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Chases are usually initiated by one hyena and, with the exception of cows with calves, there is little active defence from the wildebeest herd. Wildebeest will sometimes attempt to escape hyenas by taking to water although, in such cases, the hyenas almost invariably catch them. Typical zebra hunting groups consist of 10—25 hyenas, [85] though there is one record of a hyena killing an adult zebra unaided. Though hyenas may harass the stallion, they usually only concentrate on the herd and attempt to dodge the stallion's assaults.

Unlike stallions, mares typically only react aggressively to hyenas when their foals are threatened. Unlike wildebeest, zebras rarely take to water when escaping hyenas. Female gazelles do not defend their fawns, though they may attempt to distract hyenas by feigning weakness. The spotted hyena is the most carnivorous member of the Hyaenidae.

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The spotted hyena is very efficient at eating its prey; not only is it able to splinter and eat the largest ungulate bones, it is also able to digest them completely. Spotted hyenas can digest all organic components in bones, not just the marrow. Any inorganic material is excreted with the faeces, which consist almost entirely of a white powder with few hairs. They react to alighting vultures more readily than other African carnivores, and are more likely to stay in the vicinity of lion kills or human settlements. Wildebeest are the most commonly taken medium-sized ungulate prey item in both Ngorongoro and the Serengeti, with zebra and Thomson's gazelles coming close behind.

Springbok and kudu are the main prey in Namibia 's Etosha National Park , and springbok in the Namib. In the southern Kalahari , gemsbok , wildebeest and springbok are the principal prey. In Chobe , the spotted hyena's primary prey consists of migratory zebra and resident impala. Bushbuck , suni and buffalo are the dominant prey items in the Aberdare Mountains , while Grant's gazelle , gerenuk , sheep , goats and cattle are likely preyed upon in northern Kenya.

In west Africa, the spotted hyena is primarily a scavenger who will occasionally attack domestic stock and medium-size antelopes in some areas. In Cameroon , it is common for spotted hyenas to feed on small antelopes like kob , but may also scavenge on reedbuck , kongoni , buffalo, giraffe, African elephant , topi and roan antelope carcasses. Records indicate that spotted hyenas in Malawi feed on medium to large-sized ungulates such as waterbuck and impala. In Tanzania's Selous Game Reserve , spotted hyenas primarily prey on wildebeest, followed by buffalo, zebra, impala, giraffe, reedbuck and kongoni.

In Uganda , it is thought that the species primarily preys on birds and reptiles, while in Zambia it is considered a scavenger. Spotted hyenas have also been found to catch fish , tortoises , humans , black rhino , hippo calves, young African elephants, pangolins and pythons.

Jane Goodall recorded spotted hyenas attacking or savagely playing with the exterior and interior fittings of cars , and the species is thought to be responsible for eating car tyres. The fossil record indicates that the now extinct European spotted hyenas primarily fed on Przewalski's horses , Irish elk , reindeer , red deer , roe deer , fallow deer , wild boar , ibex , steppe wisent , aurochs , and woolly rhinoceros. Spotted hyenas are thought to be responsible for the dis-articulation and destruction of some cave bear skeletons.

Such large carcasses were an optimal food resource for hyenas, especially at the end of winter, when food was scarce. A single spotted hyena can eat at least When feeding on an intact carcass, spotted hyenas will first consume the meat around the loins and anal region, then open the abdominal cavity and pull out the soft organs. Once the stomach, its wall and contents are consumed, the hyenas will eat the lungs and abdominal and leg muscles. Once the muscles have been eaten, the carcass is disassembled and the hyenas carry off pieces to eat in peace.

Where spotted hyenas and lions occupy the same geographic area, the two species occupy the same ecological niche, and are thus in direct competition with one another. In some cases, the extent of dietary overlap can be as high as There exists a common misconception that hyenas steal kills from lions, but most often it is the other way around, [] and lions will readily steal the kills of spotted hyenas.

In the Ngorongoro Crater , it is common for lions to subsist largely on kills stolen from hyenas. Lions are quick to follow the calls of hyenas feeding, a fact demonstrated by field experiments, during which lions repeatedly approached whenever the tape-recorded calls of hyenas feeding were played. When confronted on a kill by lions, spotted hyenas will either leave or wait patiently at a distance of 30— metres until the lions have finished eating.

The two species may act aggressively toward one another even when there is no food at stake. Spotted hyenas have adapted to this pressure by frequently mobbing lions which enter their territories. Although cheetahs and leopards preferentially prey on smaller animals than those hunted by spotted hyenas, hyenas will steal their kills when the opportunity presents itself.

Cheetahs are usually easily intimidated by hyenas, and put up little resistance, [] while leopards, particularly males, may stand up to hyenas. There are records of some male leopards preying on hyenas. Spotted hyenas will follow packs of African wild dogs in order to appropriate their kills. They will typically inspect areas where wild dogs have rested and eat any food remains they find.

When approaching wild dogs at a kill, solitary hyenas will approach cautiously and attempt to take off with a piece of meat unnoticed, though they may be mobbed by the dogs in the attempt. When operating in groups, spotted hyenas are more successful in pirating dog kills, though the dog's greater tendency to assist each other puts them at an advantage against spotted hyenas, who rarely work in unison.

Cases of dogs scavenging from spotted hyenas are rare. Although wild dog packs can easily repel solitary hyenas, on the whole, the relationship between the two species is a one sided benefit for the hyenas, [] with wild dog densities being negatively correlated with high hyena populations.

Black-backed and side-striped jackals , and African golden wolves will feed alongside hyenas, though they will be chased if they approach too closely. Spotted hyenas will sometimes follow jackals and wolves during the gazelle fawning season, as jackals and wolves are effective at tracking and catching young animals. Hyenas do not take to eating wolf flesh readily; four hyenas were reported to take half an hour in eating a golden wolf. Overall, the two animals typically ignore each other when there is no food or young at stake. Though they readily take to water to catch and store prey, spotted hyenas will avoid crocodile-infested waters, [] and usually keep a safe distance from Nile crocodiles.

Recent observations shows that African rock pythons can hunt adult spotted hyenas. Spotted hyenas dominate other hyena species wherever their ranges overlap. Brown hyenas encounter spotted hyenas in the Kalahari , where the brown outnumber the spotted. The two species typically encounter each other on carcasses, which the larger spotted species usually appropriate. Sometimes, brown hyenas will stand their ground and raise their manes while emitting growls.

This usually has the effect of seemingly confusing spotted hyenas, which will act bewildered, though they will occasionally attack and maul their smaller cousins. Similar interactions have been recorded between spotted and striped hyenas in the Serengeti. Spotted hyenas have a complex set of postures in communication. When afraid, the ears are folded flat, and are often combined with baring of the teeth and a flattening of the mane. When attacked by other hyenas or by wild dogs, the hyena lowers its hindquarters.

Before and during an assertive attack, the head is held high with the ears cocked, mouth closed, mane erect and the hindquarters high. The tail usually hangs down when neutral, though it will change position according to the situation. When a high tendency to flee an attacker is apparent, the tail is curled below the belly. During an attack, or when excited, the tail is carried forward on the back. An erect tail does not always accompany a hostile encounter, as it has also been observed to occur when a harmless social interaction occurs.

Although they do not wag their tails, spotted hyenas will flick their tails when approaching dominant animals or when there is a slight tendency to flee. When approaching a dominant animal, subordinate spotted hyenas will walk on the knees of their forelegs in submission.

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Both individuals raise their hind legs and lick each other's anogenital area. Erection is usually a sign of submission, rather than dominance, and is more common in males than in females. It is said that feasting Hyaenas engage in violent fights, and there is such a croaking, shrieking and laughing at such times that a superstitious person might really think all the inhabitants of the infernal regions had been let loose. The spotted hyena has an extensive vocal range, with sounds ranging from whoops, fast whoops, grunts, groans, lows, giggles, yells, growls, soft grunt-laughs, loud grunt-laughs, whines and soft squeals.

The loud "who-oop" call, along with the maniacal laughter, are among the most recognisable sounds of Africa. Typically, very high-pitched calls indicate fear or submission, while loud, lower-pitched calls express aggression. Hans Kruuk compiled the following table on spotted hyena calls in ; []. Spotted hyenas may contract brucellosis , rinderpest [ citation needed ] and anaplasmosis.

They are vulnerable to Trypanosoma congolense , which is contracted by consuming already infected herbivores, rather than through direct infection from tsetse flies. During the canine distemper outbreak of —94, molecular studies indicated that the viruses isolated from hyenas and lions were more closely related to each other than to the closest canine distemper virus in dogs.

Evidence of canine distemper in spotted hyenas has also been recorded in the Masai Mara. Exposure to rabies does not cause clinical symptoms or affect individual survival or longevity. Analyses of several hyena saliva samples showed that the species is unlikely to be a rabies vector, thus indicating that the species catches the disease from other animals rather than from intraspecifics. The microfilaria of Dipetalonema dracuneuloides have been recorded in spotted hyenas in northern Kenya. The species is known to carry at least three cestode species of the genus Taenia , none of which are harmful to humans.

It also carries protozoan parasites of the genus Hepatozoon in the Serengeti, Kenya and South Africa. Trichinella spiralis are found as cysts in hyena muscles. The spotted hyena's distribution once ranged in Europe from the Iberian Peninsula to the Urals , where it remained for at least one million years. Europe experienced a massive loss of lowland habitats favoured by spotted hyenas, and a corresponding increase in mixed woodlands. Spotted hyenas, under these circumstances, would have been outcompeted by wolves and humans which were as much at home in forests as in open lands, and in highlands as in lowlands.

Spotted hyena populations began to shrink roughly 20, years ago, completely disappearing from Western Europe between 14—11, years ago, and earlier in some areas. Historically, the spotted hyena was widespread throughout Sub-Saharan Africa. It is present in all habitats save for the most extreme desert conditions, tropical rainforests and the top of alpine mountains. Its current distribution is patchy in many places, especially in West Africa. Populations are concentrated in protected areas and surrounding land.

It is scarce or absent in tropical rainforests and coastal areas. Its preferred habitats in west Africa include the Guinea and Sudan savannahs, and is absent in the belt of dense coastal forest. In the Namib Desert , it occurs in riverine growth along seasonal rivers, the sub-desertic pro-Namib and the adjoining inland plateau. In ideal habitats, the spotted hyena outnumbers other large carnivores, including other hyena species. However, the striped and brown hyena occur at greater densities than the spotted species in desert and semi-desert regions.

The spotted hyena cave hyena subspecies is depicted in a few examples of Upper Palaeolithic rock art in France. A painting from the Chauvet Cave depicts a hyena outlined and represented in profile, with two legs, with its head and front part with well distinguishable spotted coloration pattern. Because of the specimen's steeped profile, it is thought that the painting was originally meant to represent a cave bear , but was modified as a hyena. In Lascaux , a red and black rock painting of a hyena is present in the part of the cave known as the Diverticule axial, and is depicted in profile, with four limbs, showing an animal with a steep back.

The body and the long neck have spots, including the flanks. Its head is in profile, with a possibly re-engraved muzzle. The ear is typical of the spotted hyena, as it is rounded. An image in the Le Gabillou Cave in Dordogne shows a deeply engraved zoomorphic figure with a head in frontal view and an elongated neck with part of the forelimb in profile. It has large round eyes and short, rounded ears which are set far from each other. It has a broad, line-like mouth that evokes a smile. Though originally thought to represent a composite or zoomorphic hybrid, it is probable it is a spotted hyena based on its broad muzzle and long neck.

The relative scarcity of hyena depictions in Paleolithic rock art has been theorised to be due to the animal's lower rank in the animal worship hierarchy; the spotted hyena's appearance was likely unappealing to Ice Age hunters, and it was not sought after as prey. Also, it was not a serious rival like the cave lion or cave bear , and it lacked the impressiveness of the mammoth or woolly rhino.


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In Africa, the spotted hyena is usually portrayed as an abnormal and ambivalent animal, considered to be sly, brutish, necrophagous and dangerous. It further embodies physical power, excessivity, ugliness, stupidity, as well as sacredness. Spotted hyenas vary in their folkloric and mythological depictions, depending on the ethnic group from which the tales originate. It is often difficult to know whether or not spotted hyenas are the specific hyena species featured in such stories, particularly in West Africa, as both spotted and striped hyenas are often given the same names.

In East Africa, Tabwa mythology portrays the spotted hyena as a solar animal that first brought the sun to warm the cold earth. In the culture of the Mbugwe in Tanzania, the spotted hyena is linked to witchcraft. According to Mbugwe folklore, every witch possesses one or more hyenas, which are referred to as "night cattle" and are branded with an invisible mark. It is said that all hyenas are owned by witches, and that truly wild hyenas are non-existent. Lactating female spotted hyenas are said to be milked by their owners every night to make hyena butter , and are further used as mounts.

When a witch acquires a hyena mount, he rides it to distant lands in order to bewitch victims and return safely home before morning. The Mbugwe consider killing hyenas to be dangerous, as the bond between the hyena and its owner is very strong, and will likely result in the witch seeking retribution. In order to obviate this danger, a killed hyena usually has its ears, tail and front legs cut off and buried, as these are the parts which are supposed to be marked by the witches' brand. In the same area, hyena faeces are believed to enable a child to walk at an early age, thus it is not uncommon in that area to see children with hyena dung wrapped in their clothes.

The Kaguru of Tanzania and the Kujamaat of Southern Senegal view hyenas as inedible and greedy hermaphrodites. A mythical African tribe called the Bouda is reputed to house members able to transform into hyenas. These " werehyenas " are executed when discovered, but do not revert to their human form when killed. Gogo folklore links the spotted hyena to the origin of death; in one tale, the hyena prevents humanity from achieving immortality , thus ensuring it can continue to eat corpses. A similar tale is present among the Meru. In their narrative, the supreme god Murungu sent a mole to inform humanity that they would be reborn after death.

Fearing this would deprive it of corpses to eat, the hyena prevents the mole from ever delivering the message. Madi and Nuer mythology links the spotted hyena to the separation between heaven and earth ; at one time, humanity kept in contact with the Creator in the sky via a cowhide rope, which was subsequently severed by a hungry hyena.

The Egyptian Saint abba Father Matewos of Asfoni was associated with hyenas; one fable tells of how he rescued a cub trapped in a pit, and had his feet licked in gratitude by its mother. In Ethiopian folklore, an albino hyena called the "King of Hyenas" is ascribed great power. Some ethnic groups in Ethiopia associate themselves with hyenas; the Gurage traditionally believe that their ancestors migrated from Arabia to Ethiopia using hyenas as mounts.

Spotted hyenas feature prominently in the rituals of certain African cultures. As the spotted hyena usually finishes the meals of other carnivores, the animal is associated with the conclusion of all things. The role of the spotted hyena mask in their rituals is often to turn the neophyte into a complete moral being by integrating his male principles with femininity. The Beng people believe that upon finding a freshly killed hyena with its anus inverted, one must plug it back in, for fear of being struck down with perpetual laughter.

They also view spotted hyena faeces as contaminating, and will evacuate a village if a hyena relieves itself within village boundaries. Traditional Western beliefs about the spotted hyena can be traced back to Aristotle 's Historia Animalium , which described the species as a necrophagous , cowardly and potentially dangerous animal.

He further described how the hyena uses retching noises to attract dogs. In On the Generation of Animals , Aristotle criticised the erroneous belief that the spotted hyena is a hermaphrodite which likely originated from the confusion caused by the masculinised genitalia of the female , though his physical descriptions are more consistent with the striped hyena. Pliny the Elder supported Aristotle's depiction, though he further elaborated that the hyena can imitate human voices.

Additionally, he wrote how the hyena was held in high regard among the Magi , and that hyena body parts could cure different diseases, give protection and stimulate sexual desire in people. The author of the Physiologus , who infused pagan tales with the spirit of Christian moral and mystical teaching, reactivated the myth that the hyena is a hermaphrodite.

The author compared the species to "double-minded men" who are neither "man nor woman, that is, neither faithful nor unfaithful". He further states that "The sons of Israel are like this animal since in the beginning they served the living God but later, given over to pleasure and lust, they adored idols.

These bestiaries almost invariably depict hyenas feeding on human corpses. These illustrations were largely based on the descriptions given by Aristotle and Pliny, though the animals have no spots or other bodily markings, thus making it unlikely that the authors had ever seen hyenas first-hand. During the 15th and 16th centuries, travellers to Africa provided further descriptions of the species. Leo Africanus repeated some of the old concepts on the hyena, with the addition of describing its legs and feet as similar to those of men. In , Swiss naturalist Conrad Gesner rejected the belief of the hyena's hermaphroditism, and theorised that it originated from confusion over an androgynous fish bearing the same name.

He adds three other animals within the category of hyenas, including an Ethiopian quadruped named " Crocotta ", which was thought to be a hybrid between a hyena and a lioness. Sir Thomas Browne also argued against the hyena's supposed hermaphroditism, stating that all animals follow their own "Law of Coition", and that a hermaphrodite would transgress this.

Sir Walter Raleigh , in an attempt to rationalise how Noah's Ark could have fitted all extant species of animal, wrote that hyenas were hybrids between foxes and wolves which originated after the Great Flood. References to the spotted hyena's vocalisations are referenced in numerous contemporary examples of English literature , including Shakespeare 's As You Like It and George Chapman 's Eastward Ho. John Milton , in his Samson Agonistes , compares the species to Delila.

Natural historians of the 18th and 19th centuries rejected stories of hermaphroditism in hyenas, and recognised the differences between the spotted and striped hyena. However, they continued to focus on the species' scavenging habits, their potential to rob graves and their perceived cowardice. During the 20th century, Western and African stereotypes of the spotted hyena converged; in both Ernest Hemingway 's Green Hills of Africa and Disney 's The Lion King , the traits of gluttony and comical stupidity, common in African depictions of hyenas, are added to the Western perception of hyenas being cowardly and ugly.

When targeting livestock, the spotted hyena primarily preys upon cattle , sheep and goats , [13] though hyenas in the southern parts of Ethiopia's Tigray region preferentially target donkeys. The rate at which the species targets livestock may depend on a number of factors, including stock keeping practices, the availability of wild prey and human-associated sources of organic material, such as rubbish. Surplus killing has been recorded in South Africa's eastern Cape Province. Attacks on stock tend to be fewer in areas where livestock is corralled by thorn fences and where domestic dogs are present.

Like most mammalian predators, the spotted hyena is typically shy in the presence of humans, and has the highest flight distance up to metres among African carnivores. However, this distance is reduced during the night, when hyenas are known to follow people closely. However, attacks on humans by spotted hyenas are likely to be underreported. In , Hector Duff wrote of how spotted hyenas in the Mzimba district of Angoniland would wait at dawn outside people's huts and attack them when they opened their doors. Hyena attacks were widely reported in Malawi's Phalombe plain, to the north of Michesi Mountain.

Five deaths were recorded in , five in and six in This pattern continued until when eight people were killed. Although attacks against living humans are rare, the spotted hyena readily feeds on human corpses. In the tradition of the Maasai [] and the Hadza , [] corpses are left in the open for spotted hyenas to eat.

A corpse rejected by hyenas is seen as having something wrong with it, and liable to cause social disgrace, therefore it is not uncommon for bodies to be covered in fat and blood from a slaughtered ox. In some parts of Africa, spotted hyenas have begun to frequent metropolitan areas, where groups or "clans" of the animals have become a menace. The Ethiopian capital Addis Ababa is estimated to have up to a thousand resident hyenas which survive by scavenging rubbish tips and preying on feral dogs and cats.

There have also been attacks on humans who are homeless. In , a baby boy was killed by hyenas after being snatched from his mother as she camped near the Hilton Hotel. Some 40 of the animals were reportedly seen alongside a fence bordering the British Embassy compound.

In December , a cull was organised and marksmen killed ten hyenas which had occupied wasteland near the city centre. The spotted hyena has been hunted for its body parts for use in traditional medicine , [] for amusement, [20] and for sport, though this is rare, as the species is generally not considered attractive. Several authors during the Scramble for Africa attested that, despite its physical strength, the spotted hyena poses no danger to hunters when captured or cornered.

It was often the case that native skinners refused to even touch hyena carcasses, though this was not usually a problem, as hyena skins were not considered attractive. In Burkina Faso, the hyena's tail is used for medicinal and magical purposes. In Malawi and Tanzania, the genitalia, nose tips and tails are used for traditional medicine.

Estimating the obstetric costs of female genital mutilation in six African countries

In Mozambique, traditional healers use various spotted hyena body parts, particularly the paws. During the early years of Dutch colonisation in southern Africa, hyenas referred to as "wolves" by the colonists were especially susceptible to trapping , as their predilection for eating carrion, and lack of caution about enclosed spaces, worked against them.

A feature of many frontier farms was the wolwehok hyena trap , which was roughly constructed from stone or wood and baited with meat. The trap featured a trap-door, which was designed to shut once the bait was disturbed. Another hunting method was to trap them in their dens and dazzle them with torchlight, before stabbing them in the heart with a long knife.

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When chased by hunting dogs , spotted hyenas often attack back, unless the dogs are of exceptionally large, powerful breeds. James Stevenson-Hamilton wrote that wounded spotted hyenas could be dangerous adversaries for hunting dogs, recording an incident in which a hyena managed to kill a dog with a single bite to the neck without breaking the skin.

From a husbandry point of view, hyenas are easily kept, as they have few disease problems and it is not uncommon for captive hyenas to reach 15—20 years of age. Nevertheless, the spotted hyena was historically scantily represented in zoos , and was typically obtained in order to fill empty cages until a more prestigious species could be obtained. In subsequent years, animals considered to be more charismatic were allocated larger and better quality facilities, while hyenas were often relegated to inferior exhibits. In modern times, the species faces spatial competition from more popular animals, especially large canids.

Also, many captive individuals have not been closely examined to confirm their sexes, thus resulting in non-breeding pairs often turning out to be same-sexed individuals. As a result, many captive hyena populations are facing extinction. During the 19th century, the species was frequently displayed in travelling circuses as oddities. Alfred Brehm wrote that the spotted hyena is harder to tame than the striped hyena, and that performing specimens in circuses were not up to standard.

In Tanzania, spotted hyena cubs may be taken from a communal den by witchdoctors , in order to increase their social status. Although easily tamed, spotted hyenas are exceedingly difficult to house train , [] and can be very destructive; a captive, otherwise perfectly tame, specimen in the Tower of London managed to tear an 8-foot 2. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Spotted hyena Temporal range: 3.

Conservation status. Erxleben , Species synonymy [2]. As several distinguished authors of the present age have undertaken to reconcile the world to the Great Man-Killer of Modern times; as Aaron Burr has found an apologist, and almost a eulogist; and as learned commentators have recently discovered that even Judas Iscariot was a true disciple , we are rather surprised to find that someone has not undertaken to render the family of Hyenas popular and amiable in the eyes of mankind.

Certain it is, that few marked characters in history have suffered more from the malign inventions of prejudice []. Version International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 22 March Database entry includes a brief justification of why this species is of least concern. In Wilson, D. M eds. Johns Hopkins University Press. Retrieved 13 May Hindcasting a species geographic distribution across time" PDF. Quaternary Science Reviews. Bibcode : QSRv Mammalian sexual differentiation: lessons from the spotted hyena.

Historia Naturalis Bulgarica. Archived from the original PDF on 15 April The Geographical Review. In: Nyssen J. Retrieved 18 June Palaeontographia Italica — Comparison of Crocuta crocuta crocuta and Crocuta crocuta spelaea through computer tomography. Masters Thesis. Journal of Zoology.

Anatomischer Anzeiger [Anatomical Gazette] in German. Retrieved 11 April Journal of Morphology. Fertil : — University of California Press. Ecology Letters. Biology Letters. Introduction to Behavioral Endocrinology. Sinauer Associates: Massachusetts. Jane; Snowdon, Charles T. Retrieved 20 January Behind the snarl lies a cagey opportunist, proficient hunter, and dutiful parent. African Journal of Ecology.

National Geographic. Big Cat Diary: Leopard.


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Ecological Journal. Archived from the original PDF on 3 September Retrieved 31 July Francis Princeton University Press. The zoological exploration of southern Africa, — Rotterdam: A. Asian Folklore Studies. Witchcraft and Sorcery in East Africa , Routledge, pp. Food and feeding habits of the Pedi. Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press, p.

The good, the bad and the hyena Archived 27 October at the Wayback Machine. May International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Archived from the original PDF on 16 December Sharpe, p. BBC website. Retrieved 23 February Samuel Daniell , W. Daniell, p. Cadell, jun and W. BBC News. Retrieved on Oxford University Press, London. Extant Carnivora species. Suborder Feliformia. African palm civet N. Marsh mongoose A. Bushy-tailed mongoose B. Alexander's kusimanse C. Yellow mongoose C.

Pousargues's mongoose D. Angolan slender mongoose G. Ethiopian dwarf mongoose H. Short-tailed mongoose H. White-tailed mongoose I. Liberian mongoose L.

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Gambian mongoose M. Selous' mongoose P. Meller's mongoose R. Meerkat S. Spotted hyena C. Brown hyena H. Aardwolf P. Family Felidae. Cheetah A. Caracal C. Bay cat C. European wildcat F. Ocelot L. Serval L. Canadian lynx L. Pallas's cat O. Marbled cat P. Fishing cat P. Cougar P.

CLIT 1.2: unlikely prospect

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