It invariably includes a story of futile efforts by many competent specialists to establish an organic basis for the chronic illness, and of the almost irresistible recommendation of psychiatric therapy. Attention in the history should be directed to the influence of repeated pregnancies, birth-control pills, antibiotics, and cortisone and other immunosuppressants. The onset of local symptoms of yeast infection in relation to the use of these drugs is especially significant and usually precedes the systemic response.
Repeated courses of antibiotics and birth-control pills, often punctuated with multiple pregnancies, lead to ever-increasing symptoms of mucosal infections in the vagina and gastrointestinal tract. Accompanying these are manifestations of tissue injury based on immunologic and possibly toxic responses to yeast products released into the systemic circulation. Many infections are secondary to allergic responses of the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract, urethra, and bladder, necessitating increasingly frequent antibiotic therapy that simultaneously aggravates and perpetuates the underlying cause of the allergic membrane that allowed the infection.
Depression is common, often associated with difficulty in memory, reasoning and concentration. These symptoms are especially severe in women, who in addition have great difficulty with the explosive irritability, crying, and loss of self-confidence that are so characteristic of abnormal function of the ovarian hormones. Poor end-organ response to these sex hormones is confirmed by the common association of acne, impairment or total loss of libido, and the whole range of abnormalities of menstrual bleeding and cramps, as well as a very high incidence of endometriosis in those who have undergone hysterectomy.
Many of these patients also start developing multiple intolerances to foods and chemicals, making it increasingly difficult for them to live in a normal environment. Many or all of these intolerances disappear as the yeast problem is brought under control. Truss also drew inspiration from the work of Theron G. Within six days her hives had improved, in weeks they disappeared and after almost a year all her symptoms had improved.
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Crook reported trying the regimen with another 20 patients. Nearly all were adults with complex health problems, including headache, fatigue, depression, recurrent vaginal infection, joint pain and sensitivity to chemical odours and additives. Almost without exception, they improved. And some improved dramatically.
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Crook made his television debut on the subject in Cincinnati in January , in a broadcast that led to 7, requests for more information and his decision to write The Yeast Connection. The first print run of The Yeast Connection in quickly sold out. He claimed that , copies were purchased in the first two years. The book was in its fourth edition in In the early s, taking prescription antifungal drugs was an integral part of the treatment and the merits of nystatin and ketoconazole were discussed in some detail.
His views were rounded upon by several correspondents, who dismissed his claims as lacking evidence and being based on multiple misconceptions. The following year, several medical organisations attacked Crook, Truss and their followers. The American Academy of Allergy and Immunology was worried by the attention being given to CHS and in August published a position statement in its journal. As listed, some symptoms are widely diverse; for instance, both fatigue and hyperactivity are included. Nearly every normal individual has had certain of these symptoms during the course of a normal lifespan.
Case reports are anecdotal. Possibly none of the authors have had formal training in the disciplines of allergy and immunology, infectious diseases, or mycology. After nearly a decade since the original description, no articles on this disease appear in peer reviewed journals included in the Index Medicus. There are no prospective controlled therapeutic studies, and there are no animal model data. The Yeast Connection was published in Britain in the summer of Chronic candidiasis had been discussed in the popular press for a couple of years and linked to myalgic encephalomyelitis ME or post-viral fatigue syndrome PVFS.
Although there was a pathological theory behind The Yeast Connection , Crook relied on the claim that the real test of his ideas and recommendations was in the clinic. I put her on my special diet and nystatin. He stressed the link to food allergies and found a forum with the British Society for Allergy and Environmental Medicine, which had links with the British Society for Nutritional Medicine. Lisa Renfro and colleagues at the Department of Pediatrics and Family Medicine at Farmington, Connecticut, reported on consecutive patients suffering from chronic fatigue, eight of whom believed their symptoms were due to chronic candidiasis.
In fact, these caretakers might be the source of the diagnosis. In Britain, the yeast connection only attracted sustained medical criticism in the early s and then in the context of a complex debate that linked allergies, food intolerance and alternative medicine. However, the medical profession increasingly ignored CHS, except to dismiss it, especially because of the new emphasis on evidence-based medicine and the Gold Standard of double blind controlled clinical trials.
Antibiotics were the icon of mid-twentieth-century medical progress and their development influenced Candida infection in complex ways. As thrush, the disease came to the fore in the post-war years when nystatin, the first antifungal antibiotic, was introduced and brought women with the vaginal infection to the clinic. Doctors believed that previously the condition had been self-treated or accepted, perhaps self-limiting, but had certainly been underreported. At the same time, the use of antibacterial antibiotics, especially broad-spectrum formulations, by clearing the body of its natural microbial fauna, seemed to open the body to topical infection.
New clothing may have been a factor too, with stretch synthetic fabrics making underwear more close fitting and impermeable. Antibiotics were also implicated in systemic or invasive candidiasis, as the numbers of vulnerable patients multiplied. Amongst cancer patients, steroid and other treatments depressed the immune system, as did blood cancers like leukaemia.
Some of the new systemic candidiasis patients suffered from iatrogenic conditions. However, the rising tide of candidiasis was met with new antifungal antibiotics, especially azole drugs and, by the s the management of systemic candidiasis was more successful. Its alleged cause, overgrowth of C. It was not without irony, therefore, that, alongside lifestyle and dietary changes, taking the antifungal antibiotics produced by the modern pharmaceutical industry was also recommended. Macfarlane, G. Christensen, C. Accessed 8 August Vogel, M.
Li, J. Jawetz, E. Earlier in the century, M. Kane, R. Goodhart, J. Churchill, , West Walker, J. Stuart Wilkinson, J. Pelling, M. Bashford, A. Hewitt, G. Hurley, R. Plass, E. Semon, H. Harkness, A. Sharp, B. Sharman, A. Georg, L. Benham, R. Berkhout, M. Skinner, C. Martin, D. Gay, F. Thomas: , — Cruickshank, R. Bland, P. Tattersall, R. Hesseltine, H. Feudtner, C. Woodruff, P. Liston, G. Also see: Bland, P. Cregor, F. Ludlam, G. Menzies, M.
McNeil, C. Wagner, J. Donald, I. Russell, C. Collins, J. Smith, G. Bud, R. Smith, L. Scales, I. Colgan, M. Hirst, H. Lane, S. Hussar, A. Also see: Binns, T. Harris, H. Woods, J. Joekes, T. Greer, A. Oblath, R. Kligman, A. Huppert, M. The effect of antibiotics on the growth of C. Finland, M. Weinstein, L. Sharp, J.
Cannon, P. Kozinn, P. Baldwin, R. Hazen, E. Waksman, S. Garrod, L. Espinel-Ingroff, A. The powder was also used in laboratories as an antifungal agent, to suppress the contamination of sera, tissue cultures, culture plates, and other in vitro media. Brabander, J. Shrand, H. Our target gene is a reasonably well-conserved one within the enteroviruses polio, coxsackieviruses, echoviruses. To facilitate development, we are assembling and aligning a database of human and animal enterovirus sequences -- we wish to match the human ones and avoid matching animal ones if possible.
In particular, we have been comparing methods for detection of human pathogenic viruses that promise a significant improvement in sample throughput. Our tests indicate that recovery of viruses from a simple, rapid, glass fiber filtration is similar to that from the laborious and expensive ultrafiltration systems we have used in the past.
The keys to success include efficient extraction and purification steps, and we have found a few approaches that appear suitable. As an added bonus, these approaches remove interfering substances that often limited detection in the past. We are in the process of a quantitative analysis of recoveries from a broad variety of samples so that we may publish these results.
This modified collection and extraction procedure should make it much easier to provide affordable routine virus analysis from coastal sites. We have also begun work on the quantitative "real-time" PCR analysis of human enteroviruses. Our department Caron and Capone labs has recently obtained a BioRad instrument that performs these measurements, saving us transport time and analysis fees we had previously expected to run them at a local commercial lab. We have ordered the appropriate PCR primer-probe combinations, based upon a recently published report for analyzing such viruses in sludge.
We anticipate it should not be difficult adapting this protocol to our samples extracted from seawater and adapting the protocol from a Perkin Elmer instrument to the BioRad one. It is our expectation that we will start having reasonable quantitative estimates of enteroviruses this Fall. When this rapid quantitation procedure is linked to our rapid collection and extraction protocol, it should permit virus assay results from field samples the same day they are collected.
The next anticipated step is to extend the analytical procedures to include other pathogenic viruses, as described in our original proposal. Samples for this work have been collected and analyzed from locations all along the Southern California Coast, as far north as Santa Barbara. Standard bacteriological assays have been done for comparisons. The work has been in collaboration with Dr. During the final months we plan to test further improvements. Our tests last year indicated that overall recovery of viruses from a simple, rapid, glass fiber filtration is similar to that from the laborious and expensive ultrafiltration systems we have used in the past.
Subsequent treatment includes efficient extraction and purification steps, and we have this year found a commercial RNA extraction kit that yields good results. These approaches remove interfering substances that often limited detection in the past. However, we find that there are often extra PCR products amplified from the glass fiber filters, probably from eukaryotic messenger RNA. We are optimizing the PCR conditions to minimize these extra products and prevent possible false positives.
We also plan to try the use of an internal probe that would detect only the target molecule of interest, effectively eliminating false positives. We also have found a significant possible improvement to the glass filter method. Although the current protocol appears to be at least as good as our old ultrafiltration method, it may be possible to increase sensitivity even further, and to make it easier to do quantitative analysis. Treating the glass filter with a positively charged polymer was found to permit essentially quantitative removal of viruses from seawater compared to lower and more variable adsorption to the untreated glass.
However, the adsorption of the viruses to this treated filter may be too good: we have not yet found an efficient way to elute the viruses from the filters so as to still permit rapid and uninhibited RT PCR of the viral RNA genomes. Classical elution uses substances like beef extract, which unfortunately interfere with the PCR and add substantial time and effort for cleanup.
We are trying alternative elution strategies that do not interfere with PCR. Additional work in progress related to this grant includes initial work on the quantitative "real-time" PCR analysis of human enteroviruses. Our department Caron and Capone labs has obtained a BioRad instrument that performs these measurements. We have in hand the appropriate PCR primer-probe combinations, based upon 2 recently published European reports for analyzing such viruses in sludge. This work requires having viral extracts similar to the ones we use for the "normal" PCR assays we described above, but ideally it should be a quantitative collection from the field samples otherwise, the quantitative measurement is not so important.
Therefore, we have focused on developing the improved collection and extraction procedure as described above before moving on to the quantitative assay. Hopefully it will not be difficult adapting the sludge protocol to seawater samples and adapting the protocol from a Perkin Elmer instrument to the BioRad one. She is now on the faculty at University of North Carolina, and our collaboration continues. New work funded as a result of this grant at least in part includes 1 a contract with the City of Avalon to investigate possible sources of microbial contamination of Avalon Bay, and 2 a collaborative effort with SCCWRP to help develop rapid indicators of microbial contamination.
Although this has greatly enriched the bird life but at the same time it has greatly reduced the nesting space for the other birds which have traditionally used the national park as their nesting ground. The overall goals of this project are to to determine the contributions of coastal marine, estuarine, and freshwater habitats to the prey base for a colony of terns and skimmers nesting at the Bolsa Chica Ecological Reserve. This extraordinary natural invasion, numbering some 2,, individuals during each of the previous five summer breeding seasons and about 6, individuals during the summer season, has greatly enriched the bird life at the ecological reserve, but at the same time significantly reduces the nesting space available for the California Least Tern, a state and federally listed endangered species that has nested at the Bolsa Chica since about This situation as well as out preliminary observation that these birds feed in a variety of adjacent habitats lead us to propose to determine the trophic structure of this fish-eating guild and to assess how the nearby urbanization environment with its pollutant inflows into the coastal zone may affect this breeding seabird colony.
The overall goals of this project are to to determine the contributions of coastal marine, estuarine, and freshwater habitats to the prey base for a colony of terns and skimmers nesting at the Bolsa Chica Ecological Reserve, to compare these habitats as sources of heavy metal contamination of the food web of these seabirds, and to analyze the components of this food web for bioaccumulation of the metals through the various trophic levels to the birds. Heavy metals in common benthic invertebrates that are fish prey in the estuarine habitat, prey fish, and bird eggs and feathers will be analyzed with the use of inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy, which allows the full array of metals, including inorganic mercury and methyl mercury, and other elements to be examined.
RATIONALE The apparently important contribution of freshwater habitats and their exotic fish faunas to the food web of the nesting seabirds at the Bolsa Chica provides the questions and the driving force for this research. In Southern California highly elevated levels of metal have been detected in a variety of freshwater systems that drain into coastal marine waters. The fish species fed upon by the birds are themselves likely to be accumulating heavy metals. Therefore, freshwater inflows are likely to be influenced not only the coastal marine food web but also providing the major source of heavy metal contamination to the birds' use of freshwater fishes as important prey items.
Progress Report We began our collection of fish and bird material for heavy metal and stable isotope analysis in June at the Bolsa Chica Ecological Reserve and at our reference site in south San Francisco Bay near the bird observatory at Alviso. Originally, we intended our reference site to be Elkhorn Slough at the mouth of Monterey Bay. Pollution inflows and predation pressure, however, has caused reproductive failure in and site abandonment by the Caspian Terns and Forster's Terns that had been nesting there previously. We co-principal investigators Charles Collins and Andrew Mason, trainee Darryl Smith, and I decided that the next best and probably only other reference site would be south San Francisco Bay near the bird observatory.
Here, our target species, Caspian Tern and Forster's Tern, still are nesting. We felt it was essential to have a reference site even if it was another urbanized site. At Bolsa Chica, we collected abandoned eggs and freshly dead chicks of our three target species - Caspian, Forster's and Elegant terns. The egg contents will be analyzed for metals, and the eggshells will be used for stable isotope analysis. Chick liver tissue will be analyzed for metals. We also collected prey fish dropped by the three bird species.
The largest samples came from Elegant Terns because they had by far the largest number of nests and therefore had dropped the most fish. The muscle tissue of the prey fish will be analyzed for metals and stable isotopes, and the fishes' gut contents will also be assayed for metals. We attempted to collect the same kind of material from Caspian and Forster's colonies in south San Francisco Bay Elegant Terns do not nest there. Egg and chick samples were obtained in adequate numbers for Forster's Tern but not for Caspian Tern.
Fish samples associated with these two species were also inadequate in numbers for both species. We will need to collect additional material at both sites during next year's breeding season. To date, all the egg and chick material has been processed and stored at C for later analysis.
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The next step, to be started next month, will be to prepare the fish samples and keep them at C until they are analyzed. We will meet early in the fall to organize our laboratory analyses and to plan our sampling strategy for next breeding season. The birds of interest are Caspian Tern and Forster's Tern, both of which nest at each site, and Elegant Tern, which nests only at the Bolsa Chica site. The fish prey include several species commonly eaten by the birds, especially Northern Anchovy, Topsmelt, California Killifish, Longjaw Mudsucker and Mozambique Tilapia.
The fish have been obtained either as prey freshly dropped on the colony by the terns or collected from waters that serve as tern foraging areas in the vicinity of the colonies. Bird material has been acquired either as chicks that have died naturally or as eggs that have been abandoned or became buried on the site. After collecting for three breeding seasons, we have approximately total samples of fish and bird tissue from the two sites.
We are well into the long and laborious process of sample preparation for the heavy metal and stable isotope analyses. Initial readings have been obtained on a small number of samples. In accord with our original plan, we will send subsamples of the fish and bird material this fall to Keith Hobson at the University of Saskatchewan for stable isotope 15N and 13C analysis.
Because our samples could be obtained only unpredictably over multiple years, we chose to accumulate the material, prepare it for analysis as it was collected, and then undertake the analyses on the entire collection of samples late in the project period. Under the circumstances, we decided that this plan allowed us to treat the samples more uniformly and to increase the efficiency of calibration and use of the ICP-MS.
In contrast to our original plan of obtaining all the samples in a single breeding season, we necessarily had to collect material over three years because we had no way to predict the quantity of fish or bird material we would be able to collect each season. Moreover, we had to change our reference site from Elkhorn Slough to south San Francisco Bay after we had begun the project because the birds failed to nest at the former site.
The latter site has its own limitations of colony size and accessibility. With nesting seabirds, the work is entirely within a short month nesting season, and one can only obtain what is available. All of this explanation leads to the fact that we have not yet made any presentations nor published any papers on our research.
We felt that workup of a partial set of samples would result only in piecemeal and inconclusive results. Now, however, we are making progress toward analyzing the total set of samples, and we expect to have results forthcoming by the end of our final budget period February Preparation of talks and manuscripts should be underway by the spring of next year.
Two graduate students working with me, Elaine Logothetis and Darryl Smith, have split the Traineeship and are engaged in preparation of the samples as well as in their own masters thesis research related to the overall project. The sewage outfalls inject effluents enriched in organic matter and trace metals, and their potential adverse effect on the marine ecosystems and the quality of seafood supply in Southern California remain to be fully understood. Organic contaminants eventually undergo chemical or biochemical degradation. The fate of these resistant organics is of concern. These contaminants are removed from coastal waters either by dispersion to the open ocean through water mixing, or by particle scavenging to sea-floor sediments.
The relative effectiveness of these two dispersal processes is still unclear. The bulk of organic pollutants in the sewage outfalls is bound to particles. Thus the suspended particle loads in outfalls play an important role in dispersing the organic contaminants over a large ocean area and the fate of these contaminants should be intimately associated with particle dynamics in the water column.
The initial dilution and dispersion of the outfall particle fields have been described. However, it is not clear how fast the contaminants are removed by particle settling. Some of them e. The relative effectiveness of these two dispersal processes is still unclear, due to our meager knowledge about: 1 the complex oceanographic conditions in this part of the coastal ocean. This requires sophisticated ocean modeling based on a complete understanding of spatial and temporal variations in hydrodynamics eddy diffusivities, current velocities, etc.
The last process may, for instance, release the pre "old" contaminants in sediments back to the water column, complicating our assessment of the organic contaminant budgets and their impact on the environment. The bulk of organic pollutants in the sewage outfalls is bound to particles Young et al. Thus the suspended particle loads in outfalls play an important role in dispersing the organic contaminants over a large ocean area Jones, et al. The initial dilution and dispersion of the outfall particle fields have been described e.
Another important aspect of the proposed study is to investigate the sediment reworking and its impact on the sedimentary record of the pollution history. Sediment reworking may not only affect sedimentation rate determination, but also cause the buried pollutants to return back to the water column. This possible "recycled" pollution has attracted attention in recent years during discussion of the cleanup effort and the relatively high levels of DDT and PCB in white croakers and yellow crabs caught from the Palos Verdes Shelf area MBC Applied Environmental Sciences, A combination of radiometric and molecular-marker dating techniques will also strengthen the chronological control in our efforts to decipher the pollution history of the region.
The study will provide important database on dynamic aspects of settling, deposition, resuspension, and dispersion of organic contaminants in this region. It will also improve our understanding of the mechanisms that determine the fate of man-made contaminants. Rates of sediment sedimentation and resuspension are determined by a multi-radiotracer approach. Seawater, suspended particulate matter, sediment-trap material, and sediment core samples will be collected for measurements of organic contaminants DDTs, PCBs, and LABs, etc.
Thorium and uranium will be purified using ion-exchange techniques and polonium will be separated by the spontaneous deposition technique. Thorium activities of water samples are measured by beta-counting with calibrated, low background gas flow detector, followed by alpha-spectrometry to determine the yield. Activities of Th, Pb, Ra and Cs in sediments will be measured by gamma-counting using high-resolution, well-type intrinsic germanium detectors. The naturally occurring uranium- and thorium-series isotopes have proven to be useful in these regards.
These radioisotopes were first used by Broecker et al. They have been extensively applied to a variety environmental studies Ivanovich and Harmon, The proposed study will apply these tracers to the urban coastal area around the White's Point sewage outfall. This is one of the two major outfalls in the greater Los Angeles region, discharging almost million gallons of effluents per day.
Their methods have been adopted by the Southern California Coastal Water Research Project and the Department of Earth Sciences at USC, resulting in a total of approximately person-hours saved per month the equivalent of one full-time employee using the more efficient methods. Because the information obtained from this study is so important to coastal water quality and safety, SCCWRP has matched Sea Grant funding dollars 2 to 1 for this research. In addition, the findings of this Sea Grant project provided much of the impetus for a current project undertaken by the U.
The results of the study have thus far been reported at two national scientific conferences. Progress Report Major efforts during the first year involved field sampling and laboratory processing of the samples collected. Ten one-day cruises were carried out during the period between January 8 and March 4, From June 23 to July 21, , 12 one-day sampling cruises were further undertaken. Water and sediment samples were collected for analysis of radioisotopes and organic contaminants. For the radioisotope study, we collected liter water samples using Niskin bottles from 7 water depths at 3 stations and from one depth near the bottom at the remaining 5 stations.
For the organic contaminant study, we collected large-volume liters water samples 1 m from the bottom at all 8 stations through in-situ pumping. At one station, waters from depths 2, 5, 20, and 35 m above the bottom were further taken. The pumping operation provides both dissolved and particulate phases for the organic measurements. Box and gravity cores were also retrieved for both radioisotope and organic studies.
Chemical processing of all the samples collected immediately followed their collection. Sediment box core samples were subsampled at 1-cm intervals. While we have finished analysis of the short-lived Th in the water and sediment samples, gamma countings of Pb and Cs and alpha-spectrometric measurements of Th, U and Po in the box core samples are still being performed. So far, this study has provided for the first time the dissolved concentration data on DDTs and PCBs in seawater from this region. The water-column distribution pattern for these chemicals has indicated their remobilization across the sediment-water interface.
And the data on sediment Th and particle concentration in water columns has suggested the occurrence of relatively intensive sediment mixing including bioturbation and resuspension in the study area. Most rocky seashores receiving protection along the urban Southern California mainland are designated as Marine Life Refuges by the State Legislature. As a result, for the past 20 years, persons harvesting fish or tidal invertebrates from any intertidal area in California need a sport or commercial fishing license plus a Tidal Invertebrate Permit. However, legal and illegal harvesting of sea life is not the only impact of concern on heavily-used, urban seashores.
To date, no scientific studies have been performed to determine the intensities of the various forms of human activity taking place in heavily-used California Marine Life Refuges or to test the success of these Refuges in conserving seashore biodiversity. This research involves both assessments of human use and biological parameters at study sites located along the Orange County coastline and also at a single site with historical low use located on San Clemente Island.
In Orange County, seven Marine Life Refuges were created between and and so have existed under this form of legislative protection for more than 20 years; an additional 0. California placed some additional restrictions on recreational collecting and commercial fishing activities in unprotected intertidal areas in the early s see Smith and Johnson, As a result, for the past 20 years, persons harvesting fish or tidal invertebrates from any intertidal area in California need a sport or commercial fishing license plus a Tidal Invertebrate Permit Smith and Johnson, Throughout Southern California including Marine Life Refuges , seashore habitats are impacted by human foot traffic, a disturbance known to negatively affect many marine populations.
Hence, the California Marine Life Refuge concept may be of questionable conservation value in densely-populated urban areas where the magnitude of human use is often extreme. As an example of use intensity, during a recent low tide 1, visitors were recorded over a three hour period using 2, linear feet of shoreline in the Dana Point Marine Refuge Cummings and Heiling, personal communication. Consequently, we may be employing protective measures that are ineffective in urbanized areas with easy coastal access. The absence of scientific tests of the California Marine Life Refuge concept may trap even the most conscientious officials into making poor decisions over the long term by responding to short-term political pressures which in Southern California strongly favor shore access.
This process pitfall has been recently discussed by Costanza, et al. To obtain the scientific information critical to the development of sound management policies for conserving seashore life in densely-populated urban areas. This research is designed to evaluate the effectiveness in urban southern California of the California Marine Life Refuge, perhaps the most common forms of seashore protection throughout the state.
Presentation Oral podium presentations on this work have been given at the May meetings of the Southern California Academy of Sciences, the August meetings of the Phycological Society of America and the January meetings of the Western Society of Naturalists, and are planned for the May meetings of the Southern California Academy of Sciences. Outcome One of the first studies of its kind in assessing the effectiveness of marine refuges to protect shoreline habitats, this research has had far-reaching political and scientific impacts.
Murray, from a variety of scientific, resource management, and government agencies. Murray and his students have also developed a quantitative video sampling method for detecting abundances of intertidal organisms that is of interest to several state and local resource management agencies. A number of collaborations have been forged through this research, including: a collective paper produced by a panel of scientists brought together by the Center for Marine Conservation, the Environmental Defense Fund and the Natural Resources Defense Council; a handbook addressing sampling techniques for intertidal populations sponsored by the Minerals Management Service and undertaken in conjunction with MMS, the NOAA Office of Natural Resource Damage Assessment, the office of Oil Spill Prevention and Response, the California Department.
Murray is also scheduled to testify before a State Legislative committee on pending legislation to improve coastal protection. Additionally, at least 4 publications and 18 presentations have been produced from this study. Progress Report During the initial months of the project, eight sites were identified along a relatively uniform stretch of Orange County coastline for performing our human use work and biological sampling programs. Four of these sites have received protection from collecting activity for more than 25 years as a consequence of their designation as California Marine Life Refuges; four sites were not legislatively accorded refuge status and received no such protection over this period.
A single site, which in modern times has received essentially no human use was established on the northwestern coast of San Clemente Island for perspective. This study was performed over a one year period beginning in February and involved a total of site visits.
The numbers of human visitors were categorized by activity during a two hour period centered around low tide at each rocky intertidal study site and also adjacent sandy beach four times each month for twelve months. We are now in the process of reducing, analyzing, and interpreting these data.
Analyses indicate that no significant difference occurs in use intensity or use patterns between California Marine Life Refuge and non-refuge sites. Oral podium and poster presentations on this element of the research program have been given at the May meetings of the Southern California Academy of Sciences, the January meetings of the Western Society of Naturalists, and are planned for the May meetings of the Southern California Academy of Sciences. Quantification of community diversity and the abundances of populations inhabiting an upper mid-intertidal rockweed community were performed at each of the nine study sites between September and December This represents the first seasonal round of sampling.
A second round is planned to take place between March and June to allow the detection of temporal changes within and among sites. Data reduction, analysis and interpretation is now in progress for the September through December sampling period. Oral podium presentations of these results are planned for the May meetings of the Southern California Academy of Sciences and the July meetings of the Phycological Society of America. In these presentations comparisons of biodiversity and population abundances will be made between Refuge and non-refuge sites to test the hypothesis that greater diversity and higher abundances of populations vulnerable to human predation occurs in habitats where collection has been restricted.
In addition our sampling study of the rockweed assemblage, independent assessments have also been made at our nine study sites of the distributions, abundances, and size structures of four invertebrate species Tegula funebralis, T. This research was performed from September through December in conjunction with our rockweed studies and a second round of sampling is planned for March through June to allow the detection of temporal changes within and among sites.
We are now in the process of examining the data obtained during this element of our program and plan to present our findings at the May meetings of the Southern California Academy of Sciences. Also this population growth is coupled with the tremendous rise of tourism to these coastal regions.
As a consequence of this intense human utilization, natural coastal habitats throughout the country are being increasingly exposed to pressures resulting from human activity. Perhaps nowhere in the United States is this pressure greater than in urban Southern California where the human population is projected to grow a great deal. Hence, a tremendous challenge has been cast at the feet of policy-makers who must make decisions that ensure the wise use of resources while enabling the sustainability of coastal ecosystems.
This challenge is to enact policies that intercept degradative processes and that lead to the conservation and restoration of natural habitat while permitting essential and desired human activities. This challenge cannot be met unless policy-makers know the current status of coastal populations and communities and understand the dynamics of these ecosystems and the natural and anthropogenic forces affecting them. While efforts have been vigorously made and with variable success in terrestrial systems to identify sensitive species whose long-term survival is endangered, parallel efforts in coastal marine waters have been neglected.
Yet, the margins of the sea are where human impact is greatest creating a rough parallel between coastal regions and tropical forests. In urban Southern California, where emphasis has been strongly placed on providing human access to coastal waters, there is an absence of long-term scientific data, and knowledge of the status and temporal dynamics of marine populations is very poorly developed except for selected commercially-valuable species.
Hence, not only is it extremely difficult, if not impossible, to demonstrate long-term changes in most Southern California marine populations due to natural events, it is also difficult to detect changes due to point-sources anthropogenic activity. This problem extends to our ability to evaluate the various forms of protection whose purpose is to conserve California seashore biodiversity.
A major goal of this ongoing research program is to obtain the scientific information required for the evaluation of existing CMLR criteria and policies in urban Southern California so that we can hopefully intercept further degeneration of our coastal resources and prevent the need for what almost always turns out to be reactive management -- decision-making after resource degradation has occurred.
The research proposed herein is designed to follow our ongoing studies and has the purpose of seeking a more complete casual understanding of the dynamics of Southern California rocky intertidal populations and communities, including the role of human use activities potentially in conflict with the maintenance of biodiversity on our urban seashores.
It also addresses the economic value of seashore natural resources to our regional urban human communities. In addition to this growth, the coastal zone attracts countless numbers of inland residents who visit the shore for recreation and tourism and contribute significantly to the economy of coastal cities. In addition to changes in coastal habitats and their living resources directly attributable to regional anthropogenic activity, coastal systems are also experiencing changes due to global processes that affect climate, including sea temperature, and potentially sea level and are being threatened by species introductions and invasions.
Only from a sound scientific foundation can wise decisions be made that take into account the multiple interests of parties that use and depend on our coastal resources and environments. Policy-makers are well acquainted with the tensions that develop between parties interested in utilizing habitat and those wedded to its conservation. However, with the exception of selected fisheries, in Southern California and throughout the country these often controversial conflicts have almost exclusively involved terrestrial or coastal wetland habitat.
Yet, the margins of the sea are where human impact is greatest creating a rough parallel between coastal regions and tropical forests: areas of the sea and the land that are the most species rich and also the most threatened May, It is often pointed out Upton, ; Suchanek, , that although larger marine fauna including mammals, birds and reptiles, are frequently accorded protective designation, invertebrates and algae, the principal benthic taxa occupying coastal waters, are rarely, if ever, encountered on state or federal endangered or threatened species registrars.
May underscores the global nature of this problem by noting that data bases that list extinctions, such as the World Conservation Monitoring Centre WCMC , rarely include records for marine species; furthermore he argues that our ignorance and inability to estimate marine extinction rates represents one of the greatest differences between our understanding of terrestrial and marine biodiversity. Despite a growing body of evidence indicating the loss of biodiversity in coastal marine habitats Norse, , with the exception of catastrophic events such as oil spills little attention has been given to evaluating the status of vulnerable California shoreline populations and communities or to the effectiveness of the policies designed to protect and sustain them.
Many intertidal and shallow subtidal habitats in California are protec. Two biological studies are proposed: one whereby trampling effects on three different natural intertidal assemblages are analyzed and a second that focuses on identification of the effects of foot-traffic on recruitment and subsequent community development in two assemblage types. Both studies will be performed at two sites, one where high levels of human activity occur and one that experiences essentially no human use. The sampling programs will employ standard methods whereby species composition and abundance are assessed over the course of the study in quadrat samples assigned to either trampling treatments or controls.
A unique feature is the analysis of foot-traffic effects on population size structure and reproductive potential which will be accomplished by measuring organisms in our plots and by periodically dissecting collected animals of various sizes to obtain measurements of gonad and somatic biomass. In our socioeconomic studies, we plan to quantify the numbers of persons using local beaches using an interval sampling procedure developed in our laboratory and to also survey shore visitors to obtain data for valuation studies.
RATIONALE Throughout urban areas, conflicts are constantly arising between groups advocating development and access and those promoting conservation of natural resources. Threats to preserving coastal biodiversity are numerous, particularly in densely-populated areas including Southern California where a highly mobile and recreation-oriented public engages in a wide variety of activities year-round along a very accessible coastline.
We suspect that despite CMLR protection, the magnitude of human activity may be overwhelming our urban seashores. We believe that our proposed research will provide the data needed by decision-makers to learn whether our concept of coastal refuges is in need of redesign. Our research is responsive to calls for information on coastal bioresources and their value by The Resource Agency of California and will also assist federal, state, and local trustees in the Natural Resource Damage Assessment process should the urban Orange County coastline be subjected to the accidental spillage of oil or other hazardous substances.
Outcome The results of this project were made available to a number of management authorities and the public in California and in other parts of the US Federal agencies, local organizations and the California Resources Agency and the California Coastal Commission, among others. Murray has been invited to sit on a number of state and national level committees.
This work has directly led to assessments of current management strategies and the development of pending legislation for the creation of more effective management programs. Bloomingdale Mrs. Gallatin Gallery of Living Art A. Museum of Art Edward S. Lieberman New York University E. Rehn F. Riefstahl Frank Crowninshield J. Sachs Ruth E. Boothby Scribner's Magazine E. Senior Student Jeanie Sheppard Mrs. John E. Irma de B. Spring Josiah P. Marvel Mary Sullivan James J.
Moore John A. Thwaites N. Toll Kondakov Institute Helen M. Van de Woestyne Vassar College C. Chatterton Hallie Flanagan Edward M. Warburg Levering Tyson List of suggestions for radio lecture series Mrs. Harold V. Willoughby Susanna Wilson. Conger Goodyear J. Neumann New Art Circle A.
Conger Goodyear Robert B. King Kingibus Philip Johnson L. Robert; Treasury Department, Washington, D. Samuel A. Lewisohn Edward Warburg and George Gershwin postcard. Chatterby Chicago Robert B. Harshe Stephen C. Lansing Collins Perry B. Ede Tate Gallery Roberta M. Fansler Carnegie Foundation Helen M.
John W. Grosser, Maurice Angela E. Kuhn James W. Lane Francis C. Philip McMahon Josiah P. Kingsley A. Porter Princeton National Alumni Assoc. Stanley Resor Natalie Foote; J. Walter Thompson Co. Misha Reznikoff Edward B. Rowan Treasury Department, Washington, D. Nelson A. Rockefeller Mrs. Harold Irving Pratt James N. Grant La Farge Mrs. Stevenson Andrew W. Sweeney Francis H. Includes correspondence with: Alice Mallette J.
Louis Meyric R. Powell Minnigerode Robert B. Earle Rowe Hardinge Scholle A.
Arthur MacLean Philip N. Ferman Dorothy S. Norman Art Front H. Fantl E. Bauer Jack Beddington E. Bossange Peter Blume Mrs. Palmer H. Ede L.
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Goeller A. Johnson Blanchard George Platt Lynes.
Includes correspondence with: John E. Conger Goodyear Mr. Marshall Sarah Newmeyer List of approximate costs of assembling and circulating Van Gogh Exhibition "Film Things": list of requests from the film library. Includes correspondence with: Walter Chrysler John D.
Rockefeller, Jr. Bills from Paris hotels Alfred H. Gieger] Mrs. Paul Guillaume Rawson W. Conger Goodyear] George Huisman [A. Conger Goodyear] A. Appleton-Century Co. John L. Bedford Clifford W. Beers Edward L. Detwiller Katharine Jackson Katherine S. Wagner; U. Includes correspondence with: J. Duffield Richard K. Stevens Eldredge Snyder William E. Moody Ambert C. Mort U.
Senate-Robert F. Wagner Royal S. Hall Encyclopedia Britannica F. Goodwin Stephen C. Clark [Philip L. Conger Goodyear Also includes newspaper clippings. Downing Brown University Philip A. Townley Paton Russell F. Peterson R. Peterson Frederick R. Includes correspondence with: Philip L. Goodwin John E. Abbott Walter Troy Philip L. Goodwin Kurt Versen Co. Clarence Kennedy. Henrich Julian Street, Jr. Geier Mrs. Frederick Geier A. Barrie Chauncey J. Kaltenborn Edgar J.
Kaufmann, Jr. Lewes Mrs.
Table of contents
Lewisohn Lenore Browning G. Fincham J. Neumann Virginia N. Whitehill College Art Assocation S. Includes correspondence with: Robert F. Wagner Mary Fraser Time, Inc. Matson Mary Marquand James M. Mea Fight for Freedom, Inc. Isaacs Mrs. Lloyd M. Clark Brooklyn Museum Laurance P. Roberts S. Rockefeller Lincoln Kirstein John E. Abbott Beaumont Newhall A. Danforth Frederick A. Eisendrath, Jr. Includes correspondence with: Alice M. Carson and Eliot Noyes Also includes: List of items under consideration for the Department of Industrial Design and the permenant collection Meeting minutes from the Architecture Committee September 19, Meeting minutes from the Architecture Committee February 17, Fox Leslie Cheek, Jr.
Breeskin Jane Berlandia Thomas C. Howe, Jr. Bernays Cornelius N. Brennan Fortune Mrs. Weiss L. Burden Deptartment of Commerce. Crane Mrs. Army Bernard Karpel Katherine S. Goeller John L. Goldstone John E. Includes correspondence with: Ferargil, Inc. Frederic Newlin Charles R. Stout Agnes Mongan Paul J. Includes correspondence with: S. Philip Hallgren E. Edith G. John A. Hartell Arthur Hartman Bartlett H. Hayes, Jr.
Guggenheim Albert E. Robert H. Includes invitations from: Elsa Rogo telegrams H. Reid Navy League of the U. Charles Howland Russell, Jr. The Maple Leaf Fund, Inc. Walter B. Cannon George Kates J. Hatch, Jr. Ryan Blank form for permanent collection of industrial design Outline of registrar's routine List of agents in South America for shipping with instructions Sidney Edison Holger E.
Robert G. McIntyre Joseph C. Sloane Macy's John A. Madden Edwin Bird Wilson, Inc. Man Ray Mrs. Mesens Metropolitan Museum of Art F. M Foster; Horace H. Jayne; Mayor, A. Hyatt; Harry B. Gruskin M. Miller Sports Guild, Inc. Martin; Morgan F. Hearn to Betty Chamberlain. Cutts William S. Parsons U. Navy Georgette Passedoit with exhibition list Ralph M. Reid Mrs. Rosenblum L. Primarily correspondence between Alfred H. Also included correspondence with: Alice C. Contains correspondence between Alfred H. Also includes correspondence between Ira V. McCann Morley; Mrs. Henry P. Russell Dario Sabatello Stephen C.
Rockefeller Sculptors Guild, Inc. Silberman Memo from Mr. Michel Los; with attached brochure for Celine Baekland show E. Baldwin Smith U. Robinson Galerie St. Stickle Frederick S. Stimson with curriculum vitae Leopold Stokowski Thelma J. Streat Maurice L. Contains various correspondence between Alfred H. Tovell Irving Trabich C.
Alfred Shaw; Lester D. Longman; Mrs. O'Donnell Iselin; Perry T. Rathbone; W. Valentiner; Grace L. George E. Hunter Samuel L. Barlow Mabel Barbee Lee. File primarily contains inter-office memoranda between Alfred H. Taylor Metropolitan Museum of Art. Also includes correspondence between Horace H.
Jayne Metropolitan Museum of Art and Wheeler. Wallis Mrs. Felix M. Warburg Heinz Warneke A. Willkie Mrs. Wise Elisabeth D. Sawyer; with letters to Perry T. Rathbone, City Art Museum of St. Hogan; with attached leaflet on roundtable discussions Charles Clifford Wright Mrs. William Wurster. Includes correspondence from: Leslie Switzer Andrew V.
Includes correspondence with: Adelphi College Arthur P. Moor; with memo to Mr. Alma B. Gimbel Andover Museum Bartlett H. Townsend Sellers. File contains mostly correspondence between Alfred H. Also includes a memo from Dorothy Miller to Barr. Contains an 8 page handwritten letter from Alfred H. Barr to John Abbott, which has been retyped. Becker Alice Carson Also includes: Suggested list of members of advisory committee for salon show List of questions for the Decade Show Report of conference on April 4, Report of conference on March 26, Outline of architectural bulletin.
Roberts Brooklyn Museum W. Norton Philip A. Roe Lotus Club John L. Kahn New Currents Isabel F. Middleton International Workers Order, Inc. Edward A. Includes correspondence with: Baltimore Museum Douglas C. Edgell; W. Baur; Theodore, D. Starr; Isabel S. Roberts; Una E. Johnson; Laurance P. Elliott; Seymour H.
Know; Andrew Ritchie. Law Watkins Jorge A. Goding and Mrs. Primarily contains correspondence between Alfred H. Also includes: "Memo on therapy" Excerpt from Mr. McAlpin's letter to Mrs. Elfer Carlos Dyer with recommendation letter to Leslie Cheek. Egan Edythe Ferris William F. Includes correspondence with: Peggy P. Guggenheim Foundation Hilla Rebay. Includes correspondence with: Victor Hammer B. Margaret E. Brown Julian Huxley. Teague Also includes and outline of future plans for Dept. Abbott Peter Juley. File mostly contains correspondence between Alfred H.
Kaufmann, Sr. Davidson; Elizabeth King Charles R. Henschel A. Ayer and Son, Inc. Anderson; Olive M. Also Includes correspondence with Hannah B. Muller and Helmut von Erffa. Jervell Lenscraft studios Adele R. Levy Julien Levy Samuel A. Luce; D. Bishop F. Lebel University of Louisville J. Oppenheimer Also includes a list of artists. Van Doren John D. Morse George L. Parker Also includes: List of authors and articles A questionnaire List of articles for October issue Statement of editorial policy Written statement from June 10, Written statement from April 22, Lists of article ideas, articles commissioned, and articles on hand American Federation of Arts news release October 13, George Hewitt Myers Helen H.
Includes correspondence with: William Macbeth, Inc. McKim Albert E. Bach; H. Murdock with memo from James T. Soby to Alfred H. Handley; also includes attached literature on Reginald and Gladys Laubin and on L. Burroughs Bradford G. Mead George A. Morgan to Monroe Wheeler Budget statement for photography department Minutes of photography committee meeting. Also includes: Letter from Wheeler to John E. Abbott Memo from H. Wheeler List of newspapers and publications. Includes correspondence with: Paramount Pictures, Inc.
Lee; Erwin Panofsky; George H. Hutzler; John Coolidge; Donald D. Egbert; C. Includes correspondence with: John Rewald Paul J. Includes correspondence with: Monroe Wheeler Dorothy Dudley Lincoln Kirstein Also includes registrar's specifications for borrowing, receiving and returning loans as well as a loan form. Mostly contains correspondence between Alfred H. Includes correspondence with: Grace L. Robinson; with memo from S.
Newmeyer to Alfred H. Etienne, Inc. Otto Kallir; Kenneth Donahue St. Gosline Town and Country Harry Bull. Includes correspondence with: United Seamen's Service, Inc. Isabel F. Includes correspondence with: Willard Gallery Marian J. Marks Edward M. Warburg Franklin Watkins Lucius A. Crowell Edwin S. Webster E. Soby to Stephen C. Clark; Slotemaker de Bruine, N. Mary F. Steingart Architectural Press Ltd.
Hartell; with memo from Dorothy Miller to Alfred H. Harry P. Hope Edgar J. Kaufmann Ethel Clinton Philip L. Ward to Alfred H. Fowler; Catherine Ayerigg Galka E. Scheyer School of Design in Chicago L. Moholy-Nagy Miriam B. Schwartzberg with memo from Alfred H.
David A. Abbott Lawrence K. Butler Susan Cable Jennie M. Campbell Jean Farrand Mrs. David O. King Mrs. Howard G. Kornblith Babette Mrs. Lewisohn Margaret Life M. Ballou Liturgical Arts Society, Inc. Luckhurst Seguso Alice B. Weitzner Alfred Wiesenthal Joseph Winterbotham. Art Directors Club William A. Burden Artists Equity Association Australia. Includes correspondence with: Philip R. Navas Thomas C. Daugherty Alfred V. Odegaard Nelson A. Braden William A.
Wight John Hay Whitney. Includes cards from: Austin, A.