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The rest of the paper offers three vignettes, examining the production and reproduction of national stereotypes and the creation of supranational ones in three instances. These case studies pertain to three cultural artefacts commissioned by EU institutions. The first is Entropa, an art installation commissioned by the Czech presidency of the Council at the occasion of the first Czech presidency in , and the other two are videos commissioned by the European Commission in for EUtube, its channel on social media platform YouTube.

They all attempted to use stereotypes humorously to promote European identification, but with variegated results. The humorous use of stereotypes proves to be a difficult art — especially for official institutions — and generates uncertain returns. In these geopolitical representations, and the geographical imaginations from which they derive, stereotypes are important elements.

Geographical imaginations, i. They express specific configurations of the nexus between power and space, between geography and politics, underlining how power regardless of the exact definition and understanding of power one uses comes into being through spatial practices, how space can be an instrument of power but at the same time structures power relations, while it is in turn shaped by the outcome of these power relations. Therefore they enable individuals and groups to draw conclusions for their own strategic behaviour how to address danger and to seize opportunities. Moreover how we react, the options that are considered and the decision that are made will depend of our perception of the protagonists as friends or foes, as rational or irrational actors , of their motivations as legitimate or illegitimate claims and of their inclinations towards compromises as rational or irrational actors.

Last but not least these discourses also shape who we are and our responsibilities. Therefore stereotypes severely determine both which issues are on the political agenda or which remain obscured, which viewpoints are heard and which voices remain silenced, and which solutions are seen as reasonable and which are deemed unrealistic. It seems to have been used metaphorically as a group image that is reproduced without change from the mid-nineteenth century, but it is the American journalist Walter Lippmann who introduced the term in its modern meaning in political and social sciences in the early s.

He uses it in his seminal book Public Opinion in which he demonstrated the importance of such perceptions in war and politics Lippmann Stereotyping has been widely studied in social psychology although mostly at the individual level, regarding identification processes. Stereotypes affect the boundary making between groups and intergroup relations. They also affect individual trajectories as stereotypes can be used in an essentializing manner, obscuring individual characteristics with the alleged characteristics of the group to which one is supposed to belong.

In the humanities there has been a widespread interest in imagology and national characters but the study of national stereotypes has often been centred on the individual and her or his psychological and cognitive needs for generalization and classification to handle the world in which she or he functions. Stereotypes are functional, often self-serving, fostering national cohesion, making sense of the rest of the world through simplification, classification, labelling, othering and the reproduction of prejudice.

They contribute to the production and reproduction of collective identities, through both self-identification and ascribed identities. Stereotypes can be used in chauvinistic narratives to glorify alleged qualities of the own group or to belittle others because of their alleged deficiencies. Stereotypes need not to be negative though, but negative ones are definitively problematic because they are deployed to justify prejudice, negative discrimination and exclusion, and to naturalize such attitudes and their outcomes, especially their negative effects on others.

Boria for example examines how a shared stereotype of the Turk informs different geopolitical representations of Turkey in Italian culture and politics through different instrumentalisations of the same stereotype. He analyses past differences between Rome and Venice and contemporary ones between the Berlusconi government and the Northern League, but also other actors like the Vatican, industrialists and tour operators.

Similarly, Klaus Dodds had examined how the spectre of Balkanism stereotypes about the Balkans informs two James Bond movies, while contesting the then new subordinate role of the United Kingdom in the Cold War geopolitical order. In a very recent article Raffaella Coletti shows how the American television series The Good Wife combine the treatment of new societal themes and progressive attitudes in these domains, with the circulation of a very traditional and stereotyped representations of the world order, including traditional stereotypes about foreign characters, nations and places China more notably.

These can be well established— such as national communities — or emerging ones - such as supranational communities. In all cases these identities are contested and the use of stereotypes is part of the negotiation of the meanings of these group identities. Stereotypes are often used to communicate information, as truthful representations of the reality, but in this paper I would like to focus on a specific deployment of stereotypes, namely the purposive use of stereotypes tongue-in-cheek — that is: as stereotypes.

For this reason, let us first turn to the literature dealing with the role of humour in geopolitical representations. In his words. Studying stand-up comedian and ventriloquist Jeff Dunham and his puppet Achmed the dead terrorist, Purcell, Brown and Gokmen offer disposition theory to situate humour in the context of its original production and its circulation in wider networks. They argue that the many stereotypes the stand-up comedian uses, reinforce popular representations and prejudices about Muslims, but at the same time his show humanizes the terrorist.

Thorogood has recently contribute to this emerging debate on satire and geopolitics with an analysis of vulgarity and the body grotesque in South Park, the popular weekly cartoon series, which has generated many controversies since its inception in this is also a Comedy Central production. He discusses the use of stereotypes in the cartoons, but stresses the incoherence of the convened representations. They identify three possibilities for urban citizenship during that event: complaint, protest and parody. Mocking the powerful has been widely used indeed by grassroots movements think of Otpor in Serbia in the s, Provo in the Netherlands in the s to name only a few very successful ones.

This last example is one of the few instance where humour is actually conceived as a tool for those in power to mobilize citizens and raise popular support, to win the hearts and minds of the public ie a tool of public diplomacy. It is culturally and spatially embedded, in other words it is not universally shared and understood. It has many functions and many genres and nuances. It is beyond the scope of this paper to distinguish between these many categories and their uses. Charaudeau attempts to present categories to differentiate between humour, irony, satire, parody, sarcasm, etc… and between different dynamics, different situations of enunciation the relation between the locator, the addressee and the target , and different themes and between linguistic and discursive processes.

Without attempting to use his classification, it is important to stress the wide diversity of humourous interventions. This paper does not consider humour meant to elicit laughter, but rather a more subtle form of humour in which a reference to stereotypes — with a certain irony — is meant at foregrounding shared experiences and establishing the sense of a shared supranational identity. Likewise in the humanities and the social sciences other approaches are also centred on the social production of identities and representations. More over stereotypes have been deployed in place and nation branding efforts, mostly positive ones but also negative ones as Cho demonstrated about North Korea in a recent special issue of Geopolitics on nation branding.

In all these studies, the veracity of the stereotypes is not so important; the aim is to research how they come about, how they are deployed. Nonetheless the very questioning of their origin and uses should remind us that these stereotypes should not be taken at face value and never be essentialized, but that they are the results of social relations and they are subject to change. In all three cases, there is some critical distance involved, not necessarily meaning that the makers are critical of those holding political power as in satirical news or in cartoons but that they are critical of the established and taken-for-granted geopolitical status quo and the essentialising assertion of national states, the national identities.

The intended effect on geopolitical relations is allegedly the legitimizing of further European integration. In this section I examine three recent European examples of how stereotypes both national and supranational have been deployed in the representation of the European Union and European integration. All three use stereotypes tongue-in-cheek but with variegated effects. The first two generated much outrage about their stereotyping, by contrast the third one did not. A closer reading of these stereotyping might help us understand how stereotypes interact with geopolitical representations and when they are likely to generate consensus or to fuel antagonisms.

This was a particularly important symbolic moment, since this was the first time the Czech Republic was president since its accession in The artist prepared an exhibition under the title Entropa: Stereotypes are barriers to be demolished see also press release of the Czech Presidency of the Council of the EU on 12 January At the opening of the exhibition some of the works caused much commotion and even outrage among civil servants, diplomats, politicians, and the general public in certain Member States and led eventually to formal complains.

The stereotypes were even less acceptable now that they were not self-inflicted caricatures but qualities ascribed from the outside. There were even diplomatic incidents and they escalated in the case of Bulgaria. Eventually the piece for Bulgaria an ensemble of squad toilets labelled Turkish toilets was covered at the demand of the Bulgarian government or veiled as McLane phrases it.

The most important feature of the artwork is the way each country is represented in the kit. The booklet presents sketches of the pieces of the installation that sometimes differ slightly from the real 3D sculpture. It uses flags and national colours. Similarly the catalogue is trilingual using Czech, English and French, only three of the official languages of the EU: the language of the Member State holding the presidency this time Czech , and English and French as main working languages of the Commission, but not German, although this language is generally included in the communication strategy of the successive presidencies.

They surely reflect ongoing political debates, especially regarding European integration, but also more traditional stereotypes and more individual experiences. The description of the countries does not reveal a single logic: some entries comments on the relations of the Member State with the EU UK , others refer to iconic landmarks, national characteristics and folkloric prejudice Dracula for Romania, IKEA for Sweden, the Catholic Church for Poland, football for Italy… , some refer to domestic political economic or cultural developments Czech Republic, France, Spain, the Netherlands.

Moreover the kit as a whole suggests Europe is still to be put together, that some pieces are missing and that the result is likely to be deceiving like the plastic model often deceived and ended up unfinished or poorly glued in a corner of the room. Alexandr Vondra, the deputy prime minister for European Affairs, was quoted in The Guardian at the opening, stressing how the art work was intended as a comment on the EU, not on national stereotypes:. I am confident in Europe's open mind and capacity to appreciate such a project. The British public was reported rather amused of being portrayed as absent, but that was seen as rather benevolent by former Eastern Europeans compared to being portrayed as a squad toilet Bulgaria or a sausage wrapped in the colours of the flag of the neighbours Slovakia.

Similarly the team of imaginary artists was sometimes called a joke, but more often a hoax, a fiction, a mystification, a falsification, even a forgery Zigelyte when moving east. The controversy also pertained to the role of art and political patronage, including the question whether the artist has committed fraud and should give the money back because he did not hire artists in the 27 member states as he claimed he did.

The installation was removed earlier than planned from the Justus Lipsius building and transported to Prague and later to the Techmania Science Centre in Pilsen and its presence — also controversial in local politics — was allegedly to have been an asset for the city to win the title of European Capital City of Culture. Both were posted online in early Both aimed at communicating the important of further integration and enlargement of the EU. These short videos generally about 1 minute target younger Europeans using social media, they feel like advertising, and rely essentially on the visual message, with little spoken or written text — in English as the language of wider communication.

Although stereotypes are surely more often than not invoked implicitly or explicitly in this short vignettes on European politics and society, these two videos are particularly instructive. The first caused a stir about its stereotyping as Entropa , the other did not. It was chosen among a huge collection of videos because it is a video that uses national stereotyping and was downloaded very often.

It ranks fourth on EUtube 11 with over 1 million downloads. The most popular were Film lovers will love this with about 9,5 million views and Romanticism is still alive in Europe with over 1,25 million views, two videos about the European film sector featuring sex scenes, respectively romantic scenes from famous European movies and circulating stereotypes about sex and romantic love in European popular culture unspecified nationally. Number 3 Chemical Party — Marie Curie. All three uses stereotyping, but not national ones. As most videos produced for YouTube for the European Commission.

It is a clearly staged scene with no text at all until the final message in English. The addressees are young watchers using social media. The clip was removed from EUtube after a few hours because it was perceived as prejudiced, racist and imperialist. The clip had already been widely shared and can still be viewed on a large number of unofficial sites. It portrayed Europe as a young lady in yellow, looking a bit like The Bride Uma Thurman the heroin of the American movie Kill Bill by Quentin Tarantino 13 and fighting three non-white men. Connoisseurs can tell that the three men represents three martial arts: kung fu, kalaripayattu and capoeira.

The Basque language is completely unrelated to the French language and to any other language in the world; it is spoken in an area that straddles the border between the southwest of France and the north of Spain. Many of these languages have enthusiastic advocates; however, the real importance of local languages remains subject to debate.

The worst cliches about the French that really need to be dropped - The Local

In April , the Minister of Education, Jack Lang , admitted formally that for more than two centuries, the political powers of the French government had repressed regional languages. He announced that bilingual education would, for the first time, be recognised, and bilingual teachers recruited in French public schools to support teaching these other languages. In French schools, pupils are expected to learn at least two foreign languages, the first of which is typically German or English.

A revision of the French constitution creating official recognition of regional languages was implemented by the Parliament in Congress at Versailles in July France is a secular country where freedom of thought and of religion is preserved, by virtue of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.

France guarantees freedom of religion as a constitutional right, and the government generally respects this right in practice. A long history of violent conflict between groups led the state to break its ties to the established Catholic Church early in the last century, which previously had been the state religion. The government adopted a strong commitment to maintaining a totally secular public sector. Long the established state religion, the Roman Catholic Church has historically played a significant role in French culture and in French life. Kings were considered head of the church and state.

Most French people are Roman Catholic Christians; [7] however, many of them are secular but still place high value on Catholicism. The Roman Catholic faith is no longer considered the state religion , as it was before the Revolution and throughout the various, non-republican regimes of the 19th century the Restoration , the July Monarchy and the Second Empire.

This major reform emphazised the Laicist and anti-clericalist mood of French Radical Republicans in this period. At the beginning of the 20th century, France was a largely rural country with conservative Catholic mores, but in the hundred years since then, the countryside has become depopulated as people have become urbanized. The urban populations have become more secular. Some princes joined the reform movement. But the national monarchy felt threatened by people who wanted to leave the established state religion.

Protestants were discriminated against and suppressed. On August 24, , the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre took place in Paris and the French Wars of Religion are considered to have begun. Henri de Navarre became king after converting to Catholicism in Thousands of Protestant Huguenots emigrated from France for their safety and to gain religious freedom, generally going to Protestant nations such as the Netherlands, England, South Africa , and the North American colonies. It is concentrated in the metropolitan areas of Paris , Marseille and Strasbourg. The history of the Jews in France dates back over 2, years.

In the early Middle Ages , France was a center of Jewish learning, but persecution increased as the Middle Ages wore on. France was the first country in Europe to emancipate its Jewish population during the French Revolution , but despite legal equality anti-Semitism remained an issue, as illustrated in the Dreyfus affair of the late 19th century. Despite the death of a quarter of all French Jews during the Holocaust , France currently has the largest Jewish population in Europe.

Jewish religious affiliations range from the ultra-Orthodox Haredi communities to the large segment of Jews who are secular and identify culturally as Jews. Islam is the third-largest faith in France in the early 21st century. Arabs from North Africa started to settle in France.

In the early 21st century, France had the largest Muslim population in percentage of any Western European country. This is a result of immigration and permanent family settlement in France, from the s on, of groups from, principally, former French colonies in North Africa Algeria , Morocco , Tunisia , and, to a lesser extent, other areas such as Turkey and West Africa.

Buddhism is widely reported to be the fifth largest religion in France, after Christianity , atheism , Islam , and Judaism. France has over two hundred Buddhist meditation centers, including about twenty sizable retreat centers in rural areas. The Buddhist population mainly consists of Chinese and Vietnamese immigrants, with a substantial minority of native French converts and "sympathizers".

The rising popularity of Buddhism in France has been the subject of considerable discussion in the French media and academy in recent years. France created in the first French parliamentary commission on cult activities which led to a report registering a number of cults considered as dangerous. Supporters of such movements have criticized the report on the grounds of the respect of religious freedom.

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Proponents of the measure contend that only dangerous cults have been listed as such, and state secularism ensures religious freedom in France. Modern France is the result of centuries of nation building and the acquisition and incorporation of a number of historical provinces and overseas colonies into its geographical and political structure. These regions all evolved with their own specific cultural and linguistic traditions in fashion , religious observance , regional language and accent , family structure, cuisine , leisure activities, industry , and including the simple way to pour wine, etc.

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The evolution of the French state and culture, from the Renaissance up to this day, has however promoted a centralization of politics , media and cultural production in and around Paris and, to a lesser extent, around the other major urban centers , and the industrialization of the country in the 20th century has led to a massive move of French people from the countryside to urban areas. Policies enacted by the French Third Republic also encouraged this displacement through mandatory military service, a centralized national educational system, and suppression of regional languages.

While government policy and public debate in France in recent years has returned to a valorization of regional differences and a call for decentralization of certain aspects of the public sphere sometimes with ethnic, racial or reactionary overtones , the history of regional displacement and the nature of the modern urban environment and of mass media and culture have made the preservation of a regional "sense of place or culture" in today's France extremely difficult. These names are also used by the French in their self-identification of family origin. There are huge differences in life style, socioeconomic status and world view between Paris and the provinces.

The French often use the expression "la France profonde " "Deep France", similar to " heartland " to designate the profoundly "French" aspects of provincial towns, village life and rural agricultural culture, which escape the hegemony of Paris. Another expression, " terroir " is a French term originally used for wine and coffee to denote the special characteristics that geography bestowed upon these products. It can be very loosely translated as "a sense of place" which is embodied in certain qualities, and the sum of the effects that the local environment especially the "soil" has had on the growth of the product.

The use of the term has since been generalized to talk about many cultural products. There also exists a number of " overseas collectivities " and " overseas territories ". For a full discussion, see administrative divisions of France. Since , following the French government 's policy of decentralisation , overseas departments have elected regional councils with powers similar to those of the regions of metropolitan France.

As a result of a constitutional revision which occurred in , these regions are now to be called overseas regions. These overseas departments have the same political status as metropolitan departments and are integral parts of France, similar to the way in which Hawaii is a state and an integral part of the United States , yet they also have specific cultural and linguistic traditions which set them apart.

Certain elements of overseas culture have also been introduced to metropolitan culture as, for example, the musical form the biguine. Industrialization, immigration and urbanization in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries have also created new socioeconomic regional communities in France, both urban like Paris , Lyon , Villeurbanne , Lille , Marseille , etc. Paris has traditionally been associated with alternative, artistic or intellectual subcultures, many of which involved foreigners. There are gay and lesbian communities in the cities, particularly in the Paris metropolitan area such as in Le Marais district of the capital.

Although homosexuality is perhaps not as well tolerated in France as in Spain , Scandinavia , and the Benelux nations, surveys of the French public reveal a considerable shift in attitudes comparable to other Western European nations. Growing out of the values of the Catholic Church and rural communities, the basic unit of French society was traditionally held to be the family. Since the s, marriages have decreased and divorces have increased in France, and divorce law and legal family status have evolved to reflect these social changes. Most significantly, from to , single parent families have increased from 3.

Their analysis indicates that "one in three dwellings are occupied by a person living alone; one in four dwellings are occupied by a childless couple.. It brings rights and responsibilities, but less so than marriage. From a legal standpoint, a PACS is a "contract" drawn up between the two individuals, which is stamped and registered by the clerk of the court. Individuals who have registered a PACS are still considered "single" with regard to family status for some purposes, while they are increasingly considered in the same way as married couples are for other purposes.

While it was pushed by the government of Prime Minister Lionel Jospin in , it was also opposed, mostly by people on the right-wing who support traditionalist family values and who argued that PACS and the recognition of homosexual unions would be disastrous for French society.

As of [update] , same-sex marriage is legally recognized in France. Hollande was elected in May and his government proposed the law known as "Mariage pour tous" "marriage for all" to the parliament in November The law was passed in April and validated by the Conseil constitutionnel the constitutional council, tasked with insuring that the new laws passed do not contradict the French constitution in May The first French same-sex marriage took place on May 29, in Montpellier.

The French state has traditionally played an important role in promoting and supporting culture through the educational, linguistic, cultural and economic policies of the government and through its promotion of national identity.

Because of the closeness of this relationship, cultural changes in France are often linked to, or produce, political crisis. The relationship between the French state and culture is an old one. At times, French state policies have sought to unify the country around certain cultural norms, while at other times they have promoted regional differences within a heterogeneous French identity. The unifying effect was particularly true of the "radical period"" of the French Third Republic which fought regionalisms including regional languages , supported anti-clericalism and a strict separation of church from state including education and actively promoted national identity, thus converting as the historian Eugen Weber has put it a "country of peasants into a nation of Frenchmen".

The Vichy Regime , on the other hand, promoted regional "folk" traditions. The cultural policies of the current French Fifth Republic have been varied, but a consensus seems to exist around the need for preservation of French regionalisms such as food and language as long as these don't undermine national identity. Meanwhile, the French state remains ambivalent over the integration into "French" culture of cultural traditions from recent immigrant groups and from foreign cultures, particularly American culture movies, music, fashion, fast food, language, etc.

There also exists a certain fear over the perceived loss of French identity and culture in the European system and under American "cultural hegemony".

1. Introduction

The French educational system is highly centralized. Primary and secondary education is predominantly public private schools also exist, in particular a strong nationwide network of primary and secondary Catholic education , while higher education has both public and private elements. France's performance in math and science at the middle school level was ranked 23 in the Trends in International Math and Science Study. Since the Jules Ferry laws of , named after the then Minister of Public Instruction, all state-funded schools, including universities, are independent from the Roman Catholic Church.

Education in these institutions is free. Non-secular institutions are allowed to organize education as well. The French educational system differs strongly from Northern-European and American systems in that it stresses the importance of partaking in a society as opposed to being responsibly independent. Secular educational policy has become critical in recent issues of French multiculturalism, as in the " affair of the Islamic headscarf ".

The Minister of Culture is in the Government of France , the cabinet member in charge of national museums and monuments; promoting and protecting the arts visual, plastic, theatrical, musical, dance, architectural, literary, televisual and cinematographic in France and abroad; and managing the national archives and regional "maisons de culture" culture centres.

To this end, he created numerous regional cultural centres throughout France and actively sponsored the arts. Malraux's artistic tastes included the modern arts and the avant-garde, but on the whole he remained conservative. The body has the task of acting as an official authority on the language; it is charged with publishing an official dictionary of the language. Anyway, France loves you very much. Are they masochist or what? When the jokes are accurate, the French love to laugh at themselves.

They have an expression: "parlez moi de moi" — "tell me about myself.

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And they believe me. Translating your book is such a challenge to me because there are a lot of puns, cultural references and strong English elements. What do you suggest I should do, as a young translator who tries to render your book into Italian culture and language? You have to think of an equivalent. It turns out the colleague meant "IT" — computing. The same goes for cultural references. I added the "not" because in this chapter Paul feels lost in London.

Similarly, some of the dialogue was hard to do. In the English version of the books, the French speak English very phonetically — "Ah yem vairy eppy to work wiz you". An English reader can understand this. But the French would have had difficulties, so I suggested changing the strategy, using correct English words, but bad grammar that the French would notice — "I very happy work with you". On the contrary, I say, the translation has to be a funny book in its own right, the text has to live.

The UK has always been a sort of "American prosthesis"….

French Women Stereotypes: French React

Actually it was Americans who started asking me to write about them. They said that they needed to be laughed at — not in the usual "American globalizing capitalist bastard" way, but more subtly, like I do with the French. Radio and TV are often the same. I asked one radio interviewer, "what would you do if George Bush means fat idiot in Romanian?

It would be nice to see how Paul West behaves in our messy country…. Da Parigi agli Usa. In Italian "Merde" also means "fucking bastards", so I decided to use the English word. What do you think about it? Merde Happens is an adaptation of the American saying "shit happens", which is their version of existentialism.

The introduction and conclusion are the result of the joint work of the authors. Parks enjoys some success in Italy and has participated in several editions of the Mantua Festival of Literature "Festivaletteratura" , one of the main cultural events in Italy dedicated to literature. Jake has lived in France for so many years that he seems to have forgotten about his language and culture, in an attempt to be more French than the French.

However, Jake does not come from a place traditionally seen as an emigration country, but he is from the United States of America. As Flamand notes, "Like the philosopher, the translator must perceive the solidarity, the interrelation among the various elements. These qualities are essential for translators to discover a text, to grasp the meaning of a particular text which resists their own analysis, and the particular reading they give of the text.

The text transcends me as a translator: it is outside of me; it exists in itself" Flamand , our translation. On the role of the translator as a mediator of ideas and emotions, see also Dussart The chapter was selected because it is particularly rich in metalinguistic references to American and British English see Algeo , and thus very testing in terms of the alleged untranslatability of diatopic varieties see Galassi ; Pavesi ; Murri Registers may be pre-theoretically defined as language varieties associated with a given situation, role, or social aspect of the speaker's experience".

Attardo In one hit found in the CORIS, brunch is described as "inventato dagli inglesi" invented by the English , whereas in 7 hits it is presented as an American tradition in one of the examples, it is even described as "americanissimo". Autogrill restaurants can also be found in railway stations and airports in Italy and abroad. The company is chaired by clothing magnate Gilberto Benetton. Algeo, J. British or American English? Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Attardo, S. Linguistic Theories of Humor. In Anolli, L. Riva, eds.

The truth behind French stereotypes, from its surly waiters to its lousy music

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The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language. Delabastita, D. Target International Journal of Translation Studies , 6 2 : Wordplay and Translation. Manchester: St. Dufays, J. In Plantin, C.

The truth behind French stereotypes, from its surly waiters to its lousy music

Dussart, A. Meta, 39 1 : Eisterhold, J. Boxer Journal of Pragmatics , 38 8 : Flamand, J. Meta, 26 4 : Fusari, S. Quaderni del CeSLiC. Galassi, G. In Baccolini, R. Gavioli, eds. Hagfors, I. Meta, 48 1 : Henry, J. La traduction des jeux de mots. Paris: Presses de la Sorbonne Nouvelle. Koller, W. Target: International Journal of Translation Studies , 7 2 : La Roche, J. Des notes sur un extrait de Babbitt". Meta , 34 1 : Labov, W. Principles of Linguistic Change, Vol.

II: Social Factors.