Guide The Key to the Great Pyramid

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The Great Pyramid of Giza in Egypt is the only one of the Seven Wonders of the World still standing, which was acknowledged when the new seven wonders of the world were introduced in I recently fulfilled a childhood dream to visit the archeological site, as well as many of Egypt's other pyramids, during a trip to the Middle East.

In particular with the Great Pyramid—how did they construct it to the enormous height with such accuracy and precision? By examining the pyramid through modern architectural eyes, assuming the builders had access to a reasonable level of technological skills, a certain solution suggests itself. A detailed analysis shows that such a solution is feasible and constructible, and even referred to within some ancient records. Most theories for the building of the Great Pyramid figure 1 are derived from an evolutionary view of human history whereby primitive humans developed engineering and building construction by trial and error over many millennia.

Consequently, explanations and illustrations of pyramid construction often show a large army of grunting workers hauling huge blocks of stone up large ramps. A different picture emerges when we assume biblical history. From this perspective the descendants of Noah formed the basis for all the early civilizations. Their advanced architectural forms and technology show the intelligence of these people. Examples can be found in the Middle East, China and the Americas. These descendants inherited sophisticated engineering skills, obviously sufficiently developed in the building of the Ark that survived the Flood, and the Tower of Babel afterward Genesis 6—9; For example Mizraim, who was a grandson of Noah, was the patriarch of a tribe that settled in Egypt.

In Egypt the earliest structures do exhibit experimentation, the development of craft skills and evidence of metallurgical processes.

Great pyramid -

An iron plate confirmed by chemical analysis in was found embedded in the Great Pyramid in by an assistant of explorer Colonel Vyse. Most commentators acknowledge that the Great Pyramid of Giza in Egypt, also called the Pyramid of Khufu or Cheops , demonstrates a massive increase in sophistication of design and complexity of construction.

It is also one of the most accurately aligned structures to true polar north. The reason for this earlier complexity has been difficult to explain from the traditional evolutionary perspective. The Great Pyramid is a high point in construction techniques. The Pyramid of Khafre adjacent, built later, is a close but very poor copy, and most subsequent pyramids are even more inferior. Thus pyramid construction degenerated with time rather than improved, pointing to a devolution of design and construction techniques.

It is the most measured and surveyed building in the world and has generated the most debate about its original measurements and their meaning. No evidence has been found of Egyptian hieroglyphs, idols or coffin remains in the structure. However there are some graffiti examples in some parts of the upper chambers. It is accepted by most to have been built in the 4 th Dynasty reign of Pharaoh Khufu.

The Great Pyramid currently measures m high which is the equivalent of a 46 storey building. It was the tallest structure that humans had erected until the building of the Lincoln Cathedral spire UK at m in AD over 3, years later. It is just under half the height of the Eiffel Tower m to its roof built in However, it would take exactly 6 Great Pyramids to reach the top of the current tallest building, Burj Khalifa Dubai Tower , in the Middle East, which is m high and was built in Rather than speculating on how such a great structure could have been built using primitive techniques, it is proposed how an intelligent ancient architect could design and build the structure with the technology of that era.

There are a number of technical requirements for any proposal for the building of the Great Pyramid. These include:. Many different proposals have been suggested to reach the height required.

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Most of these involve complicated ramps and do not meet the requirements listed above as they cover the critical sight survey lines. A full ramp to the top at m has a certain appeal, and such a ramp is illustrated in a model in the Egyptian Pharoanic Museum figure 2. However, a ramp to the full height would be huge in scale and impractical. It would require much more material than the pyramid itself and involve an enormous effort to build and dismantle.

It could not be built with sand or gravel as this would spread under its own weight.

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An engineered ramp of mudbrick would also be massive and not very feasible. Therefore, I have discounted the idea of a ramp to the full height. The idea of an internal spiral tunnel by French architect J. Houdin and supported by archaeologist Bob Brier is another proposal aimed at getting a ramp to the top.

It would greatly weaken the structural integrity of the pyramid due to the massive forces resulting from forming the shape.

Architecture of the Great Pyramid of Giza Concept and Construction

It would not be practical from a logistical point of view, in that it would be difficult to haul to tonne stone blocks up through such a confined passage. The rate of stone delivery would be too slow with only one path for materials movement. I propose that a two stage approach to the construction, that meets the engineering requirements listed above, successfully explains how they got to the top. The first stage involves a construction ramp to a critical level part way up.

It is proposed that the main construction ramp was on the south side of the pyramid figure 3. The reasons for this include:. Engineering restraints suggest the main ramp reached only part way up the pyramid.


From an engineering perspective, a ramp built to this level is practical and possible using simple construction materials and techniques such as battered splayed mud brick walls. This technique has been found at other pyramid sites but on a lesser scale. The southern ramp would need to extend m from the quarry to the pyramid, which means the maximum gradient reached at the metre level would only be of 64 m in m, figure 4. This gradient is quite acceptable for people and animals to climb. Many modern-day car ramps are constructed to this gradient.

A ramp that allows for continual adjustment in height for each level is required as the work proceeds. Maintaining a continual rate of delivery of people and materials is a challenge. Given the logistics, a four lane carriageway would be ideal to ensure this. More lanes could be provided at the lower levels. The design allows delivery of materials utilizing one side of the ramp while the other side of the ramp was being raised—then vice versa.

Thus a continual flow of materials and workers can occur while the ramp structure is raised in tandem. The building stones could be mounted on metal sleds at the quarry and then carted by animals the whole distance up the ramp, onto the stone platform and close to the required position. This ramp could be made with materials readily available in the area. Mud bricks made on the banks of the Nile adjacent would be the bulk of the material. On the sides of the ramp they could be battered sloped at a nominal 60 degrees to give stability.

Decoding The Great Pyramid - NOVA Documentary 2019

The volume as proposed is approximately , m 3. Any large building site needs a large working area. The delivery of materials and amenities for workers must be near the works in progress. With the ramp proposal it allows a very large flat area at the top at each stage to give this function figure 5. As it rises, this platform narrows so it is important to establish the required platform for the second stage of the proposal, which I will discuss later.

Along with the papyrus diary of the overseer, known as Merer, the archaeologists uncovered a ceremonial boat and a system of waterworks. The ancient text described how Merer's team dug huge canals to channel the water of the Nile to the pyramid. Archaeologist Mark Lehner, who has devoted his career to uncovering who built the pyramids , explained how his team had uncovered a waterway hidden beneath the Giza plateau.

It is believed that the stones which went into the pyramid were delivered to this area.