Unique sources provide a wealth of research topics on explorers, politicians, evangelists, journalists, and tycoons blinded by romantic nationalism or caught up in the competition for markets and converts. These monographs, manuscripts, and newspapers cover key issues of economics, world politics, and international strategy. The nineteenth century encompassed tremendous growth in maps and map making as the field of cartography gained visibility and professional standards.
Mapping of the world during this time period was driven by massive industrialization and exploration. As people ventured further from traditional population centers, a new market for reliable maps was created. This collection supports studies on the evolution of travel and transportation and spans multiple disciplines, providing insight into societal values, interests, colonialism, and exploration.
As a complement to studies of history, culture, media, and many other disciplines, this collection provides the visual evidence to support and supplement written sources through photographs of people both at work and at leisure, images of scientific research and medical practices, photographs documenting travel and exploration, portraits of people, and coverage of major events such as coronations, funerals, and wars.
Nineteenth Century Collections Online: Religion, Spirituality, Reform, and Society examines the influence of both faith and scepticism on the shaping of many aspects of society, including politics, law, economics, and social and radical reform movements. The "long" nineteenth century is an era characterized by industrial, technical, and social revolution.
With a changing society came new approaches to the study of natural history, physics, mathematics, medicine, and public health.
Boasting a wealth of curated primary sources, this collection helps researcher place essential subjects in the larger picture of historical study. Science, Technology and Medicine, - Part II expands subject coverage in Part I, gathering together periodicals and monographs from renowned sources, and providing a global view of science and technology from a critical era of scientific development. The Nineteenth Century Collections Online: Women: Transnational Networks collection covers issues of gender and class, igniting nineteenth-century debate in the context of suffrage movements, culture, immigration, health, and many other concerns.
Using a wide array of primary source documents, including serials, books, manuscripts, diaries, reports, and visuals, this collection focuses on issues at the intersection of gender and class from the late eighteenth century to the era of suffrage in the early twentieth century, all through a transnational perspective. Researchers can see the frequency of search terms within sets of content to begin identifying central themes and assessing how individuals, events, and ideas interact and develop over time.
By grouping commonly occurring themes, this tool reveals hidden connections within search terms—helping to shape research by integrating diverse content with relevant information. Search across the content of complementary primary source products in one intuitive environment, enabling innovative new research connections. This collection provides insight into the evolving life of British culture, where reading for leisure, women's rights, children's entertainment, and sports grew as publishing expanded. This resource provides students, researchers, and enthusiasts with unprecedented online access to what people were reading, how they were living, and what was influencing their lives during the Victorian era.
Brazilian and Portuguese History and Culture: The Oliveira Lima Library, Part I: Pamphlets brings together over 80, pages of pamphlets covering Brazilian and Portuguese history, politics, technology, social happenings, and culture from to the late twentieth century. With 2. This quintessential resource enhances understanding of the intersection of law and society during a pivotal era of social change. Eighteenth Century Collections Online contains , printed works comprising more than 26 million scanned facsimile pages of English-language and foreign-language titles printed in the United Kingdom between the years and With coverage beginning in and including the pivotal Crystal Palace Exhibition of in London, this collection allows users to explore key cultural and technological progress that shaped contemporary outlooks on life and reflected national identities.
Toggle Navigation. Search Thorndike Large Print. Transform the study of nineteenth century history, literature, and culture at your institution Nineteenth Century Collections Online is the result of partnerships between Gale and almost one hundred libraries to preserve and make digitally available content for academic research.
Also, ladywear was a very sensitive topic during this time, where women showing their ankles was viewed to be scandalous. It also marks the fall of the Ottoman rule of the Balkans which led to the creation of Serbia , Bulgaria , Montenegro and Romania as a result of the second Russo-Turkish War , which in itself followed the great Crimean War. The Napoleonic Wars were a series of major conflicts from to pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I , against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions , financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
The wars stemmed from the unresolved disputes associated with the French Revolution and its resultant conflict. In , he crowned himself Emperor of the French. Later efforts were less successful. In , the French invasion of Russia had massive French casualties, and was a turning point in the Napoleonic Wars.
Later that year, he escaped exile and began the Hundred Days before finally being defeated at the Battle of Waterloo and exiled to Saint Helena , an island in the South Atlantic Ocean. After Napoleon's defeat, the Congress of Vienna was held to determine new national borders. The Concert of Europe attempted to preserve this settlement was established to preserve these borders, with limited impact. Most countries in Central America and South America obtained independence from colonial overlords during the 19th century.
In , Haiti gained independence from France.
Nineteenth Century Collections Online
In Mexico , the Mexican War of Independence was a decade-long conflict that ended in Mexican independence in Due to the Napoleonic Wars, the royal family of Portugal relocated to Brazil from , leading to Brazil having a separate monarchy from Portugal. After several rebellions, by the federation had dissolved into the independent countries of Guatemala , El Salvador , Honduras , Nicaragua , and Costa Rica. In , the post-colonial nation of Gran Colombia dissolved and the nations of Colombia including modern-day Panama , Ecuador , and Venezuela took its place. The Revolutions of were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe in The revolutions were essentially democratic and liberal in nature, with the aim of removing the old monarchical structures and creating independent nation states.
The first revolution began in January in Sicily. Over 50 countries were affected, but with no coordination or cooperation among their respective revolutionaries. According to Evans and von Strandmann , some of the major contributing factors were widespread dissatisfaction with political leadership, demands for more participation in government and democracy, demands for freedom of the press, other demands made by the working class, the upsurge of nationalism, and the regrouping of established government forces.
The abolitionism movement achieved success in the 19th century.
The Atlantic slave trade was abolished in , and by the end of the century, almost every government had banned slavery. Among others Frederick Douglass , and Harriet Tubman , were two of many American Abolitionists who helped win the fight against slavery. Douglass was an articulate orator and incisive antislavery writer; while Tubman's efforts was by using a network of antislavery activists and safe houses known as the Underground Railroad. The American Civil War took place from Eleven southern states seceded from the United States , largely over concerns related to slavery.
Lincoln issued a preliminary  on September 22, warning that in all states still in rebellion Confederacy on January 1, , he would declare their slaves "then, thenceforward, and forever free. Five days after Robert E. In , the Great Bosnian uprising against Ottoman rule occurred. In , the Principality of Serbia became suzerain from the Ottoman Empire , and in , it passed a Constitution which defined its independence from the Ottoman Empire.
In , Bulgarians instigate the April Uprising against Ottoman rule. Bulgaria becomes autonomous. The Taiping Rebellion was the bloodiest conflict of the 19th century, leading to the deaths of 20 million people. Its leader, Hong Xiuquan , declared himself the younger brother of Jesus Christ and developed a new Chinese religion known as the God Worshipping Society. After proclaiming the establishment of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom in , the Taiping army conquered a large part of China, capturing Nanjing in In , after the death of Hong Xiuquan, Qing forces recaptured Nanjing and ended the rebellion.
During the Edo period , Japan largely pursued an isolationist foreign policy. Perry threatened the Japanese capital Edo with gunships, demanding that they agree to open trade. This led to the opening of trade relations between Japan and foreign countries, with the policy of Sakoku formally ended in Further reforms included the abolishment of the samurai class, rapid industrialization and modernization of government, closely following European models.
In Africa, European exploration and technology led to the colonization of almost the entire continent by New medicines such as quinine and more advanced firearms allowed European nations to conquer native populations. Motivations for the Scramble for Africa included national pride, desire for raw materials, and Christian missionary activity.
Britain seized control of Egypt to ensure control of the Suez Canal. France, Belgium, Portugal, and Germany also had substantial colonies. The Berlin Conference of — attempted to reach agreement on colonial borders in Africa, but disputes continued, both amongst European powers and in resistance by the native population.
In , diamonds were discovered in the Kimberley region of South Africa. In , gold was discovered in Transvaal. This led to colonization in Southern Africa by the British and business interests, led by Cecil Rhodes. The 19th century saw the birth of science as a profession; the term scientist was coined in by William Whewell ,  which soon replaced the older term of natural philosopher. Among the most influential ideas of the 19th century were those of Charles Darwin alongside the independent researches of Alfred Russel Wallace , who in published the book The Origin of Species , which introduced the idea of evolution by natural selection.
Another important landmark in medicine and biology were the successful efforts to prove the germ theory of disease. Following this, Louis Pasteur made the first vaccine against rabies , and also made many discoveries in the field of chemistry, including the asymmetry of crystals. In chemistry, Dmitri Mendeleev , following the atomic theory of John Dalton , created the first periodic table of elements.
Thermodynamics led to an understanding of heat and the notion of energy was defined. Other highlights include the discoveries unveiling the nature of atomic structure and matter, simultaneously with chemistry — and of new kinds of radiation. In astronomy, the planet Neptune was discovered.
In mathematics, the notion of complex numbers finally matured and led to a subsequent analytical theory; they also began the use of hypercomplex numbers. Karl Weierstrass and others carried out the arithmetization of analysis for functions of real and complex variables. It also saw rise to new progress in geometry beyond those classical theories of Euclid, after a period of nearly two thousand years. The mathematical science of logic likewise had revolutionary breakthroughs after a similarly long period of stagnation.
But the most important step in science at this time were the ideas formulated by the creators of electrical science. Their work changed the face of physics and made possible for new technology to come about: Thomas Alva Edison gave the world a practical everyday lightbulb. Nikola Tesla pioneered the induction motor , high frequency transmission of electricity, and remote control.
Other new inventions were electrical telegraphy and the telephone. On the literary front the new century opens with romanticism , a movement that spread throughout Europe in reaction to 18th-century rationalism, and it develops more or less along the lines of the Industrial Revolution, with a design to react against the dramatic changes wrought on nature by the steam engine and the railway. William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge are considered the initiators of the new school in England, while in the continent the German Sturm und Drang spreads its influence as far as Italy and Spain.
French arts had been hampered by the Napoleonic Wars but subsequently developed rapidly. Modernism began. Italian naturalist novels are especially important in that they give a social map of the new unified Italy to a people that until then had been scarcely aware of its ethnic and cultural diversity. There was a huge literary output during the 19th century. The Realism and Romanticism of the early 19th century gave way to Impressionism and Post-Impressionism in the later half of the century, with Paris being the dominant art capital of the world.
Sonata form matured during the Classical era to become the primary form of instrumental compositions throughout the 19th century. Much of the music from the 19th century was referred to as being in the Romantic style. The list includes:. Henry David Thoreau , August John L Sullivan in his prime, c. David Livingstone , left Britain for Africa in Jesse and Frank James , Geronimo , , prominent leader of the Chiricahua Apache.
Thomas Nast , c. Claude Monet 's Impression, Sunrise , , gave the name to Impressionism. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see 19th century disambiguation. Main article: Napoleonic Wars. See also: Timeline of the Napoleonic era. Main articles: Latin American wars of independence and Spanish American wars of independence. Main articles: Abolitionism and American Civil War.
Main article: Meiji Restoration. Main articles: Western imperialism in Asia and Scramble for Africa. Main articles: Romantic poetry and 19th century in literature.
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See also: History of photography , List of photojournalists , Photojournalism , and Daguerreotype. Main articles: History of painting , Western painting , and Ukiyo-e. Main articles: List of Romantic-era composers , Romantic music , and Romanticism. Main article: Timeline of the 19th century.