As noted in Part 1 , there is a difference between what a border agent can glean from a casual inspection of your device by tapping around or using the keyboard and mouse and what can be determined by some forms of forensic examination. CBP and other law enforcement agencies have access to sophisticated forensic tools and experts. That means a forensic examination can, among other things, commonly recover deleted files and data and reconstruct information about how you have used your device in the past, even if that information is not apparent at all from a casual inspection.
For example, forensic examinations routinely find deleted e-mails, files, and text messages, and also reveal the earlier presence and use of applications that have been uninstalled. Many mobile devices also store information about how and when they were used. For example, mobile apps on a phone may have historic GPS information showing where you were at certain times in the past.
A laptop or phone may have logs about when it was powered on, or the names of the wi-fi networks it has connected to. Sometimes, some kinds of activity log information are hidden from the user by default but can still be extracted and analyzed by a forensic expert. There are tools that try to expunge information from storage media in ways that cannot be recovered by forensics.
Most devices do not come with these tools. Their effectiveness varies widely, and it will usually be clear to a forensic examiner that they were used. Factory resetting your device may sometimes also fall in this category if appropriate encryption was used. Note that border agents may notice, and regard as suspicious, a wipe or factory reset of your device, since most travelers do not routinely carry blank devices. Crossing the border with a blank device can be especially risky for non-citizens. Note also that truly secure deletion is irreversible and may be technically challenging for some travelers.
Consider carefully whether you are comfortable deleting the information on your device. If possible, make sure you have made a backup copy of any important data before deletion, and leave that copy in a secure location. Some secure deletion tools delete individual files, overwriting their contents so that they cannot be recovered. There are several things that can go wrong here: the most important is that references to the deleted files and their names may still exist, and so may temporary copies that software previously made while working with the files. It is safer, if possible, to delete an entire storage medium, although this may make a device unusable.
Secure deletion is easiest on laptops, and hardest on phones and tablets. It may be relatively achievable for digital cameras by taking out the memory card and wiping it in a laptop. When used on an encrypted device, they may succeed in removing substantially all of the information from the device, although border agents could regard this as suspicious. If you want to know for sure what information a factory reset will remove, you should consult the device manufacturer. Many devices have a removable memory card, like an SD card, which is used to store photos and other information.
Factory reset often does not erase the removable memory card, so you should remove and wipe it separately, or swap it out for a new, blank memory card. If your device offers an account-based cloud sync feature—such as iCloud—you may be able to sync your device before crossing the border, then factory reset it, then re-associate the device with your account and re-sync it after crossing the border.
Make sure that the sync includes all of the data that you care about so that you do not lose anything important. However, keep in mind that re-syncing the device may take a long time and require downloading a lot of data, and thus require a reliable broadband Internet connection. A laptop can wipe its own hard drive, or removable storage media like USB drives or SD cards, by overwriting their contents. Formatting tools let you choose between a quick format and a secure overwriting format.
You should already have built-in tools that can already perform a low-level format or wipe a hard drive, or you may download third-party tools to do this. You should refer to the instructions for your operating system for securely wiping the hard drive. After wiping a hard drive, you may need to reinstall the operating system before you can use the device again. Again, this technique can be especially risky for non-citizens since it is highly unusual for travelers to carry blank devices with them. For reasons noted above, trying to delete individual files, even using special secure deletion tools, may not produce the results you expect.
Fragments of the files, or references to them, may still be present elsewhere on your system. Nonetheless, if you want to attempt this, we have described tools for this purpose in articles at:. References to those files may still exist elsewhere on your computer, and it will be clear to a forensic examiner that you chose to clear the free space.
Some kinds of storage media based on flash memory technology have special issues related to forensics and data recovery. If you are concerned about it, consider overwriting flash memory devices multiple times, not carrying them across the border, or consulting an expert on storage technology or computer forensics. Full-disk or full-device encryption can make secure deletion easier and more effective because wiping the only copy of the decryption keys should make the rest of the information on the device unreadable as a whole.
This appears to be part of the functionality of a factory reset on iOS devices or a power wash on Chromebooks, which in turn means these devices can more easily and effectively be purged of their contents than other devices. Whether or not a device has been wiped, full-device encryption can hinder or entirely prevent forensic analysis of its contents, if it is used correctly in accordance with other precautions, powering the device off, using a long and hard-to-guess passphrase, and not storing a copy of the passphrase somewhere where the examiner can later get a hold of it.
We are often reluctant to suggest storing data with online cloud services, because U. But in the border search context, the situation may be temporarily reversed: information that you have stored online may be more protected than information on a device you are carrying with you—because you are not carrying it across the border. There are also many third-party options.
Wikipedia offers comparisons of these services based on many factors:. Cloud storage is useful as a means to back up your data to prevent against data loss in case your device is seized, lost, or stolen. It can also be useful as part of a strategy for shifting data online so that it is not present on your computer while you are crossing the border. It may also be feasible to store data online-only rather than keeping it on your computer at all. This is a default behavior for many purposes on Chromebooks, which is why many use them for travel.
If you move data that was originally stored on your device to a cloud service, and attempt to delete that data from your device, you may not effectively delete it from your device. If your device is seized and subject to some forms of forensic examination, it may reveal some of the information that was previously stored.
In the border search context you may—unusually—have stronger legal protections for data that is stored elsewhere, so it may be especially appealing to store some data online instead of on your device. Most cloud services encrypt the data traveling between your computer and theirs, but then store it unencrypted, so they can read it and know what you are storing. A minority of cloud storage services, such as SpiderOak, offer client-side encryption where data is encrypted on your device before you upload it, so that the service cannot read the contents of your data.
This is a great way to mitigate the risk that the storage provider will disclose your data to someone else. As with other applications of encryption, if you forget your password, the data will be permanently lost and no one can recover it. The Wikipedia comparison charts above indicate whether or not data stored with each provider can be encrypted client-side before uploading.
If you do not want to entrust your data to others in order to get the benefits of cloud storage, you can also host your own cloud storage with a server in a colocation facility, for example, using self-hosted cloud storage tools. As of this writing, one popular solution for this purpose is OwnCloud. Some network-attached storage NAS appliances let you set up a password-protected web interface to upload, download, or synchronize files and folders over the Internet.
If you have a fast, reliable broadband Internet connection at home and your Internet service provider does not block it, you could then have your own Internet-accessible storage facility served from your own home. Some ISPs forbid home servers in their terms of service, so you may want to check to be sure. We strongly recommend using HTTPS encryption with either of these approaches to ensure network operators or other people on a wi-fi network cannot intercept your files and passwords.
Although a service that you host yourself offers a high degree of control and legal protection, it may be much more vulnerable to hacking compared to commercial cloud services because you will not benefit from a professional security team testing, monitoring, and upgrading it.
Travelers with special needs or resources may be able to work out other approaches that reduce what they carry over the border. For personal travel, you may be able to physically remove the hard drive from your laptop before your trip, and purchase a separate laptop hard drive for travel purposes onto which you install a fresh operating system.
Then you can swap hard drives before and after your trip and pick up where you left off when you get back home. We have fewer rights at the U. Still, we can all take action before, during, and after our border crossings to protect our digital privacy. If border agents violated your digital privacy, please contact EFF. If you would like to help fight for stronger digital privacy protections at the U. Together, we can build a future where new technology strengthens our privacy and other constitutional rights, and does not diminish it.
Join EFF Lists. Electronic Frontier Foundation. By Adam Schwartz. Estas acciones incluyen: Antes de su viaje. En la frontera de los Estados Unidos. Sin embargo, si un visitante extranjero declina, un agente puede negarle la entrada. Si un residente permanente legal declina, los agentes pueden plantearse preguntas complicadas acerca de su permanencia como residente en la futura.
En particular, abordamos: Sus derechos en la frontera. Historial policial. Si no, consulte con la persona que lo hace como su empleador. Este puede ser un buen enfoque, pero ofrecemos tres precauciones. Copia de seguridad de sus datos Los viajeros siempre deben tener copias de seguridad de sus datos. Los agentes fronterizos pueden analizar todo el contenido almacenado en su dispositivo, manualmente o con software forense de gran alcance.
Los agentes de frontera pueden copiar y almacenar todo este contenido para su uso posterior. El agente de frontera puede escalar el encuentro. Los agentes fronterizos pueden requisar sus dispositivos. Incluso si no pueden descifrar sus dispositivos, pueden ser capaces de copiar el contenido cifrado de sus dispositivos.
El escrutinio del gobierno de sus dispositivos puede tardar meses. El agente de frontera puede dejarlo pasar sin interferencias adicionales. Oficinas gubernamentales que pueden ayudarle Es posible que desee presentar una queja con, o buscar ayuda del gobierno. When in doubt, you should consult with a lawyer. The Court presumes that warrantless and suspicionless border searches are critical to: Ensuring that travelers entering the U.
The digital device is a conduit to retrieving information from the cloud, akin to the key to a safe deposit box. The First Amendment at the Border: Freedom to Privately Speak, Associate, Acquire Information, and Gather News When border agents scrutinize the massive volume of sensitive information in our digital devices, they infringe on our First Amendment rights in at least four distinct ways. Fingerprints Properly construed, the Fifth Amendment should offer the same protections when people use fingerprints or other biometrics to secure their devices. It certainly is far less than individualized suspicion.
If an officer searches an electronic device, they must complete an after-action report. If an officer does so, they must issue a custody receipt to the traveler Form D. The device detention should not exceed five days, though CBP managers may and do grant extensions of weeks or months. Encryption Encryption technologies can make stored information unintelligible to anyone who does not know the password.
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Understanding Weaker Screen-Lock or User Account Passwords Having to enter a password to use your device is not necessarily the same as having encryption. Strong Full-Disk Storage Encryption The encryption technologies that are available to you will depend on your device and operating system. Choosing a Strong Password Strong passwords are critical for encryption. Do Not Forget Your Password A risk of encrypting your device is that nobody including the device maker! Turn Off Your Device As we mentioned in Part 1 , you should turn off your device before arriving at the border or any other risky situation.
Secure Deletion and Forensics Many travelers may choose to delete things on their devices that they do not want others to see, or sensitive information that they know they will not need during their trips. If you want to feel more confident that your information has truly been deleted, read on. Overview of Secure Deletion There are tools that try to expunge information from storage media in ways that cannot be recovered by forensics.
Individual File Secure Deletion For reasons noted above, trying to delete individual files, even using special secure deletion tools, may not produce the results you expect. Encryption and Secure Deletion Full-disk or full-device encryption can make secure deletion easier and more effective because wiping the only copy of the decryption keys should make the rest of the information on the device unreadable as a whole.
Cloud Storage We are often reluctant to suggest storing data with online cloud services, because U. Forensics If you move data that was originally stored on your device to a cloud service, and attempt to delete that data from your device, you may not effectively delete it from your device. Personal Cloud Storage If you do not want to entrust your data to others in order to get the benefits of cloud storage, you can also host your own cloud storage with a server in a colocation facility, for example, using self-hosted cloud storage tools.
More Elaborate Data Minimization Ideas Travelers with special needs or resources may be able to work out other approaches that reduce what they carry over the border. Warshak, F. United States v. Lopez, WL S. Vea tambien 18 U. See Riley v. California, S. The Atlantic Feb. Arnold , No. Cotterman , No. Saboonchi , No. Brigham City v. Stuart , U. Katz v. Montoya de Hernandez , U. See, e. United States , U. Ramsey , U.
Flores-Montano , U. Ogberaha , F. Gonzalez-Rincon , 36 F. Cotterman , F.
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Riley v. California , S. Prior to Riley , the Supreme Court noted the similarity between the border search exception and the search-incident-to-arrest exception. Districts courts have also been considering Cotterman and Riley. Saboonchi , 48 F. Martinez , WL S. Kim , F. Kolsuz , F. Caballero , F. Martinez-Fuerte , U. Ortiz , U. See also Almeida-Sanchez v. McIntyre v. NAACP v. Claiborne Hardware Co. Alabama , U. Virginia Consumer Council , U. Georgia , U. Postmaster Gen. City of Struthers , U.
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Walters , F. Lay , F. City of Thornton , 44 P. Branzburg v. Hayes , U. See also, e. Smith , F. Cuthbertson , F. Some courts have required enhanced First Amendment standards for search warrants for expressive materials. State of Kansas , U. Regarding the expressive materials of journalists specifically, it is clear that warrantless and suspicionless searches of digital devices at the border implicate free press rights. See Zurcher v.
Stanford Daily , U. While the statute exempts border searches for the purpose of enforcing the customs laws, it does not exempt border searches for other purposes. Abidor v. Napolitano , F. Arnold , F. Ickes , F. Hubbell , U. Kirschner , F. Doe v. United States, U. See also SEC v. Fricosu , F. Commonwealth v. Gelfgatt , 11 N.
Stahl , So. CompareState v. Diamond , WL Minn. Baust , No. CR, WL Va. Armstrong , U. Cleburne Living Ctr. Hodges , S.
Las comillas hacen referencia a que no se trata de un gran server sino un procesador ARM de Mhz y 32MB de RAM, lo que es suficiente para que corra Debian y algunos otros servicios que pueden ser interesantes. Es realmente sencillo. El sistema de paquetes que utiliza snake-os es opkg y tiene que ser primero activado desde Service-Opkg. En particular, pueden ser interesantes siempre pensando en los features originales : Transmission : Es un cliente de BitTorrent, para dejar tus descargas corriendo.
Es bastante mejor que el original. Desde cuando un proveedor de Internet tiene potestad para cerrar descaradamente un sitio web? La Internet no supone ser libre? No es posible que nuestro proveedor tilde de difamaciones y calumnias las quejas nuestras. This is my first post on the Debian Planet. Our next DebConf meeting is TBD on doodle , if you are interested to participate in the meeting, please go to doodle and select the dates you are available so we can decide when is going to be the next meeting.
Carlos shared a pretty cool link with me this morning. Codility is a platform to help recruiters and contractors to test developers before hiring them. Both the idea and the execution are beautiful. As part of my visit to the page I gave a try to the demo test. The problem was quite easy. It reads like this:. Equilibrium index of a sequence is an index such that the sum of elements at lower indexes is equal to the sum of elements at higher indexes. For example, in a sequence A:.
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Assume the sum of zero elements is equal zero. Write a function int equi int A ; that given a sequence, returns its equilibrium index any or -1 if no equilibrium indexes exist. Assume that the sequence may be very long. More specifically, data about local public land transportation schedule and live arrivals. The way they are presenting that information for mobile devices at the moment is very very heavy and slow, so I thought it may be useful to do something simpler for personal usage.
This way the application will boot way faster. However, if you find it useful feel free to drop me a line. Update : Android screenshots provided by Javier Pozueco. Thanks buddy! Google is a pretty good example of it. But, how could it be implemented? This feature could be implemented either in the client side or in the server side. Either way, there should be a data structure somewhere containing the word list and an algorithm to do the lookup. The simplest approach may be to use a list to store the words and issue something like this when you want to get a list of hints for a given prefix:.
Although the results can and should be cached, the very first lookup or when the cache expires would be very inefficient because the entire list must be traversed and that operation will take linear time. Not bad, but when the size of the problem gets bigger i. Fortunately, there are better and faster ways to face the problem. So, assuming four is a reasonable minimum prefix length, I measured the time it would take to get a list of words prefixed by hous yes, just one, remember I said this was a poor benchmark?
Unsurprisingly, it took around times longer for the list alternative to generate the hints My implementation of the tree is as follows. A week ago, I wanted to prank my brother for a while. These alternatives are fast, bulletproof and time-saving, but not fun. So… what did I do?
The script just collects connections, issues back Moved Permanently and sets Location to the URI specified as a command line argument option -u. It lacks some security checks left as an exercise to the reader but it does what it is supposed to do. Reports are welcome! For those wondering, the prank was a big success.
The speed and reach of forwarded emails, rumors, and hoaxes in electronic social networks
Some simple tests are also included in the bundle. If you want to examine the stack in each iteration you only have to turn debugging on. That can be accomplished by changing logging. INFO to logging. DEBUG line 7. If you are curious you can see all changes since 6. The main feature for this release is that now nvidia and ATI users can use their GPU with boinc they need to download the non-free libs and apply some workarounds.
And if you read trough here, and you are a boinc user and want to help us, please send an email to pkg-boinc-devel lists. Almost 11 years knowing about free software, and 10 years using Debian, and almost 4 years trying to work on Debian. At least for me is a good time to say cheers! Al final el rollazo este del mundial va a tener algo bueno. Hay diversas administraciones que han empezado a publicar datos abiertos enlazados, tanto a nivel nacional como internacional. Actualmente, de todas formas, existen numerosas bibliotecas en diferentes lenguajes que hacen que esta tarea muy sencilla de realizar.
Como nota positiva, hay grupos que no he visto en ninguna de las listas , como Amaral, Alaska, Hombres G, …. English: if you want to know what this post is about, read this. Este manifiesto, elaborado de forma conjunta por varios autores, es de todos y de ninguno. Se ha publicado en multitud de sitios web. This weekend while I was on Guatemala just a few hours before to give a talk, my acer one decided to suddenly shut down, I tried to started again, remove the battery, plug the charger, etc, I actually even tried to bott it with some liv-usb distro, but the netbook keep shutting down a few seconds after boot.
Contacto: Debian Planet Maintainers. Registrarse Mi cuenta es larjona jabber. Programas clientes Hay clientes para muchos sistemas operativos distintos. Tengo pendiente probar Gajim. Derivados Existen aplicaciones que utilizan XMPP pero no son del todo compatibles, porque han adaptado el sistema a sus necesidades. Whatsapp Un ejemplo de derivado no libre es Whatsapp. Asegurando las respuestas de nuestro dominio. Automatizando el proceso de firma Ya sabemos cuando caducan las firmas de nuestra zona, en este ejemplo. NSEC foo. Firmando el fichero de zona Ahora ya podemos firmar nuestra zona DNS.
Es decir, el fichero.
Indica el ORIGIN de la zona, es decir el dominio para que no lo tenga que deducir del nombre del fichero de zona, aunque en este ejemplo sea obvio. El fichero original de la zona. Aaron Swartz. Habilidades humanas. Y luego que afronten su aprendizaje con ese perfil en mente. Usable La red Pump El software es usable. El servidor e14n. Entre ellas, tenemos: OpenFarmGame el juego de la granja abierta es un juego de red social para mostrar las posibilidades de la red Pump Spamicity.
El bot conversacional XR se ha unido a pump. Necesita usuarios Principalmente por el efecto red. Veo tres tipos de usuarios: Gente que no usa ninguna red social: si eres nueva en las redes sociales, por favor, usa una basada en software libre. Puede ser Pump. Yo conozco Pump. No hay una actividad abrumadora, sin publi, sin spam pero si lo quieres, puedes ir a la manguera Gente que usa otras redes sociales: Pump.
Funcionalidad que da el control al usuario Pump. Buscar publicaciones y usuarios. Mostrar contextos en la interfaz web. Una ventana donde el posible nuevo usuario pueda mirar. Cuando es el momento adecuado para emprender? G-Shock 3D Branding Exercise An exercise on exploring and deconstructing a well-known brand to derive the vision, personality and language, to then identify a new concept product or experience that that brand could take to market.
Finalmente Queremos realidades , no leyes bonitas. Les dejo adivinar el orden correcto ;-. A mi me van a quedar un poco lejos, pero invito al que pueda a acercarse al evento. No se lo pierdan Un problema general que me he encontrado en convertir los ejemplos de configuraciones de slpad. We are waiting for you! Debconf