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Germany as enfant terrible. The Guilt for the War in The Propagandas Mortgage. The First Consequences of Versailles. The Smell of Fire in Europe. Hitlers Speech before the Commanders on 10 February Hitlers Speech of 22 August and the Seven Protocols. Complicity and Guilt of the German People. Poland as a MultiEthnic State. Germanys Fundamental Attitude towards Poland. Polands Military MindGames. Polands Alliance Policy.


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German Military Sovereignty in the Rhineland. The Anschluss of Austria.

A Nuanced Report: The Battle for Memories in Central Europe

Stresa Abyssinia and the RomeBerlin Axis. America in the Background. The Anschluss of the Sudeten Regions and. Proposal for the Expulsion of the Sudeten Germans. The Return of Memel. The Still Open Colonial Question. And what we read is determined by the historical anniversary we are celebrating at a given time.

Memories of my Life in a Polish Village: 1930-1949

Pretending that we draw from history in means going back to the beginning of the Great War. This year no other historical event has any chance of breaking through. This is an excellent example of how collective memory shapes security politics. The politics of memory is often perceived as distanced from the present and past.

It could seem that the message and form of commemorations of the past do not have any immediate impact on the economy or security. However, taking note of the significance of the role historical analogies play in defining the current crises — be it economic, political or military — allows one to demonstrate the relationship between memory and the decisions that shape the present and future. It allows us to appreciate the importance of the politics of memory — not because of museums, parades, and patriotic clothing, but because memory plays such an important part in shaping the decisions of societies and politicians in key matters like security.

The politics of memory analogies practiced in the Polish parliament provides several striking examples of this phenomenon. The principle of analogy is one of the primary subjects of research on collective memory. Framing past events in structures that underline the identity of their participants as analogous with the present enable using them as effective tools for social mobilization. The scientific literature on memory offers several analyses of the political use of particular historical analogies for the interpretation of present and future risks — for instance, many scholars analyze the significance of the Holocaust as a key figure of imagination that provides a model for the moral interpretation of other genocides.

However, if we want to find a comparative systemic analysis of this sort of mechanisms, it is worth looking to the area of politics of memory or politics of security. However, these memorializing acts have also referred to two battles: the Battle of Vienna of 12 September and the Battle of Warsaw of These two battles, when referenced during parliamentary debates, can serve as a repository of interesting memory analogies for current events. The analysis of the contents of legislative acts and transcripts of debates that took place in the parliament and during committee sessions allows one to distinguish a few basic topoi which frame how these two events are referenced and interpreted:.

Poland : Memories last forever

Comparative analysis does not show significant differences in how particular political parties construct the memory of the studied events, nor does it show changes over time in the way the events are presented. The interpretation of the historical importance of the Battle of Vienna and the Battle of Warsaw is an area of broad consensus rather than a subject of contention.

Historical events of which the memory has been structured around distinct, clear topoi can be used as memory analogies for the interpretation of current threats. The memory model can serve as a prototype that indicates where the threat is coming from for example, in terms of geography, ethnicity, class and under what form for instance, an invasion, an internal enemy, ruinous discord as well as provides advice as to how it can be overcome for example, fidelity to values, readiness for defense, discipline.

Neutralizing Memory: The Jew in Contemporary Poland - Iwona Irwin-Zarecka - Google หนังสือ

Memory analogies act also on a deeper level, where they not only supply practical advice, but also give meaning to the experience we are living. They suggest how we should feel about what is happening, what approaches we should adopt towards current events, or to which values we should refer.

This is why — similarly as with myths — an important part of the politics of memory analogies has to do with working on emotions. Using a comparison with past events we can, for instance, learn what we should truly fear and what only seems dangerous. Does real danger take the form of an attack from a dictator that has been growing in power analogy with the years — or of powerful states reacting to a threat in a hasty, disproportionate manner analogy with the year ?

The world is facing a serious international crisis.

Studies in Poland – My Memories

We know exactly how this ended. We also remember the times of communist rule in Poland, when we, Poles, were not able to speak our voice.


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This is why building a cannon of historical events that serve as sources of analogy is so important. In this context the meaning of the above-mentioned topoi also becomes clear. They allow the building of a memory bridge between the past and the present that is interpreted through the lens of that past. We would like to see similar consolidation around certain strategic problems — like security, economic and social progress or joining European structures — also today.

Even in cases where it seems that the analogy is built directly on certain aspects of the past and present events, they are always mediated through a particular reading. Even though the two topoi were mentioned in all these contexts, the debate over immigration delivers especially vivid examples in which a poorly recognized threat is explained through a series of memory analogies.

The Polish king led an allied force: Polish and German troops smashed the Turkish army besieging Vienna, serving one of the most severe blows to the Ottoman Empire, from which it never recovered. This was a key moment for Europe.

I lead Poland’s united opposition. We will bring the country back to Europe | Grzegorz Schetyna

After the defeat at Vienna, Turkey was on the defensive, and its centuries-long struggle to transfer Islam deep into the European continent was halted. The vanquisher of the Turks left us his testament concerning three key issues that are still pertinent today: reform of the state, stopping an opposition that conspires with foreign powers, and defense against Islam. We can say that this is the testament of the great king for contemporary Poland. Patryk Jaki used a similarly structured argument in the debate on immigration policy when he referred to an entire set of historical analogies, which included both Hitler and 17 th -century Turks as well as the contemporary immigrants.