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Any such merchants found in our country at the outbreak of war shall be detained without injury to their persons or property, until we or our chief justice have discovered how our own merchants are being treated in the country at war with us. If our own merchants are safe they shall be safe too. People that have been imprisoned or outlawed in accordance with the law of the land, people from a country that is at war with us, and merchants - who shall be dealt with as stated above - are excepted from this provision.

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We will hold the 'escheat' in the same manner as the baron held it. River-banks that have been enclosed in our reign shall be treated similarly. But we, or our chief justice if we are not in England, are first to be informed. In cases, however, where a man was deprived or dispossessed of something without the lawful judgment of his equals by our father King Henry or our brother King Richard, and it remains in our hands or is held by others under our warranty, we shall have respite for the period commonly allowed to Crusaders, unless a lawsuit had been begun, or an enquiry had been made at our order, before we took the Cross as a Crusader.

On our return from the Crusade, or if we abandon it, we will at once render justice in full. On our return from the Crusade, or if we abandon it, we will at once do full justice to complaints about these matters. If the archbishop cannot be present, proceedings shall continue without him, provided that if any of the twenty-five barons has been involved in a similar suit himself, his judgment shall be set aside, and someone else chosen and sworn in his place, as a substitute for the single occasion, by the rest of the twenty-five.

A dispute on this point shall be determined in the Marches by the judgment of equals. English law shall apply to holdings of land in England, Welsh law to those in Wales, and the law of the Marches to those in the Marches.

The Welsh shall treat us and ours in the same way. But on our return from the Crusade, or if we abandon it, we will at once do full justice according to the laws of Wales and the said regions. This matter shall be resolved by the judgment of his equals in our court. Let all men of our kingdom, whether clergy or laymen, observe them similarly in their relations with their own men. The barons shall elect twenty-five of their number to keep, and cause to be observed with all their might, the peace and liberties granted and confirmed to them by this charter.

If we, our chief justice, our officials, or any of our servants offend in any respect against any man, or transgress any of the articles of the peace or of this security, and the offence is made known to four of the said twenty-five barons, they shall come to us — or in our absence from the kingdom to the chief justice — to declare it and claim immediate redress.

If we, or in our absence abroad the chief justice, make no redress within forty days, reckoning from the day on which the offence was declared to us or to him, the four barons shall refer the matter to the rest of the twenty-five barons, who may distrain upon and assail us in every way possible, with the support of the whole community of the land, by seizing our castles, lands, possessions, or anything else saving only our own person and those of the queen and our children, until they have secured such redress as they have determined upon.

Having secured the redress, they may then resume their normal obedience to us. Any man who so desires may take an oath to obey the commands of the twenty-five barons for the achievement of these ends, and to join with them in assailing us to the utmost of his power. We give public and free permission to take this oath to any man who so desires, and at no time will we prohibit any man from taking it.

Carta - Spanish to English Translation | Spanish Central

Indeed, we will compel any of our subjects who are unwilling to take it to swear it at our command. If one of the twenty-five barons dies or leaves the country, or is prevented in any other way from discharging his duties, the rest of them shall choose another baron in his place, at their discretion, who shall be duly sworn in as they were. In the event of disagreement among the twenty-five barons on any matter referred to them for decision, the verdict of the majority present shall have the same validity as a unanimous verdict of the whole twenty-five, whether these were all present or some of those summoned were unwilling or unable to appear.

The twenty-five barons shall swear to obey all the above articles faithfully, and shall cause them to be obeyed by others to the best of their power. We will not seek to procure from anyone, either by our own efforts or those of a third party, anything by which any part of these concessions or liberties might be revoked or diminished. Should such a thing be procured, it shall be null and void and we will at no time make use of it, either ourselves or through a third party.


We have in addition remitted fully, and for our own part have also pardoned, to all clergy and laymen any offences committed as a result of the said dispute between Easter in the sixteenth year of our reign i. In addition we have caused letters patent to be made for the barons, bearing witness to this security and to the concessions set out above, over the seals of Stephen archbishop of Canterbury, Henry archbishop of Dublin, the other bishops named above, and Master Pandulf.

Both we and the barons have sworn that all this shall be observed in good faith and without deceit. Witness the abovementioned people and many others. Given by our hand in the meadow that is called Runnymede, between Windsor and Staines, on the fifteenth day of June in the seventeenth year of our reign i.

The text in this article is available under the Creative Commons License. English translation of Magna Carta. Theme: Clauses and content Published: 28 Jul Translation of the full text of the original edition of Magna Carta from Latin into modern day English. Which clauses were later omitted and which are still valid today?

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Notes on the English translation of Magna Carta The text of Magna Carta of bears many traces of haste, and is the product of much bargaining. TO ALL FREE MEN OF OUR KINGDOM we have also granted, for us and our heirs for ever, all the liberties written out below, to have and to keep for them and their heirs, of us and our heirs: 2 If any earl, baron, or other person that holds lands directly of the Crown, for military service, shall die, and at his death his heir shall be of full age and owe a 'relief', the heir shall have his inheritance on payment of the ancient scale of 'relief'.

Source: G. Share this page. For current events, please see the Library Calendar. Although the field of Spanish philology has made strides in recent decades toward the goal of publishing faithful editions of Old Spanish texts, there is still a lack of reliable primary sources. This is especially troubling for the historical linguist, who, in the absence of an oral record, must recur to written sources for his or her data. In the area of Colonial Spanish studies, we are fortunate in the fact that the Spanish colonizing enterprise has left us with a plethora of documentation.


There is thus a critical need for faithfully edited primary sources of Colonial Spanish America. In the absence of reliable and accessible texts, we will be unable to further our knowledge of the language of the period, of its concomitant cultural manifestations, and of the history it tells.

The rationale for selecting these works as the first texts for our corpus is threefold. Three, the fact that the texts are printed in Gothic minuscule typeface and are not manuscripts, facilitates the work of our corps of editors, who will be graduate students in Spanish, Department of Modern Languages, at UT Arlington. Skip to main content. Hours Contact Us.

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