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What culture has won from nature will not be surrendered or given up at any price. If I tire of her as a girl, she'll play the boy for me as well".
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Goethe was a freethinker who believed that one could be inwardly Christian without following any of the Christian churches, many of whose central teachings he firmly opposed, sharply distinguishing between Christ and the tenets of Christian theology, and criticizing its history as a "hodgepodge of fallacy and violence". Born into a Lutheran family, Goethe's early faith was shaken by news of such events as the Lisbon earthquake and the Seven Years' War. Goethe's preoccupation with and reverence for Spinoza are well known in the history of Western thought.
His later spiritual perspective incorporated elements of pantheism heavily influenced by Spinoza's thought ,     humanism , and various elements of Western esotericism , as seen most vividly in part 2 of Faust. Goethe was a Freemason , joining the lodge Amalia in Weimar in , and frequently alluded to Masonic themes of universal brotherhood in his work.
In old age, he explained why this was so to Eckermann:. How could I write songs of hatred when I felt no hate? And, between ourselves, I never hated the French, although I thanked God when we were rid of them. How could I, to whom the only significant things are civilization [ Kultur ] and barbarism, hate a nation which is among the most cultivated in the world, and to which I owe a great part of my own culture?
In any case this business of hatred between nations is a curious thing. You will always find it more powerful and barbarous on the lowest levels of civilization. But there exists a level at which it wholly disappears, and where one stands, so to speak, above the nations, and feels the weal or woe of a neighboring people as though it were one's own. Goethe had a great effect on the nineteenth century. In many respects, he was the originator of many ideas which later became widespread. He produced volumes of poetry, essays, criticism, a theory of colours and early work on evolution and linguistics.
He was fascinated by mineralogy , and the mineral goethite iron oxide is named after him. With these I must come to terms when I have long wandered alone; they may call me right and wrong; to them will I listen when in the process they call each other right and wrong. Goethe embodied many of the contending strands in art over the next century: his work could be lushly emotional, and rigorously formal, brief and epigrammatic , and epic. He would argue that Classicism was the means of controlling art, and that Romanticism was a sickness, even as he penned poetry rich in memorable images, and rewrote the formal rules of German poetry.
His poetry was set to music by almost every major Austrian and German composer from Mozart to Mahler , and his influence would spread to French drama and opera as well. Beethoven declared that a "Faust" Symphony would be the greatest thing for art. Liszt and Mahler both created symphonies in whole or in large part inspired by this seminal work, which would give the 19th century one of its most paradigmatic figures: Doctor Faustus. Followers of the twentieth century esotericist Rudolf Steiner built a theatre named the Goetheanum after him—where festival performances of Faust are still performed.
Goethe was also a cultural force. It was to a considerable degree due to Goethe's reputation that the city of Weimar was chosen in as the venue for the national assembly , convened to draft a new constitution for what would become known as Germany's Weimar Republic.
Goethe became a key reference for Thomas Mann in his speeches and essays defending the republic. The Federal Republic of Germany's cultural institution, the Goethe-Institut is named after him, and promotes the study of German abroad and fosters knowledge about Germany by providing information on its culture, society and politics. Goethe's influence was dramatic because he understood that there was a transition in European sensibilities, an increasing focus on sense, the indescribable, and the emotional.
This is not to say that he was emotionalistic or excessive; on the contrary, he lauded personal restraint and felt that excess was a disease: "There is nothing worse than imagination without taste". Goethe praised Francis Bacon for his advocacy of science based on experiment and his forceful revolution in thought as one of the greatest strides forward in modern science.
We conceive of the individual animal as a small world, existing for its own sake, by its own means.
Every creature is its own reason to be. All its parts have a direct effect on one another, a relationship to one another, thereby constantly renewing the circle of life; thus we are justified in considering every animal physiologically perfect. Viewed from within, no part of the animal is a useless or arbitrary product of the formative impulse as so often thought. Externally, some parts may seem useless because the inner coherence of the animal nature has given them this form without regard to outer circumstance.
Goethe's scientific and aesthetic ideas have much in common with Denis Diderot , whose work he translated and studied. His views make him, along with Adam Smith , Thomas Jefferson , and Ludwig van Beethoven , a figure in two worlds: on the one hand, devoted to the sense of taste, order, and finely crafted detail, which is the hallmark of the artistic sense of the Age of Reason and the neo-classical period of architecture ; on the other, seeking a personal, intuitive, and personalized form of expression and society, firmly supporting the idea of self-regulating and organic systems.
George Henry Lewes celebrated Goethe's revolutionary understanding of the organism. Thinkers such as Ralph Waldo Emerson would take up many similar ideas in the s. Goethe's ideas on evolution would frame the question that Darwin and Wallace would approach within the scientific paradigm. The Serbian inventor and electrical engineer Nikola Tesla was heavily influenced by Goethe's Faust , his favorite poem, and had actually memorized the entire text.
It was while reciting a certain verse that he was struck with the epiphany that would lead to the idea of the rotating magnetic field and ultimately, alternating current. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Goethe disambiguation and Gote disambiguation. Leipzig University University of Strasbourg. Sturm und Drang Weimar Classicism Romanticism in science.
Christiane Vulpius m.
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See also: Goethean science. Main article: Johann Wolfgang von Goethe bibliography. Poetry portal Philosophy portal Biography portal. Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Longman Pronunciation Dictionary 3rd ed. Pearson Longman. Retrieved 7 June The Art of Literature. The Essays of Arthur Schopenahuer. Retrieved 22 March Ernst-Rowohlt-Verlag, Berlin , pp.
Retrieved 17 July Christian Wegner , Hamburg , p. Goethes Briefe. Christian Wegner Verlag. Life of Goethe. Seemann ed. Jahrbuch der Klassik Stiftung Weimar Cambridge University Press. Daniel Munich: Deutsche Taschenbuch Verlag dtv. Schopenhauer and the Wild Years of Philosophy. Harvard University Press. New historical anthology of music by women Vol. Indiana University Press. In: Journal der practischen Heilkunde Correspondence between Schiller and Goethe, from to Vol. Sanskrit Drama in Performance.
Servant of the Muses
Motilal Banarsidass. Pips Project. Archived from the original on 6 October See also: "Ophelia's Burial". Retrieved 6 July Psychopathology 46 : — Journal of Affective Disorders : 43— The Nature Institute. Retrieved 28 August On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life 1st ed. John Murray. Barteczko and M. Jacob Anatomy and Embryology.
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Italian Journey. Robert R Heitner. Suhrkamp ed. Library of Congress. Retrieved 2 January Metamorphosis of Plants. Goethe als Gartenfreund. Bruckmann KG. Taschen, Koln. Theory of Colours, paragraph No. Archived from the original on 10 November Retrieved 26 June Goethe's Path to Creativity. Retrieved 27 April History in adult human sexual behavior with children and adolescents in Western societies Pedophilia: Biosocial Dimensions ed. Springer-Verlag New York Inc.
Servant of the Muses (Jake Conrad Mythological Mysteries, #1)
Tetz, "Mischmasch von Irrtum und Gewalt. Conversations of Goethe with Eckermann and Soret, Vol. II, pp. Venetian Epigrams. The cross symbol he drew has been variously understood as meaning Christianity, Christ, or death.
Translated from the German by W. Goethe: "For many years I did not dare look into a Latin author or at anything which evoked an image of Italy. If this happened by chance, I suffered agonies. Herder often used to say mockingly that I had learned all my Latin from Spinoza, for that was the only Latin book he had ever seen me reading.
He did not realize how carefully I had to guard myself against the classics, and that it was sheer anxiety which drove me to take refuge in the abstractions of Spinoza. He found himself in him, and so he could fix himself to him in the most beautiful way. The whole of Goethe's poetry is filled with the same spirit that is wafted toward us from the writings of Spinoza. There is no doubt whatsoever that Goethe paid undivided allegiance to Spinoza's doctrine.
At any rate, he occupied himself with it throughout his entire life; in the first part of his memoirs as well as in the last volume, recently published, he frankly acknowledged this. I don't remember now where I read that Herder once exploded peevishly at the constant preoccupation with Spinoza, 'If Goethe would only for once pick up some other Latin book than Spinoza! These cookies help us understand user behavior within our services. For example, they let us know which features and sections are most popular.