Feer , ; Mittelberger , Anti-German sentiment spread along with German immigration, and the nation as a whole resisted both the German bilingual schools that were established in parts of the Midwest in the 19th century and the common practise of publishing legal notices in German American newspapers. On a number of occasions the U.
Congress again rejected motions to print laws or other documents in German as well as English. In the Cherokee? Antagonism toward Germans and their language resurfaced in the Midwest in the late s and early s, and again across the country during and after World War I.
Between and most of the states dropped German from their school curricula. Conversation in public places, on trains, and over the telephone should be in the English language.
Speaking American: A History of English in the United States - Richard W. Bailey - Google книги
Let those who cannot speak or understand the English language conduct their religious worship in their home. Such attitudes had a chilling effect on language use. As many as eighteen thousand people were charged in the Midwest during and immediately following World War I with violating the English-only statutes. Crawford , The anti-German school laws were declared unconstitutional by the U. Supreme Court in Nonetheless, Americans remain troubled by foreign languages and their speakers. Despite the fact that the U.
Census showed that more than 97 percent of the people in the nation speak English Waggoner , 69 , nativist fears for the safety of English seem stronger than ever. California passed an official-English law in , a year in which a total of thirty-seven states considered official language measures. In Arizona, Colorado and Florida passed English-only laws, and votes on the issue are likely in Massachusetts, Ohio and Pennsylvania in the near future. Grammar and good taste: Reforming the American language. New Haven:Yale Univ.
Press, Crawford, James.
Bilingual education: History, politics, theory, and practice. Trenton, N. Dorpalen, Andreas. Feer, Robert A.
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New Haven: Yale Univ. Press 4, Mittelberger, Gottlieb. Journey to Pennsylvania in the year and return to Germany in the year Philadelphia: Trans. Carl T.
Eben, Shanahan, Daniel. We need a nationwide effort to encourage, enhance, and expand our students' proficiency in languages. Chronicle of Higher Education 21 May A Waggoner, Dorothy. Language minorities in the United States in the s: The evidence from the census. In Language diversity: Problem or resource? New York. American Varieties Standard American? Official American The Power of Prose.
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Bailey Richard W. Atlantic 3. When did English become American? What distinctive qualities made it American? What role have America's democratizing impulses, and its vibrantly heterogeneous speakers, played in shaping our language and separating it from the mother tongue?
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A wide-ranging account of American English, Richard Bailey's Speaking American investigates the history and continuing evolution of our language from the sixteenth century to the present. The book is organized in half-century segments around influential centers: Chesapeake Bay , Boston , Charleston , Philadelphia , New Orleans , New York , Chicago , Los Angeles , and Cyberspace present. Each of these places has added new words, new inflections, new ways of speaking to the elusive, boisterous, ever-changing linguistic experiment that is American English.
Freed from British constraints of unity and propriety, swept up in rapid social change, restless movement, and a thirst for innovation, Americans have always been eager to invent new words, from earthy frontier expressions like "catawampously" vigorously and "bung-nipper" pickpocket , to West African words introduced by slaves such as "goober" peanut and "gumbo" okra , to urban slang such as "tagging" spraying graffiti and "crew" gang.