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Schuchard, , RBS Gurry, , RBS Moore, , RBS Callender Jr. Mason and Troy W. Martin, , RBS Kelber by Werner H. Kelber, , RBS Sumney, , RBS Olyan, , RBS Kloppenborg and Judith H. Newman, , RBS Attridge edited by Andrew B. Mason and Kevin B. McCruden, , RBS Iverson and Christopher W.

Skinner, , RBS Sheppard, , RBS McIver, , RBS Hull Jr. Petersen edited by Joel M. Smith, , RBS An Introduction to Aramaic, 2nd ed. Greenspahn, , RBS Reeves, , RBS Barr, , RBS Van Voorst, , RBS McKenzie, , RBS Landes, , RBS Nogalski, , RBS A Concise Coptic-English Lexicon, 2nd ed. During his time there, he translated the New Testament from Greek into German.

It was printed in September The first complete Dutch Bible, partly based on the existing portions of Luther's translation, was printed in Antwerp in by Jacob van Liesvelt. The first printed edition with critical apparatus noting variant readings among the manuscripts was produced by the printer Robert Estienne of Paris in The Greek text of this edition and of those of Erasmus became known as the Textus Receptus Latin for "received text" , a name given to it in the Elzevier edition of , which termed it as the text nunc ab omnibus receptum "now received by all".

The use of numbered chapters and verses was not introduced until the Middle Ages and later. Later critical editions incorporate ongoing scholarly research, including discoveries of Greek papyrus fragments from near Alexandria, Egypt, that date in some cases within a few decades of the original New Testament writings. Critical editions that rely primarily on the Alexandrian text-type inform nearly all modern translations and revisions of older translations.

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For reasons of tradition, however, some translators prefer to use the Textus Receptus for the Greek text, or use the Majority Text which is similar to it but is a critical edition that relies on earlier manuscripts of the Byzantine text-type. Among these, some argue that the Byzantine tradition contains scribal additions, but these later interpolations preserve the orthodox interpretations of the biblical text—as part of the ongoing Christian experience—and in this sense are authoritative.

Distrust of the textual basis of modern translations has contributed to the King-James-Only Movement. Tyndale's New Testament translation , revised in , and and his translation of the Pentateuch , and the Book of Jonah were met with heavy sanctions given the widespread belief that Tyndale changed the Bible as he attempted to translate it.

Tyndale's unfinished work, cut short by his execution, was supplemented by Myles Coverdale and published under a pseudonym to create the Matthew Bible , the first complete English translation of the Bible. Attempts at an "authoritative" English Bible for the Church of England would include the Great Bible of also relying on Coverdale's work , the Bishops' Bible of , and the Authorized Version the King James Version of , the last of which would become a standard for English speaking Christians for several centuries.

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The work was not printed until The Slovenes thus became the 12th nation in the world with a complete Bible in their language. Following the distribution of a Welsh New Testament and Prayer Book to every parish Church in Wales in , translated by William Salesbury , Welsh became the 13th language into which the whole Bible had been translated in , through a translation by William Morgan, the bishop of Llanrhaeadr-ym-Mochnant.

The Bible is the most translated book in the world. The United Bible Societies announced that as of 31 December [21] the complete Bible was available in languages, of which included the deuterocanonical material as well as the Tanakh and New Testament.

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Either the Tanakh or the New Testament was available in an additional 1, languages, in some kind of translations, like the interlinear morpheme -by-morpheme translation e. In , Wycliffe Bible Translators announced Vision —a project that intends to commence Bible translation in every remaining language community by As of 1 October they estimate that around - million people, speak those 1, languages where translation work still needs to begin.

Wycliffe also stated that parts of the Bible are available in approximately 2, out of the 6, known languages, and that there are currently languages with a complete Bible translation. The New Testament is available in 1, languages and many more have at least one book of the Bible available.

A variety of linguistic, philological and ideological approaches to translation have been used. Inside the Bible-translation community, these are commonly categorized as:. Joel Hoffman, disagree with this classification.

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As Hebrew and Greek , the original languages of the Bible, like all languages, have some idioms and concepts not easily translated , there is in some cases an ongoing critical tension about whether it is better to give a word for word translation or to give a translation that gives a parallel idiom in the target language. The Living Bible and The Message are two paraphrases of the Bible that try to convey the original meaning in contemporary language. The further away one gets from word for word translation, the easier the text becomes to read while relying more on the theological, linguistic or cultural understanding of the translator, which one would not normally expect a lay reader to require.

On the other hand, as one gets closer to a word for word translation, the text becomes more literal but still relies on similar problems of meaningful translation at the word level and makes it difficult for lay readers to interpret due to their unfamiliarity with ancient idioms and other historical and cultural contexts. In addition to linguistic concerns, theological issues also drive Bible translations. Some translations of the Bible, produced by single churches or groups of churches, may be seen as subject to a point of view by the translation committee.

For example, the New World Translation , produced by Jehovah's Witnesses , provides different renderings where verses in other Bible translations support the deity of Christ. The authors believe that Jesus would have used God's name and not the customary kurios. On this basis, the anonymous New World Bible Translation Committee inserted Jehovah into the New World Translation of the Christian Greek Scriptures New Testament a total of times while the New World Translation of the Hebrew Scriptures Old Testament uses Jehovah a total of 6, times to a grand total of 7, in the entire Revision New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures while previous revisions such as the revision were a total of 7, times while the revision were a total of 7, times.

A number of Sacred Name Bibles e. Other translations are distinguished by smaller but distinctive doctrinal differences. For example, the Purified Translation of the Bible , by translation and explanatory footnotes, promoting the position that Christians should not drink alcohol, that New Testament references to "wine" are translated as "grape juice". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the general history of Bible translations. For translations into specific languages, see Bible translations by language.

Canons and books. Tanakh Torah Nevi'im Ketuvim. Christian biblical canons. Deuterocanon Antilegomena. Authorship and development. Authorship Dating Hebrew canon.


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Allegorical interpretation Literalism. Gnostic Islamic Qur'anic. Inerrancy Infallibility. Main article: Targums. Main article: Septuagint. Main article: Bible translations in the Middle Ages. See also: Early Modern English Bible translations. Further information: Dynamic and formal equivalence and Bible version debate.

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One very famous example of this is the opening to the Gospel of John , which some scholars argue to be a Greek translation of an Aramaic hymn. Revised by Gordon M.

Introduction to the Textual Criticism of the Old Testament (Hebrew Bible)

Harvard University Press, Introduction F, N-2, p. The Canon Debate.

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Hendrickson Publishers. In the 5th century, Saint Mesrob translated the Bible into Armenian. Also dating from the same period are the Syriac , Coptic , Ethiopic and Georgian translations. In his City of God Augustine thus indicates that this name for the Greek translation of the scriptures was a recent development. But he offers no clue as to which of the possible antecedents led to this development: Exod , Josephus [Antiquities Dines, The Septuagint, Michael A. Knibb, Ed. Berlin: De Gruyter. Papyrus Davies, "Hanes Cymru". Archived from the original on 8 March Retrieved Wycliffe Global Alliance.

Retrieved 31 July We have looked for agreement from the Hebrew versions to confirm our rendering. English-language translations of the Bible.