertir l'honorable compagnie. He is like ivy that attaches itself by crawling. On disait de M C'est comme le lierre qui s'attache en rampant. It is a matter of knowing who is the most beautiful. The ugly woman wants people to ask who is the richest.

    La laide veut qu'on demande quelle est la plus riche. Some others take patience; finally, a small number are happy and quiet and never look for proselytes, whereas those who despair at their undertaking look to solicit novices. Two of them really merited it. Il pastor romano non vuole pecora senza lana. A Roman shepard doesn't want sheep without wool. It is not the cats fault when he takes the servants dinner. The french translation in the book also gives ch If it comes from cagare in the same way that manga comes from mangiare , it would mean to shit.

    Heaven knows what it means. Spiritual, because it had enough spirit [esprit] to seize authority. Il y a une sorte de reconnaissance basse. Someone spoke about it to a man with esprit who was tied to him. This person promised to change his opinion and he succeeded in doing so. Someone asked him how he achieved this; he responded: "I did not insist at all on the tyrannical abuses that come from the influence of the intendants; but you know he is very stubborn about nobility, and I told him that very good gentlemen would be obliged to call him Monseigneur.

    He felt that this was enormous, and that is what brought him to our opinion. They told him one day in a great assembly that the tone of it was perfect, full of grace and facility; that men of letters perhaps wrote more correctly, but not with the same charm. The only thing left for me to do is to tell you that my speech was written by M. Roy, and I will give him my compliments on possessing the good opinion of the court. He responded: "It depends on the society I see. He could add another on mediocre qualities. When a woman agrees with me and makes me happy, I yield to the feelings that she inspires me with, reserving the option not to be her dupe if she doesn't agree with me.

    My imagination is the upholsterer who I send to furnish my apartment when I see that I will be well lodged; otherwise, I give it no orders, and there I spare any unpleasant memory. But, monsieur, M. Mais, monsieur, M. Someone responded: That's a hospital room. She loses her existence to them. A man is less hurt by this because he remains what he is. Elle y perd son existence. I will be inconsolable about it. Therefore, you have you have to say to me, etc. J'en serai inconsolable. Alors il faudra me dire, etc. This man didn't want to have it done at all.

    A few months passed, and the health of the sick fellow came back. The doctor, who ran into him and saw that he was doing better, asked him what remedy he took. But now winter is approaching: I am afraid that the humor that afflicts my eyes will return. Don't you recommend that I get the cautery done? It would be wiser to leave her and to have the cautery done; but you can perhaps do without it, and I think that the cautery you have found is enough. Celui-ci n'en voulut point. He closed himself up with her, caught the same illness, died and left her a great fortune with the right to remarry.

    C'est une chose curieuse de voir l'empire de la mode. Messieurs, how I regret the time I lost in learning that I was worth more than you! To prove his point, he mentioned that everywhere he went, people told him: "The brigands are somewhere else. One day, the lieutenant of police sent for some of these and said to them: "Such an article was stolen, on such a day, in such a quarter of the city. I thank you, if you are alone.

    It's as much, observed M C'est donc, observe M Les vers, disait M Nature has put in the brain of man a little gland called the cerebellum, which performs the task of a mirror; it represents to a person, both in good and in bad, in little and in great, at large and in detail all the objects of the universe and even the products of his own thought. It is a magic lantern of which man is the owner and before which scenes pass in which he is an actor and a spectator.

    This is properly man; this limits his empire. Everything else is alien to him. I have consoled an honest man, full of virtues, rich with livres of rent, with a very great name, a good deal of esprit, excellent health, etc. And me, I am poor, obscure and ill. Et moi je suis pauvre, obscur et malade. He was speaking in the name of the whole clergy. The bishop of Saint-Pol asked him why he spoke for everyone without consulting them: he said, "I consulted my crucifix.

    He went to M. Il alla chez M. This fellow responded coldly: "It's just like the beast and the rogue that the actual public is to judge a character of my temper. A doctor arrived named Fournier who, upon entering, said to Mme de Defant: "Madame, I have the honor to present you with my most humble respect. He refused: "I wouldn't know where to spend my nights anymore. She rented a little house on Plumet street, where she went while M. One of his friends approached him sadly: "Eh! Good God!

    Who is it that you have lost? Bon Dieu! The king went to her one day and took some liberties that weren't successful: "I shall be silent," said Stanislas, "my chancellor will inform you of the rest. A little bean was traditionally hidden in it, a custom taken from the Saturnalia in the Roman Empire: the one who stumbled upon the bean was called "king of the feast.

    This merchant came to Paris: he went to present himself to M. Berrier, didn't find him anywhere, wrote him what he had heard, returned to see M. Berrier and told him who he was.

    à : to, toward, towards

    He started off again for his province: as he was en route, the attack of Damien occurred. Berrier, who comprehended that the merchant had foretold this story, and that his own negligence would lose him everything if it were discovered, this Berrier sent a collection of police and guards to the road to Lyon; they seized the man, gagged him, brought him to Paris, and put him in the Bastille, where he stayed for 18 years.

    He was tortured first with red-hot pincers; his hand, holding the knife used in the attempted assassination, was burned using sulphur; molten wax, lead, and boiling oil were poured into his wounds. Horses were then harnessed to his arms and legs for his dismemberment. Damiens' limbs and ligaments did not separate easily; after some hours, representatives of the Parliament ordered his executioner and his aides to cut Damiens' joints.

    Damiens was then dismembered, to the applause of the crowd. His torso, apparently still living, was then burnt at the stake. He was a friend of the Encyclopedists and of Rousseau. A man, seeing the great tumult around the prison, asked for the reason: someone responded to him that it was for M. He responded to them naively: " Is it my fault if I prefer women whom I love to women whom I don't? He maintained that he did; the person who made the collection said, "I didn't see it, but I believe it.

    He found him in an ill humor and asked him why. Il lui trouva de l'humeur, et lui en demanda la raison. Marlborough said to him intrepidly: "Eh! What, monsieur, you seem surprised? Don't you know that 40 or 50 people are the barest necessity for a princess? He became close friends with Chamfort, who wrote some of his political speeches, and Mirabeau looked to him as a sort of conscience. Some letters of his to Chamfort survive. This has been my lesser evil, like a man who, wanting to see a play, and finding that there are no more seats for Iphigenia , goes to the amusing Variety shows.

    There was a violent scene between them, which Mme de Brionne ended by threatening to throw him out of the window: "I certainly can descend" he said, "from a place I climbed through so many times. The cardinal de Rohan was prelate, ambassador to Vienna, grand almoner of France, and cardinal. The king said to M. At the end of the month, the king asked if the rationing of grain had been completed: "Yes", said M.

    I'm very glad;" said the king, "request that he comes here very soon. When I see vulgar men meddling in love, I am tempted to say: 'What are you meddling in? Gambling, eating, and ambition belong to the canaille [rabble]. It's because it is not until after this age that he is undeceived; because among us a person has to be either an anvil or a hammer; because he sees clearly that the evils that make the nation groan are irremediable. Until then he had resembled a dog who defends the dinner of his master from other dogs. After this age, he is like a dog who goes after it along with the others.

    One doesn't show these things in one's lover; in one's husband, one shows everything. Mme de B En fait d'amants, il n'est pas de ceux que l'on montre; en fait de maris, on montre tout. The latter had come to this magistrate to lower his capitation, which had been considerably increased; the other had come to bear his complaints that his had been decreased, and he believed that this diminution supposed some infringement on his titles of nobility.

    The horrid animal! His mores were dissolute. No guilty men could be found. Peter said: "You can use one of my people. The legacy of the civil war, with more than , people dead or missing, and the trauma of the war of liberation still remain parts of the national collective. With these events fresh in their minds, Algerians seem unwilling to take part in another violent upheaval. Their conversation explores the overlap between religion and nationalism. The confrontation between these two multi-faceted institutions, with the subsequent spiral into chaos, gives the play a means of exploring the legacy of violence in Algerian society.

    Farid symbolizes fundamentalism, while Youcef represents the secularist; yet, their positions are not so cookie-cutter precise. The fluidity and multiplicity of identity is a constant theme in the play. Using literature to explore the effects of violence and the elusive nature of solace offers a poignant way of examining the Algerian experience. For example, after growing weary of the corruption associated with the FLN-affiliated government, even secularists voted for the Islamists in the elections.

    Benaissa tries to explain the appeal of Islamism by employing religious mythology, evoking the spirituality of prayer, and showing how the mosque has been a resource for the oppressed. It is the emir who explained that those who govern us are thieves. Then he demanded whether or not I want to resemble them? This question healed me. The chaotic text of the play symbolizes the mind set in Algeria. By thus combining these two prophecies, Coe blatantly associates the debunking of sentimental as well as political illusions, the blighted hopes in both private and public spheres. That Benjamin should quote T.

    If there is an undeniable bitterness in the disclosure of so many lost illusions, there is also a distinct tenderness for these teenagers and the intensity of their illusions. By thus associating what is proper to man to a denunciation of the political treasons of an epoch, Coe concretises the wish, expressed in What A Carve up! Richard Miller, Oxford: Blackwell, Fred Rothwell, London: Macmillan, Coe , Jonathan, What A Carve up!

    James Strachey , London: Pelican Books, Virilio , Paul, Open Sky , trans.