The opposite is often true when undergraduates majoring in these content areas volunteer to serve as mentors in K—12 schools. Pedagogical knowledge about learning theory as it applies to child and adolescent development, behavior, and student engagement is often a missing piece in many university-based mentoring initiatives. We first tested these primers in the context of a level service-learning Cell Biology course taught in the spring of at High Point University HPU , a private liberal arts institution. As part of this course, students created laboratory modules and used them to engage local high school students with basic concepts in Cell Biology during science outreach events 7.
In the course, there were four two-hour science outreach events set up and scheduled collaboratively by high school staff and the HPU cell biology instructor. Undergraduates used these primers to prepare to work with 9 th and 12 th graders. At the end of the semester, undergraduates reported on their course evaluations that becoming familiar with key concepts in developmental psychology and science pedagogy helped them better prepare for and succeed in their science outreach experiences. Important topics from developmental psychology included how teens think, easy ways to connect with students aged 12 to 18 during learning activities, and anticipated challenges and troubleshooting strategies specific to these age groups.
Undergraduate students preparing to engage in hands-on, experiment module-focused science outreach with high school students 10 in the context of an upper-level service-learning Cell Biology spring course were asked, as a homework assignment, to read and reflect on a primer on developmental psychology and science pedagogy.
Primers were crafted with the purpose of introducing undergraduate students to their audience, and were adapted either for high school students in general Appendix 1 or for high school seniors specifically Appendix 2 , using information provided in an educational psychology text The primer was developed in advance as the result of collaborative efforts of a faculty member in the Department of Biology Segarra , who was the instructor for the service-learning Cell Biology course, and a professor in the School of Education Tillery responsible for teaching Educational Psychology.
Preliminary meetings between the two professors included evaluating the nature of the outreach and the population of students to be served and sharing information about the expectations of the content and instruction to be delivered by the undergraduates. Undergraduates and instructors then met together at the start of the semester to discuss the material prior to engaging in science outreach. Undergraduate students were given the opportunity to ask questions of the instructors who were leading the science outreach experiences.
We found that the conversational nature of these interactions provided a comfortable context in which to address the anticipated concerns and anxieties of the undergraduate students while encouraging them to think strategically about engagement and effective presentation style for diverse audiences. ANSWER: You can use a variety of methods including short surveys that can be easily administered at the beginning of or prior to the outreach event using tools like Survey Monkey, Qualtrics, or PollEverywhere. If you want to do this informally at the event you can pose a series of questions at the beginning of the outreach experience to gauge how much your audience knows of Cell Biology.
Their answers can then be used to tailor your explanations to what they already know. However, it is likely that you will have to work with many more students. When this is the case, you can divide students into groups. When done effectively, group work can enhance the participant experience by allowing them to receive more attention and opportunity to engage with the tasks at hand. You should strive to have groups no bigger than three participants. Also, you should consider gender and ethnic diversity when grouping students so that each group has members that are different from each other.
In this way, you allow for members of a group to complement each other. How could we make everyone feel involved, even if they do not fully understand the project or are not fully capable of learning the material as quickly as their peers? Also, you can use open-ended questions to informally gauge whether or not the students you are working with are engaged with the content and understand what they are doing. You will always need to use certain technical vocabulary or jargon for example—cell, molecule….
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Before you do, make sure you define terms for your audience using non-technical language. Perhaps you will discover in your pre-test that many of them are familiar with some of this vocabulary! What should we do if a student or group of students displays challenging behaviors during our outreach sessions? ANSWER: You must not humiliate or embarrass participants high school students —do not single participants out or exclude them.
You always want to correct bad behavior with dignity. For these reasons, do not engage in power struggles with participants. You might be better served by just ignoring the behavior until it subsides. Approximately one month into the semester, a second session was conducted to provide opportunities for reflection about the actual experiences of the undergraduates since beginning their mentoring in the high school classroom. While session one focused primarily on delivering pedagogical knowledge in a proactive fashion, session two provided suggestions for any needed intervention as undergraduates reflected on their experiences.
We surveyed the students to identify the ideas they perceived as their takeaways from having read the primers either Appendix 1 or Appendix 2 , depending on the target audiences. Not all students of the same age will have the same ability to grasp content in a particular area of science. One can differentiate content and activities to fit the cognitive ability of the target audience. Current efforts at HPU are focused on developing similar primers for other service-learning courses and outreach activities.
The authors thank Dr. Joe Blosser, the Robert G. Culp Jr. Thanks to Drs. Tawannah Allen and Theresa Hegedus for data collection assistance. The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. J Microbiol Biol Educ. Published online Apr Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Phone: E-mail: ude. Received Oct 17; Accepted Jan 7.
Published by the American Society for Microbiology. Associated Data Supplementary Materials Appendix 1: Primer on the cognitive development of high school students, Appendix 2: Primer on the cognitive development of high school seniors. Open in a separate window. In some places, governments legally regulate who can provide psychological services or represent themselves as a "psychologist". Early practitioners of experimental psychology distinguished themselves from parapsychology , which in the late nineteenth century enjoyed great popularity including the interest of scholars such as William James , and indeed constituted the bulk of what people called "psychology".
Parapsychology, hypnotism , and psychism were major topics of the early International Congresses. But students of these fields were eventually ostractized, and more or less banished from the Congress in — As a discipline, psychology has long sought to fend off accusations that it is a "soft" science. Philosopher of science Thomas Kuhn 's critique implied psychology overall was in a pre-paradigm state, lacking the agreement on overarching theory found in mature sciences such as chemistry and physics.
Skeptics have suggested that personality , thinking , and emotion , cannot be directly measured and are often inferred from subjective self-reports, which may be problematic. Experimental psychologists have devised a variety of ways to indirectly measure these elusive phenomenological entities.
Divisions still exist within the field, with some psychologists more oriented towards the unique experiences of individual humans, which cannot be understood only as data points within a larger population. Critics inside and outside the field have argued that mainstream psychology has become increasingly dominated by a "cult of empiricism" which limits the scope of its study by using only methods derived from the physical sciences.
Jean Grimshaw, for example, argues that mainstream psychological research has advanced a patriarchal agenda through its efforts to control behavior. Psychologists generally consider the organism the basis of the mind, and therefore a vitally related area of study. Psychiatrists and neuropsychologists work at the interface of mind and body.
Key research topics in this field include comparative psychology , which studies humans in relation to other animals, and perception which involves the physical mechanics of sensation as well as neural and mental processing. From Phineas Gage to H. Soon after, Carl Wernicke identified a related area necessary for the understanding of speech. The contemporary field of behavioral neuroscience focuses on physical causes underpinning behavior.
For example, physiological psychologists use animal models, typically rats, to study the neural, genetic, and cellular mechanisms that underlie specific behaviors such as learning and memory and fear responses. The biopsychosocial model is an integrated perspective toward understanding consciousness, behavior, and social interaction. It assumes that any given behavior or mental process affects and is affected by dynamically interrelated biological, psychological, and social factors. Evolutionary psychology examines cognition and personality traits from an evolutionary perspective.
This perspective suggests that psychological adaptations evolved to solve recurrent problems in human ancestral environments. Evolutionary psychology offers complementary explanations for the mostly proximate or developmental explanations developed by other areas of psychology: that is, it focuses mostly on ultimate or "why? The search for biological origins of psychological phenomena has long involved debates about the importance of race , and especially the relationship between race and intelligence. The idea of white supremacy and indeed the modern concept of race itself arose during the process of world conquest by Europeans.
Race was also used to justify the construction of socially specific mental disorders such as drapetomania and dysaesthesia aethiopica —the behavior of uncooperative African slaves. Psychologists take human behavior as a main area of study. Much of the research in this area began with tests on mammals, based on the idea that humans exhibit similar fundamental tendencies.
Behavioral research ever aspires to improve the effectiveness of techniques for behavior modification. Early behavioral researchers studied stimulus—response pairings, now known as classical conditioning. They demonstrated that behaviors could be linked through repeated association with stimuli eliciting pain or pleasure. Ivan Pavlov —known best for inducing dogs to salivate in the presence of a stimulus previously linked with food—became a leading figure in the Soviet Union and inspired followers to use his methods on humans. Thorndike wrote in "There can be no moral warrant for studying man's nature unless the study will enable us to control his acts.
Watson coined the term behaviorism for this school of thought. Embraced and extended by Clark L. Hull , Edwin Guthrie , and others, behaviorism became a widely used research paradigm. Radical behaviorists avoided discussing the inner workings of the mind, especially the unconscious mind, which they considered impossible to assess scientifically. Skinner , who emerged as a leading intellectual of the behaviorist movement. Noam Chomsky delivered an influential critique of radical behaviorism on the grounds that it could not adequately explain the complex mental process of language acquisition.
Tolman advanced a hybrid "cognitive behaviorial" model, most notably with his publication discussing the cognitive maps used by rats to guess at the location of food at the end of a modified maze. The Association for Behavior Analysis International was founded in and by had members from 42 countries. The Stroop effect refers to the fact that naming the color of the first set of words is easier and quicker than the second.
Cognitive psychology studies cognition , the mental processes underlying mental activity. Perception , attention , reasoning , thinking , problem solving , memory , learning , language , and emotion are areas of research. Classical cognitive psychology is associated with a school of thought known as cognitivism , whose adherents argue for an information processing model of mental function, informed by functionalism and experimental psychology.
Starting in the s, the experimental techniques developed by Wundt, James, Ebbinghaus, and others re-emerged as experimental psychology became increasingly cognitivist—concerned with information and its processing —and, eventually, constituted a part of the wider cognitive science. Social learning theorists , such as Albert Bandura , argued that the child's environment could make contributions of its own to the behaviors of an observant subject. Technological advances also renewed interest in mental states and representations. Hebb used experimental methods to link psychological phenomena with the structure and function of the brain.
The rise of computer science , cybernetics and artificial intelligence suggested the value of comparatively studying information processing in humans and machines. Research in cognition had proven practical since World War II , when it aided in the understanding of weapons operation. A popular and representative topic in this area is cognitive bias , or irrational thought. Psychologists and economists have classified and described a sizeable catalogue of biases which recur frequently in human thought. The availability heuristic , for example, is the tendency to overestimate the importance of something which happens to come readily to mind.
Elements of behaviorism and cognitive psychology were synthesized to form cognitive behavioral therapy , a form of psychotherapy modified from techniques developed by American psychologist Albert Ellis and American psychiatrist Aaron T. On a broader level, cognitive science is an interdisciplinary enterprise of cognitive psychologists , cognitive neuroscientists , researchers in artificial intelligence , linguists , human—computer interaction , computational neuroscience , logicians and social scientists.
The discipline of cognitive science covers cognitive psychology as well as philosophy of mind , computer science, and neuroscience. Social psychology is the study of how humans think about each other and how they relate to each other. Social psychologists study such topics as the influence of others on an individual's behavior e.
Social cognition fuses elements of social and cognitive psychology in order to understand how people process, remember, or distort social information. The study of group dynamics reveals information about the nature and potential optimization of leadership, communication, and other phenomena that emerge at least at the microsocial level.
In recent years, many social psychologists have become increasingly interested in implicit measures, mediational models, and the interaction of both person and social variables in accounting for behavior. The study of human society is therefore a potentially valuable source of information about the causes of psychiatric disorder. Some sociological concepts applied to psychiatric disorders are the social role , sick role , social class , life event, culture , migration , social , and total institution.
Psychoanalysis comprises a method of investigating the mind and interpreting experience; a systematized set of theories about human behavior; and a form of psychotherapy to treat psychological or emotional distress, especially conflict originating in the unconscious mind. Freud's psychoanalytic theory was largely based on interpretive methods, introspection and clinical observations.
It became very well known, largely because it tackled subjects such as sexuality , repression , and the unconscious. These subjects were largely taboo at the time, and Freud provided a catalyst for their open discussion in polite society. Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung , influenced by Freud, elaborated a theory of the collective unconscious —a primordial force present in all humans, featuring archetypes which exerted a profound influence on the mind.
Jung's competing vision formed the basis for analytical psychology , which later led to the archetypal and process-oriented schools. Other well-known psychoanalytic scholars of the midth century include Erik Erikson , Melanie Klein , D. Throughout the 20th century, psychoanalysis evolved into diverse schools of thought which could be called Neo-Freudian. Among these schools are ego psychology , object relations , and interpersonal , Lacanian , and relational psychoanalysis.
Psychologists such as Hans Eysenck and philosophers including Karl Popper criticized psychoanalysis. Popper argued that psychoanalysis had been misrepresented as a scientific discipline,  whereas Eysenck said that psychoanalytic tenets had been contradicted by experimental data. By the end of 20th century, psychology departments in American universities mostly marginalized Freudian theory, dismissing it as a "desiccated and dead" historical artifact.
Humanistic psychology developed in the s as a movement within academic psychology, in reaction to both behaviorism and psychoanalysis. It emphasized subjective meaning, rejection of determinism, and concern for positive growth rather than pathology. Later, positive psychology opened up humanistic themes to scientific modes of exploration. Humanistic psychology is primarily an orientation toward the whole of psychology rather than a distinct area or school. It stands for respect for the worth of persons, respect for differences of approach, open-mindedness as to acceptable methods, and interest in exploration of new aspects of human behavior.
As a "third force" in contemporary psychology, it is concerned with topics having little place in existing theories and systems: e. Swiss psychoanalyst Ludwig Binswanger and American psychologist George Kelly may also be said to belong to the existential school. Austrian existential psychiatrist and Holocaust survivor Viktor Frankl drew evidence of meaning's therapeutic power from reflections garnered from his own internment. Personality psychology is concerned with enduring patterns of behavior, thought, and emotion—commonly referred to as personality —in individuals. Theories of personality vary across different psychological schools and orientations.
They carry different assumptions about such issues as the role of the unconscious and the importance of childhood experience. According to Freud, personality is based on the dynamic interactions of the id, ego, and super-ego. Although the number of proposed traits has varied widely, an early biologically-based model proposed by Hans Eysenck , the 3rd mostly highly cited psychologist of the 20th Century after Freud, and Piaget respectively , suggested that at least three major trait constructs are necessary to describe human personality structure: extraversion—introversion , neuroticism -stability, and psychoticism -normality.
Raymond Cattell , the 7th most highly cited psychologist of the 20th Century based on the scientific peer-reviewed journal literature  empirically derived a theory of 16 personality factors at the primary-factor level, and up to 8 broader second-stratum factors at the Eysenckian level of analysis , rather than the "Big Five" dimensions. However, despite a plethora of research into the various versions of the "Big Five" personality dimensions, it appears necessary to move on from static conceptualizations of personality structure to a more dynamic orientation, whereby it is acknowledged that personality constructs are subject to learning and change across the lifespan.
The popular, although psychometrically inadequate Myers—Briggs Type Indicator  sought to assess individuals' "personality types" according to the personality theories of Carl Jung. Behaviorist resistance to introspection led to the development of the Strong Vocational Interest Blank and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory MMPI , in an attempt to ask empirical questions that focused less on the psychodynamics of the respondent. Study of the unconscious mind , a part of the psyche outside the awareness of the individual which nevertheless influenced thoughts and behavior was a hallmark of early psychology.
In one of the first psychology experiments conducted in the United States, C. Peirce and Joseph Jastrow found in that subjects could choose the minutely heavier of two weights even if consciously uncertain of the difference. His text The Psychopathology of Everyday Life catalogues hundreds of everyday events which Freud explains in terms of unconscious influence. Pierre Janet advanced the idea of a subconscious mind, which could contain autonomous mental elements unavailable to the scrutiny of the subject.
Behaviorism notwithstanding, the unconscious mind has maintained its importance in psychology. Cognitive psychologists have used a "filter" model of attention , according to which much information processing takes place below the threshold of consciousness, and only certain processes, limited by nature and by simultaneous quantity, make their way through the filter. Copious research has shown that subconscious priming of certain ideas can covertly influence thoughts and behavior.
For this reason, some psychologists prefer to distinguish between implicit and explicit memory. In another approach, one can also describe a subliminal stimulus as meeting an objective but not a subjective threshold. The automaticity model, which became widespread following exposition by John Bargh and others in the s, describes sophisticated processes for executing goals which can be selected and performed over an extended duration without conscious awareness. John Bargh, Daniel Wegner , and Ellen Langer are some prominent contemporary psychologists who describe free will as an illusion. Psychologists such as William James initially used the term motivation to refer to intention, in a sense similar to the concept of will in European philosophy.
With the steady rise of Darwinian and Freudian thinking, instinct also came to be seen as a primary source of motivation. Psychoanalysis, like biology, regarded these forces as physical demands made by the organism on the nervous system.
However, they believed that these forces, especially the sexual instincts, could become entangled and transmuted within the psyche. Classical psychoanalysis conceives of a struggle between the pleasure principle and the reality principle , roughly corresponding to id and ego. Later, in Beyond the Pleasure Principle , Freud introduced the concept of the death drive , a compulsion towards aggression, destruction, and psychic repetition of traumatic events. Hunger, thirst, fear, sexual desire, and thermoregulation all seem to constitute fundamental motivations for animals.
Motivation can be modulated or manipulated in many different ways. Researchers have found that eating , for example, depends not only on the organism's fundamental need for homeostasis —an important factor causing the experience of hunger —but also on circadian rhythms, food availability, food palatability, and cost. They suggest that this principle can even apply to food, drink, sex, and sleep. Mainly focusing on the development of the human mind through the life span, developmental psychology seeks to understand how people come to perceive, understand, and act within the world and how these processes change as they age.
This may focus on cognitive, affective, moral , social, or neural development. Researchers who study children use a number of unique research methods to make observations in natural settings or to engage them in experimental tasks. Such tasks often resemble specially designed games and activities that are both enjoyable for the child and scientifically useful, and researchers have even devised clever methods to study the mental processes of infants. In addition to studying children, developmental psychologists also study aging and processes throughout the life span, especially at other times of rapid change such as adolescence and old age.
Developmental psychologists draw on the full range of psychological theories to inform their research. All researched psychological traits are influenced by both genes and environment, to varying degrees. An example is the transmission of depression from a depressed mother to her offspring.
Theory may hold that the offspring, by virtue of having a depressed mother in his or her the offspring's environment, is at risk for developing depression. However, risk for depression is also influenced to some extent by genes. The mother may both carry genes that contribute to her depression but will also have passed those genes on to her offspring thus increasing the offspring's risk for depression. Genes and environment in this simple transmission model are completely confounded.
Experimental and quasi-experimental behavioral genetic research uses genetic methodologies to disentangle this confound and understand the nature and origins of individual differences in behavior. More recently, the availability of microarray molecular genetic or genome sequencing technologies allows researchers to measure participant DNA variation directly, and test whether individual genetic variants within genes are associated with psychological traits and psychopathology through methods including genome-wide association studies.
One goal of such research is similar to that in positional cloning and its success in Huntington's : once a causal gene is discovered biological research can be conducted to understand how that gene influences the phenotype. One major result of genetic association studies is the general finding that psychological traits and psychopathology, as well as complex medical diseases, are highly polygenic ,      where a large number on the order of hundreds to thousands of genetic variants, each of small effect, contribute to individual differences in the behavioral trait or propensity to the disorder.
Active research continues to understand the genetic and environmental bases of behavior and their interaction. Psychology encompasses many subfields and includes different approaches to the study of mental processes and behavior:. Psychological testing has ancient origins, such as examinations for the Chinese civil service dating back to BC. By , the Chinese system required a stratified series of tests, involving essay writing and knowledge of diverse topics.
The system was ended in Physiognomy remained current through the Enlightenment, and added the doctrine of phrenology : a study of mind and intelligence based on simple assessment of neuroanatomy. When experimental psychology came to Britain, Francis Galton was a leading practitioner, and, with his procedures for measuring reaction time and sensation, is considered an inventor of modern mental testing also known as psychometrics.
Binet and Simon introduced the concept of mental age and referred to the lowest scorers on their test as idiots. Henry H. Goddard put the Binet-Simon scale to work and introduced classifications of mental level such as imbecile and feebleminded. In after Binet's death , Stanford professor Lewis M. Terman modified the Binet-Simon scale renamed the Stanford—Binet scale and introduced the intelligence quotient as a score report.
Their dullness seems to be racial. The federally created National Intelligence Test was administered to 7 million children in the s, and in the College Entrance Examination Board created the Scholastic Aptitude Test to standardize college admissions. Setting a precedent which has never been overturned, the U.
Supreme Court affirmed the constitutionality of this practice in the case Buck v. Today mental testing is a routine phenomenon for people of all ages in Western societies. The provision of psychological health services is generally called clinical psychology in the U. The definitions of this term are various and may include school psychology and counseling psychology. Practitioners typically includes people who have graduated from doctoral programs in clinical psychology but may also include others. In Canada, the above groups usually fall within the larger category of professional psychology.
In Canada and the US, practitioners get bachelor's degrees and doctorates, then spend one year in an internship and one year in postdoctoral education. In Mexico and most other Latin American and European countries, psychologists do not get bachelor's and doctorate degrees; instead, they take a three-year professional course following high school.
Central to its practice are psychological assessment and psychotherapy although clinical psychologists may also engage in research, teaching, consultation, forensic testimony, and program development and administration. Credit for the first psychology clinic in the United States typically goes to Lightner Witmer , who established his practice in Philadelphia in Another modern psychotherapist was Morton Prince. Psychology entered the field with its refinements of mental testing, which promised to improve diagnosis of mental problems. For their part, some psychiatrists became interested in using psychoanalysis and other forms of psychodynamic psychotherapy to understand and treat the mentally ill.
The therapist seeks to uncover repressed material and to understand why the patient creates defenses against certain thoughts and feelings. An important aspect of the therapeutic relationship is transference , in which deep unconscious feelings in a patient reorient themselves and become manifest in relation to the therapist. Psychiatric psychotherapy blurred the distinction between psychiatry and psychology, and this trend continued with the rise of community mental health facilities and behavioral therapy , a thoroughly non-psychodynamic model which used behaviorist learning theory to change the actions of patients.
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A key aspect of behavior therapy is empirical evaluation of the treatment's effectiveness. In the s, cognitive-behavior therapy arose, using similar methods and now including the cognitive constructs which had gained popularity in theoretical psychology. A key practice in behavioral and cognitive-behavioral therapy is exposing patients to things they fear, based on the premise that their responses fear, panic, anxiety can be deconditioned. Mental health care today involves psychologists and social workers in increasing numbers. In , National Institute of Mental Health director Bertram Brown described this shift as a source of "intense competition and role confusion".
This degree is intended to train practitioners who might conduct scientific research. Some clinical psychologists may focus on the clinical management of patients with brain injury —this area is known as clinical neuropsychology. In many countries, clinical psychology is a regulated mental health profession. The emerging field of disaster psychology see crisis intervention involves professionals who respond to large-scale traumatic events. The work performed by clinical psychologists tends to be influenced by various therapeutic approaches, all of which involve a formal relationship between professional and client usually an individual, couple, family, or small group.
Typically, these approaches encourage new ways of thinking, feeling, or behaving. Four major theoretical perspectives are psychodynamic , cognitive behavioral , existential—humanistic , and systems or family therapy. There has been a growing movement to integrate the various therapeutic approaches, especially with an increased understanding of issues regarding culture, gender, spirituality, and sexual orientation. With the advent of more robust research findings regarding psychotherapy, there is evidence that most of the major therapies have equal effectiveness, with the key common element being a strong therapeutic alliance.
New editions over time have increased in size and focused more on medical language. Educational psychology is the study of how humans learn in educational settings, the effectiveness of educational interventions, the psychology of teaching, and the social psychology of schools as organizations. The work of child psychologists such as Lev Vygotsky , Jean Piaget , and Jerome Bruner has been influential in creating teaching methods and educational practices. Educational psychology is often included in teacher education programs in places such as North America, Australia, and New Zealand.
School psychology combines principles from educational psychology and clinical psychology to understand and treat students with learning disabilities; to foster the intellectual growth of gifted students; to facilitate prosocial behaviors in adolescents; and otherwise to promote safe, supportive, and effective learning environments.
School psychologists are trained in educational and behavioral assessment, intervention, prevention, and consultation, and many have extensive training in research. Industrialists soon brought the nascent field of psychology to bear on the study of scientific management techniques for improving workplace efficiency.
This field was at first called economic psychology or business psychology ; later, industrial psychology , employment psychology , or psychotechnology. With funding from the Laura Spelman Rockefeller Fund and guidance from Australian psychologist Elton Mayo , Western Electric experimented on thousands of factory workers to assess their responses to illumination, breaks, food, and wages. The researchers came to focus on workers' responses to observation itself, and the term Hawthorne effect is now used to describe the fact that people work harder when they think they're being watched.
The name industrial and organizational psychology I—O arose in the s and became enshrined as the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology , Division 14 of the American Psychological Association, in Personnel psychology, a subfield of I—O psychology, applies the methods and principles of psychology in selecting and evaluating workers. I—O psychology's other subfield, organizational psychology , examines the effects of work environments and management styles on worker motivation, job satisfaction , and productivity.
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One role for psychologists in the military is to evaluate and counsel soldiers and other personnel. In the U. S Army psychology includes psychological screening, clinical psychotherapy, suicide prevention , and treatment for post-traumatic stress, as well as other aspects of health and workplace psychology such as smoking cessation. Psychologists may also work on a diverse set of campaigns known broadly as psychological warfare.
Psychologically warfare chiefly involves the use of propaganda to influence enemy soldiers and civilians. In the case of so-called black propaganda the propaganda is designed to seem like it originates from a different source. Medical facilities increasingly employ psychologists to perform various roles.
A prominent aspect of health psychology is the psychoeducation of patients: instructing them in how to follow a medical regimen. Health psychologists can also educate doctors and conduct research on patient compliance. Psychologists in the field of public health use a wide variety of interventions to influence human behavior. These range from public relations campaigns and outreach to governmental laws and policies.
Psychologists study the composite influence of all these different tools in an effort to influence whole populations of people. Black American psychologists Kenneth and Mamie Clark studied the psychological impact of segregation and testified with their findings in the desegregation case Brown v.
Board of Education Positive psychology is the study of factors which contribute to human happiness and well-being, focusing more on people who are currently healthy. In , Clinical Psychological Review published a special issue devoted to positive psychological interventions, such as gratitude journaling and the physical expression of gratitude. Positive psychological interventions have been limited in scope, but their effects are thought to be superior to that of placebos , especially with regard to helping people with body image problems. Quantitative psychological research lends itself to the statistical testing of hypotheses.
Although the field makes abundant use of randomized and controlled experiments in laboratory settings, such research can only assess a limited range of short-term phenomena. Thus, psychologists also rely on creative statistical methods to glean knowledge from clinical trials and population data. The measurement and operationalization of important constructs is an essential part of these research designs. A true experiment with random allocation of subjects to conditions allows researchers to make strong inferences about causal relationships.
In an experiment, the researcher alters parameters of influence, called independent variables , and measures resulting changes of interest, called dependent variables. Prototypical experimental research is conducted in a laboratory with a carefully controlled environment. Repeated-measures experiments are those which take place through intervention on multiple occasions. In research on the effectiveness of psychotherapy , experimenters often compare a given treatment with placebo treatments, or compare different treatments against each other. Treatment type is the independent variable.
The dependent variables are outcomes, ideally assessed in several ways by different professionals.
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Quasi-experimental design refers especially to situations precluding random assignment to different conditions. Researchers can use common sense to consider how much the nonrandom assignment threatens the study's validity. Psychologists will compare the achievement of children attending phonics and whole language classes. Experimental researchers typically use a statistical hypothesis testing model which involves making predictions before conducting the experiment, then assessing how well the data supports the predictions. These predictions may originate from a more abstract scientific hypothesis about how the phenomenon under study actually works.
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Analysis of variance ANOVA statistical techniques are used to distinguish unique results of the experiment from the null hypothesis that variations result from random fluctuations in data. Statistical surveys are used in psychology for measuring attitudes and traits, monitoring changes in mood, checking the validity of experimental manipulations, and for other psychological topics. Most commonly, psychologists use paper-and-pencil surveys. However, surveys are also conducted over the phone or through e-mail. Web-based surveys are increasingly used to conveniently reach many subjects. Neuropsychological tests , such as the Wechsler scales and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test , are mostly questionnaires or simple tasks used which assess a specific type of mental function in the respondent.
These can be used in experiments, as in the case of lesion experiments evaluating the results of damage to a specific part of the brain. Observational studies analyze uncontrolled data in search of correlations; multivariate statistics are typically used to interpret the more complex situation. Cross-sectional observational studies use data from a single point in time, whereas longitudinal studies are used to study trends across the life span. Longitudinal studies track the same people, and therefore detect more individual, rather than cultural, differences. However, they suffer from lack of controls and from confounding factors such as selective attrition the bias introduced when a certain type of subject disproportionately leaves a study.
Exploratory data analysis refers to a variety of practices which researchers can use to visualize and analyze existing sets of data. In Peirce's three modes of inference , exploratory data analysis corresponds to abduction , or hypothesis formation. A classic and popular tool used to relate mental and neural activity is the electroencephalogram EEG , a technique using amplified electrodes on a person's scalp to measure voltage changes in different parts of the brain.
Hans Berger , the first researcher to use EEG on an unopened skull, quickly found that brains exhibit signature " brain waves ": electric oscillations which correspond to different states of consciousness. Researchers subsequently refined statistical methods for synthesizing the electrode data, and identified unique brain wave patterns such as the delta wave observed during non-REM sleep.
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Newer functional neuroimaging techniques include functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography , both of which track the flow of blood through the brain. These technologies provide more localized information about activity in the brain and create representations of the brain with widespread appeal.
They also provide insight which avoids the classic problems of subjective self-reporting. It remains challenging to draw hard conclusions about where in the brain specific thoughts originate—or even how usefully such localization corresponds with reality. However, neuroimaging has delivered unmistakable results showing the existence of correlations between mind and brain. Some of these draw on a systemic neural network model rather than a localized function model. Psychiatric interventions such as transcranial magnetic stimulation and drugs also provide information about brain—mind interactions.
Psychopharmacology is the study of drug-induced mental effects. Computational modeling is a tool used in mathematical psychology and cognitive psychology to simulate behavior. Since modern computers process information quickly, simulations can be run in a short time, allowing for high statistical power. Modeling also allows psychologists to visualize hypotheses about the functional organization of mental events that couldn't be directly observed in a human.
Computational neuroscience uses mathematical models to simulate the brain. Another method is symbolic modeling, which represents many mental objects using variables and rules. Other types of modeling include dynamic systems and stochastic modeling. Animal experiments aid in investigating many aspects of human psychology, including perception, emotion, learning, memory, and thought, to name a few. In the s, Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov famously used dogs to demonstrate classical conditioning. Non-human primates , cats, dogs, pigeons, rats , and other rodents are often used in psychological experiments.
Ideally, controlled experiments introduce only one independent variable at a time, in order to ascertain its unique effects upon dependent variables. These conditions are approximated best in laboratory settings. In contrast, human environments and genetic backgrounds vary so widely, and depend upon so many factors, that it is difficult to control important variables for human subjects. There are pitfalls in generalizing findings from animal studies to humans through animal models.
Comparative psychology refers to the scientific study of the behavior and mental processes of non-human animals, especially as these relate to the phylogenetic history, adaptive significance, and development of behavior. Research in this area explores the behavior of many species, from insects to primates. It is closely related to other disciplines that study animal behavior such as ethology.
Research designed to answer questions about the current state of affairs such as the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of individuals is known as descriptive research. Descriptive research can be qualitative or quantitative in orientation. Qualitative research is descriptive research that is focused on observing and describing events as they occur, with the goal of capturing all of the richness of everyday behavior and with the hope of discovering and understanding phenomena that might have been missed if only more cursory examinations have been made.
Qualitative psychological research methods include interviews , first-hand observation, and participant observation. Creswell identifies five main possibilities for qualitative research, including narrative, phenomenology , ethnography , case study , and grounded theory. Qualitative researchers  sometimes aim to enrich interpretations or critiques of symbols , subjective experiences, or social structures. Sometimes hermeneutic and critical aims can give rise to quantitative research, as in Erich Fromm 's study of Nazi voting [ citation needed ] or Stanley Milgram 's studies of obedience to authority.
Just as Jane Goodall studied chimpanzee social and family life by careful observation of chimpanzee behavior in the field, psychologists conduct naturalistic observation of ongoing human social, professional, and family life. Sometimes the participants are aware they are being observed, and other times the participants do not know they are being observed. Strict ethical guidelines must be followed when covert observation is being carried out.
In both the public and private sectors, stakeholders often want to know whether the programs they are funding, implementing, voting for, receiving or objecting to are producing the intended effect. While program evaluation first focuses around this definition, important considerations often include how much the program costs per participant, how the program could be improved, whether the program is worthwhile, whether there are better alternatives, if there are unintended outcomes, and whether the program goals are appropriate and useful.
The field of metascience has revealed significant problems with the methodology of psychological research. Psychological research suffers from high bias,  low reproducibility ,  and widespread misuse use of statistics. Fanelli argues that this is because researchers in "softer" sciences have fewer constraints to their conscious and unconscious biases. Over the subsequent few years, a replication crisis in psychology was identified, where it was publicly noted that many notable findings in the field had not been replicated and with some researchers being accused of outright fraud in their results.
Focus on the replication crisis has led to other renewed efforts in the discipline to re-test important findings,   and in response to concerns about publication bias and p -hacking , more than psychology journals have adopted result-blind peer review where studies are accepted not on the basis of their findings and after the studies are completed, but before the studies are conducted and upon the basis of the methodological rigor of their experimental designs and the theoretical justifications for their statistical analysis techniques before data collection or analysis is done.
Some critics view statistical hypothesis testing as misplaced. Psychologist and statistician Jacob Cohen wrote in that psychologists routinely confuse statistical significance with practical importance, enthusiastically reporting great certainty in unimportant facts. He complained that psychologists had no basis for assuming psychological processes to be universal and generalizing research findings to the rest of the global population. In , Henrich, Heine, and Norenzayan reported a systemic bias in conducting psychology studies with participants from "WEIRD" western , educated, industrialized, rich and democratic societies.
Arnett , Altmaier and Hall , and Morgan-Consoli et al. Kurtis, Adams, Grabe, and Else-Quest describe a transnational feminist psychology also called transnational psychology that applies transnational feminist lenses to the field of psychology to study, understand, and address the impact of colonization, imperialism, and globalization. In order to counter the Western bias in the field of psychology, Kurtis and Adams suggested that people in the non-Western, "Majority World" areas where the majority of the world's population lives , be viewed as resources for revising traditional psychological science.
They proposed applying the principles of transnational feminism , developed through interdisciplinary work in postcolonial and feminist studies, and using a context-sensitive cultural psychology lens to reconsider, de-naturalize, and de-universalize psychological science. Some observers perceive a gap between scientific theory and its application—in particular, the application of unsupported or unsound clinical practices. Ethical standards in the discipline have changed over time. Some famous past studies are today considered unethical and in violation of established codes the Canadian Code of Conduct for Research Involving Humans, and the Belmont Report.
The most important contemporary standards are informed and voluntary consent. Later, most countries and scientific journals adopted the Declaration of Helsinki. All of these measures encouraged researchers to obtain informed consent from human participants in experimental studies. A number of influential studies led to the establishment of this rule; such studies included the MIT and Fernald School radioisotope studies, the Thalidomide tragedy , the Willowbrook hepatitis study, and Stanley Milgram 's studies of obedience to authority.
University psychology departments have ethics committees dedicated to the rights and well-being of research subjects. Researchers in psychology must gain approval of their research projects before conducting any experiment to protect the interests of human participants and laboratory animals. This code has guided the formation of licensing laws in most American states. It has changed multiple times over the decades since its adoption.
In , the APA revised its policies on advertising and referral fees to negotiate the end of an investigation by the Federal Trade Commission. The incarnation was the first to distinguish between "aspirational" ethical standards and "enforceable" ones. Some of the ethical issues considered most important are the requirement to practice only within the area of competence, to maintain confidentiality with the patients, and to avoid sexual relations with them. Another important principle is informed consent , the idea that a patient or research subject must understand and freely choose a procedure they are undergoing.
Current ethical guidelines state that using non-human animals for scientific purposes is only acceptable when the harm physical or psychological done to animals is outweighed by the benefits of the research. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Phycology , Physiology , or Psychiatry. Study of mental functions and behaviours. Basic types. Applied psychology. Main article: History of psychology. See also: List of psychology organizations. Play media. Main article: Social psychology.