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Fracture mechanics. Materials -- Fatigue. Strength of materials. Structural analysis Engineering Structural failures -- Investigation.
Download Comprehensive Structural Integrity 10 Volume Set
The second chapter describes theories of elastic and inelastic buckling and of large strains. It introduces the important concepts of fracture toughness and toughness for linear elastic and elasticplastic materials with limited ductility. For materials that exhibit extensive plasticity, it is shown that the crack resistance description may require two or even three parameters. Fracture mechanics is one of the most valuable tools for examining the safety of cracked structures, for developing effective remedial measures, if required, and for determining their remnant useful life. All structures are designed and manufactured in such a way as to avoid, as far as possible, cracklike defects.
Such defects can, however, form during the service of the structure. The formation of defects is an evolutionary process resulting from the accumulation of damage as a result of working environment, e. This damage is usually distributed in the structure initially and only tends to localize into discrete cracks just before failure. The distributed damage can be handled in a manner similar to that of plasticity in the framework of continuum damage mechanics.
This framework is elucidated in another chapter. The remaining chapters of this volume are devoted to the mechanisms of failure in different engineering materials, ranging from concrete and steel to composites, such as metalmatrix composites, ceramic composites, functionally graded materials, and ferroelectrics.
Polymer composites are dealt with elsewhere. Each of these chapters highlights the role of microstructure of the material in its observed behavior under various working conditions. In many instances, the observed behavior has been captured through appropriate changes to the general theories described in the rst ve chapters.
Volume 3 covers Numerical and Computational Methods. Accurate stress analysis of real structures containing diffuse or localized damage is a very difcult task even in the elastic state. The task is further complicated if the material is in plastic state and if the structural geometry is complex. This task cannot be accomplished analytically in all but the simplest structures, yet it has to be performed in order to assess the integrity of the structure.
This volume addresses the computational methods for an accurate stress analysis of real structures. Thus, computational methods based on nite and boundary elements are described. Whilst the boundary element method is limited to elastic structures, methods based on the nite elements are useful for both LEFM and EPFM under static and dynamic loads, as well as the calculation of the residual stresses induced by welding.
These computational methods have been described. For structures containing diffuse damage microcracks , as opposed to discrete macrocracks, computational methods based on continuum damage mechanics have been introduced. Such methods are particularly useful for stress analysis of structures made from composites and concrete. Alternatively, methods based on mathematical programming are necessary for limit and shakedown analysis, while those based on neural networks and ltering approaches are appropriate for the inverse identication of material and system parameters from their observed responses.
This volume also introduces the latest developments in nite element techniques which avoid remeshing when analyzing one or several growing cracks in a structure. Volume 4, Cyclic Loading and Fatigue, provides a comprehensive, multidisciplinary description of the broad topic of deformation and failure due to cyclic fatigue in engineering materials and structures from all relevant viewpoints, including mechanics, modeling, application design and life prediction, microscopic mechanisms, and material class. Following a general introduction, the rst two chapters focus on the general engineering analysis and accompanying mechanistic aspects of low-cycle-fatigue failures including cyclic deformation and crack initiation and high-cycle-fatigue failures including ultra-long-life behavioralso called gigacycle fatigue.
The treatment here includes a description of the mechanisms of cyclic deformation, crack initiation and growth principally for ductile, i.
R.O. Ritchie (Author of Small Fatigue Cracks)
These last topics are treated in more complete fashion in Volumes 5, 6, and 8, respectively. Of interest here is how the fatigue behavior of ceramics and polymeric materials is, in many ways, mechanistically quite different from that in metals, yet can still be described within the same framework. Specically, by considering fatigue crack growth as a mutual consequence of intrinsic damage mechanisms ahead of a crack tip, which promote cracking, opposed by extrinsic crack-tip shielding mechanisms behind the tip, which impede it, the distinction between the fatigue behavior of ductile versus brittle materials can be described simply in terms of the relative importance of each class of mechanism intrinsic mechanisms dominating in ductile materials, whereas extrinsic mechanisms dominate in brittle materials.
The volume ends with a chapter on the application of the concepts to actual fatigue failures in service through a description of several case studies. Volume 5, Creep and High-temperature Failure, addresses the topic of high-temperature performance of materials and structures, which requires consideration of new deformation and damage modes. High-temperature operation involves time-dependent deformation known as creep,.
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The volume opens with a chapter presenting the mechanisms of creep deformation and rupture and physical models that allow us to predict these phenomena. Most structures that operate at high temperatures are also subjected to cyclic loading and quite frequently to transient and steady-state temperature gradients. Invariably, this involves crack initiation and growth and this is treated in the next two chapters, one addressing mainly how cracks are initiated under these conditions, the other mainly on crack growth under these conditions. The two chapters that follow describe the time-dependent fracture mechanics approach for predicting crack growth under creep conditions.
The rst of the two chapters focuses on basic time-dependent fracture mechanics concepts while the second focuses on experimental methods for characterizing the creep crack growth behavior. Finally, the volume is completed by chapters addressing the prediction of creep-fatigue crack growth and the assessment of remnant life in both ferritic materials and non-ferritic materials. Volume 6, Environmentally Assisted Failure, addresses fracture where an environmental component is involved. Environment can affect structural integrity in a number of ways: general corrosion, pitting corrosion, crevice corrosion, stress corrosion, and corrosion fatigue being the most obvious.
The volume opens with an introductory chapter explaining the general nature of environmentally assisted failure, the types of environments involved, and a brief description of how these may compromise structural integrity and how they interact. Although the chemical effect of the environment is often the same under both steady loading and cyclic loading, the mechanical effects may be different. Accordingly, this is treated separately by chapters addressing these mechanisms as if they were discrete. Thus, there are chapters included on stress corrosion cracking and environmentally assisted fatigue, and the latter is separated further into mechanisms in liquid environments and in gaseous ones.
Environmental degradation in nonmetallic structures is as important as in metallic ones, and chapters are included to address such degradation in reinforced concrete structures, and in polymers. Hydrogen is often treated as a special case in environmentally assisted cracking, as it can inuence structural integrity in one of two ways.
Hydrides may form in some metals, which can induce a crack to form under the inuence of a tensile stress. More commonly, hydrogen dissolves in the metal, which is embrittled particularly where hydrogen can accumulate, such as in the plastic zone at the tip of a crack or defect. Thus, two chapters are included treating hydrogen effects, one where hydride formation affects cracking, and another on hydrogen cracking in nonhydride forming alloys.
Oxygen can also have an effect, of course, especially in higher-temperature applications, and a chapter is included that addresses the interaction of creep, fatigue, and oxidation. Finally, one of the most damaging of environmental effects arises from neutron irradiation. This is different from other forms of environmental degradation, in that it simply causes embrittlement, and is neither crack forming nor does it contribute to a general reduction of the load bearing area.
But the amount of embrittlement is potentially large, and in the presence of crack-like defects that may arise due to other mechanisms, it can have severe consequences on structural integrity. The nal chapter gives a detailed account of the mechanisms of irradiation embrittlement, its measurement, and prediction. Volume 7, Practical Failure Assessment Methods, describes global codes for failure assessment of structures containing crack-like defects from the underlying philosophies, to their implementation in tness-for-purpose standards.
Biomechanical investigation into the role of the periodontal ligament in optimising orthodontic force: A finite element case study. Archives of Oral Biology , 66, Bone metabolism induced by denture insertion in positron emission tomography.
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Dental Materials , 32 3 , Fracture behavior of inlay and onlay fixed partial dentures - An in-vitro experimental and XFEM modeling study. Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials , 59, Mechanical benefits of conservative restoration for dental fissure caries.
Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials , 53, Topological design of all-ceramic dental bridges for enhancing fracture resistance. A comparative study on complete and implant retained denture Treatments - A biomechanics perspective. Journal of Biomechanics , 48 3 , Biomechanics of oral mucosa. Journal of the Royal Society Interface , 12 , Bone's responses to different designs of implant-supported fixed partial dentures.
Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology , 14 2 , Computational modeling of dynamic behaviors of human teeth. Journal of Biomechanics , 48 16 , Design for miniminzing fracture risk of all-ceramic cantilever dental bridge. Journal of Dental Research , 94 5 , PloS One , 10 7 , A periodontal ligament driven remodeling algorithm for orthodontic tooth movement.
Journal of Biomechanics , 47 7 , Applied Mechanics and Materials , , Numerical simulation of biomechanical behaviours in novel dental restorations. Role of Mechanical Stimuli in Oral Implantation. Journal of Biosciences and Medicines , 2, Bioinspired lightweight cellular materials - Understanding effects of natural variation on mechanical properties.
Materials Science and Engineering C , 33 6 , Multiscale design of surface morphological gradient for osseointegration. Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials , 20, Thermally induced fracture for core-veneered dental ceramic structures. Acta Biomaterialia , 9 9 , A comparative mechanical and bone remodelling study of all-ceramic posterior inlay and onlay fixed partial dentures. Journal of Dentistry , 40 1 , Design and fabrication of biphasic cellular materials with transport properties - A modified bidirectional evolutionary structural optimization procedure and MATLAB program.
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer , 55 , Sensitivity analysis of bi-layered ceramic dental restorations. Dental Materials , 28 2 , e6-e Computational Fracture Modelling in Bioceramic Structures. Advanced Materials Research , , Design optimization of scaffold microstructures using wall shear stress criterion towards regulated flow-induced erosion.
Journal of Biomechanical Engineering , 8 , Effects of occlusal inclination and loading on mandibular bone remodeling: a finite element study. Finite element based bone remodeling and resonance frequency analysis for osseointegration assessment of dental implants.