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She has a public role over and above her charitable and educational activities: all the energy she brings to the advancement of humanity and of universal fraternity is manifested when she is able to operate in a climate of freedom. In not a few cases, that freedom is impeded by prohibitions and persecutions, or it is limited when the Church's public presence is reduced to her charitable activities alone.

The second truth is that authentic human development concerns the whole of the person in every single dimension [16]. Without the perspective of eternal life, human progress in this world is denied breathing-space. Enclosed within history, it runs the risk of being reduced to the mere accumulation of wealth; humanity thus loses the courage to be at the service of higher goods, at the service of the great and disinterested initiatives called forth by universal charity.

Man does not develop through his own powers, nor can development simply be handed to him. In the course of history, it was often maintained that the creation of institutions was sufficient to guarantee the fulfilment of humanity's right to development. Unfortunately, too much confidence was placed in those institutions, as if they were able to deliver the desired objective automatically. In reality, institutions by themselves are not enough, because integral human development is primarily a vocation, and therefore it involves a free assumption of responsibility in solidarity on the part of everyone.

Moreover, such development requires a transcendent vision of the person, it needs God: without him, development is either denied, or entrusted exclusively to man, who falls into the trap of thinking he can bring about his own salvation, and ends up promoting a dehumanized form of development. The link between Populorum Progressio and the Second Vatican Council does not mean that Paul VI's social magisterium marked a break with that of previous Popes, because the Council constitutes a deeper exploration of this magisterium within the continuity of the Church's life [19].

In this sense, clarity is not served by certain abstract subdivisions of the Church's social doctrine, which apply categories to Papal social teaching that are extraneous to it. It is not a case of two typologies of social doctrine, one pre-conciliar and one post-conciliar, differing from one another: on the contrary, there is a single teaching, consistent and at the same time ever new [20].

It is one thing to draw attention to the particular characteristics of one Encyclical or another, of the teaching of one Pope or another, but quite another to lose sight of the coherence of the overall doctrinal corpus [21]. Coherence does not mean a closed system: on the contrary, it means dynamic faithfulness to a light received. The Church's social doctrine illuminates with an unchanging light the new problems that are constantly emerging [22]. Social doctrine is built on the foundation handed on by the Apostles to the Fathers of the Church, and then received and further explored by the great Christian doctors.

It is attested by the saints and by those who gave their lives for Christ our Saviour in the field of justice and peace. It is an expression of the prophetic task of the Supreme Pontiffs to give apostolic guidance to the Church of Christ and to discern the new demands of evangelization. For these reasons, Populorum Progressio , situated within the great current of Tradition, can still speak to us today. In addition to its important link with the entirety of the Church's social doctrine, Populorum Progressio is closely connected to the overall magisterium of Paul VI , especially his social magisterium.

His was certainly a social teaching of great importance: he underlined the indispensable importance of the Gospel for building a society according to freedom and justice, in the ideal and historical perspective of a civilization animated by love.

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Paul VI clearly understood that the social question had become worldwide [25] and he grasped the interconnection between the impetus towards the unification of humanity and the Christian ideal of a single family of peoples in solidarity and fraternity. In the notion of development, understood in human and Christian terms, he identified the heart of the Christian social message , and he proposed Christian charity as the principal force at the service of development.

Motivated by the wish to make Christ's love fully visible to contemporary men and women, Paul VI addressed important ethical questions robustly, without yielding to the cultural weaknesses of his time. In his Apostolic Letter Octogesima Adveniens of , Paul VI reflected on the meaning of politics, and the danger constituted by utopian and ideological visions that place its ethical and human dimensions in jeopardy. These are matters closely connected with development. Unfortunately the negative ideologies continue to flourish. Paul VI had already warned against the technocratic ideology so prevalent today [26] , fully aware of the great danger of entrusting the entire process of development to technology alone, because in that way it would lack direction.

Technology, viewed in itself, is ambivalent. If on the one hand, some today would be inclined to entrust the entire process of development to technology, on the other hand we are witnessing an upsurge of ideologies that deny in toto the very value of development, viewing it as radically anti-human and merely a source of degradation.

This leads to a rejection, not only of the distorted and unjust way in which progress is sometimes directed, but also of scientific discoveries themselves, which, if well used, could serve as an opportunity of growth for all. The idea of a world without development indicates a lack of trust in man and in God. Idealizing technical progress, or contemplating the utopia of a return to humanity's original natural state, are two contrasting ways of detaching progress from its moral evaluation and hence from our responsibility.

Two further documents by Paul VI without any direct link to social doctrine — the Encyclical Humanae Vitae 25 July and the Apostolic Exhortation Evangelii Nuntiandi 8 December — are highly important for delineating the fully human meaning of the development that the Church proposes.

It is therefore helpful to consider these texts too in relation to Populorum Progressio. The Encyclical Humanae Vitae emphasizes both the unitive and the procreative meaning of sexuality, thereby locating at the foundation of society the married couple, man and woman, who accept one another mutually, in distinction and in complementarity: a couple, therefore, that is open to life [27].

This is not a question of purely individual morality: Humanae Vitae indicates the strong links between life ethics and social ethics , ushering in a new area of magisterial teaching that has gradually been articulated in a series of documents, most recently John Paul II's Encyclical Evangelium Vitae [28].

Testimony to Christ's charity, through works of justice, peace and development, is part and parcel of evangelization , because Jesus Christ, who loves us, is concerned with the whole person. These important teachings form the basis for the missionary aspect [32] of the Church's social doctrine, which is an essential element of evangelization [33]. The Church's social doctrine proclaims and bears witness to faith. It is an instrument and an indispensable setting for formation in faith. If development were concerned with merely technical aspects of human life, and not with the meaning of man's pilgrimage through history in company with his fellow human beings, nor with identifying the goal of that journey, then the Church would not be entitled to speak on it.

Paul VI, like Leo XIII before him in Rerum Novarum [35] , knew that he was carrying out a duty proper to his office by shedding the light of the Gospel on the social questions of his time [36]. To regard development as a vocation is to recognize, on the one hand, that it derives from a transcendent call, and on the other hand that it is incapable, on its own, of supplying its ultimate meaning. It is also the principal reason why that Encyclical is still timely in our day. A vocation is a call that requires a free and responsible answer. Integral human development presupposes the responsible freedom of the individual and of peoples: no structure can guarantee this development over and above human responsibility.

This false security becomes a weakness, because it involves reducing man to subservience, to a mere means for development, while the humility of those who accept a vocation is transformed into true autonomy, because it sets them free. This too is a vocation, a call addressed by free subjects to other free subjects in favour of an assumption of shared responsibility. Paul VI had a keen sense of the importance of economic structures and institutions, but he had an equally clear sense of their nature as instruments of human freedom. Only when it is free can development be integrally human; only in a climate of responsible freedom can it grow in a satisfactory manner.

Besides requiring freedom, integral human development as a vocation also demands respect for its truth. Amid the various competing anthropological visions put forward in today's society, even more so than in Paul VI's time, the Christian vision has the particular characteristic of asserting and justifying the unconditional value of the human person and the meaning of his growth. The Christian vocation to development helps to promote the advancement of all men and of the whole man. In promoting development, the Christian faith does not rely on privilege or positions of power, nor even on the merits of Christians even though these existed and continue to exist alongside their natural limitations [44] , but only on Christ, to whom every authentic vocation to integral human development must be directed.

The truth of development consists in its completeness: if it does not involve the whole man and every man, it is not true development. This is the central message of Populorum Progressio , valid for today and for all time. Finally, the vision of development as a vocation brings with it the central place of charity within that development. Paul VI, in his Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio , pointed out that the causes of underdevelopment are not primarily of the material order.

He invited us to search for them in other dimensions of the human person: first of all, in the will, which often neglects the duties of solidarity; secondly in thinking, which does not always give proper direction to the will. But that is not all. Will it ever be possible to obtain this brotherhood by human effort alone? As society becomes ever more globalized, it makes us neighbours but does not make us brothers.

Reason, by itself, is capable of grasping the equality between men and of giving stability to their civic coexistence, but it cannot establish fraternity. This originates in a transcendent vocation from God the Father, who loved us first, teaching us through the Son what fraternal charity is. These perspectives, which Populorum Progressio opens up, remain fundamental for giving breathing-space and direction to our commitment for the development of peoples.

Moreover, Populorum Progressio repeatedly underlines the urgent need for reform [54] , and in the face of great problems of injustice in the development of peoples, it calls for courageous action to be taken without delay. This urgency is also a consequence of charity in truth. The urgency is inscribed not only in things, it is not derived solely from the rapid succession of events and problems, but also from the very matter that is at stake: the establishment of authentic fraternity.

Paul VI had an articulated vision of development. He understood the term to indicate the goal of rescuing peoples, first and foremost, from hunger, deprivation, endemic diseases and illiteracy. From the economic point of view, this meant their active participation, on equal terms, in the international economic process; from the social point of view, it meant their evolution into educated societies marked by solidarity; from the political point of view, it meant the consolidation of democratic regimes capable of ensuring freedom and peace.

After so many years, as we observe with concern the developments and perspectives of the succession of crises that afflict the world today, we ask to what extent Paul VI's expectations have been fulfilled by the model of development adopted in recent decades. We recognize, therefore, that the Church had good reason to be concerned about the capacity of a purely technological society to set realistic goals and to make good use of the instruments at its disposal.

Profit is useful if it serves as a means towards an end that provides a sense both of how to produce it and how to make good use of it. Once profit becomes the exclusive goal, if it is produced by improper means and without the common good as its ultimate end, it risks destroying wealth and creating poverty. The economic development that Paul VI hoped to see was meant to produce real growth, of benefit to everyone and genuinely sustainable.

It is true that growth has taken place, and it continues to be a positive factor that has lifted billions of people out of misery — recently it has given many countries the possibility of becoming effective players in international politics. Yet it must be acknowledged that this same economic growth has been and continues to be weighed down by malfunctions and dramatic problems , highlighted even further by the current crisis. This presents us with choices that cannot be postponed concerning nothing less than the destiny of man, who, moreover, cannot prescind from his nature.

The technical forces in play, the global interrelations, the damaging effects on the real economy of badly managed and largely speculative financial dealing, large-scale migration of peoples, often provoked by some particular circumstance and then given insufficient attention, the unregulated exploitation of the earth's resources: all this leads us today to reflect on the measures that would be necessary to provide a solution to problems that are not only new in comparison to those addressed by Pope Paul VI, but also, and above all, of decisive impact upon the present and future good of humanity.

The different aspects of the crisis, its solutions, and any new development that the future may bring, are increasingly interconnected, they imply one another, they require new efforts of holistic understanding and a new humanistic synthesis. The complexity and gravity of the present economic situation rightly cause us concern, but we must adopt a realistic attitude as we take up with confidence and hope the new responsibilities to which we are called by the prospect of a world in need of profound cultural renewal, a world that needs to rediscover fundamental values on which to build a better future.

The current crisis obliges us to re-plan our journey, to set ourselves new rules and to discover new forms of commitment, to build on positive experiences and to reject negative ones. The crisis thus becomes an opportunity for discernment, in which to shape a new vision for the future. In this spirit, with confidence rather than resignation, it is appropriate to address the difficulties of the present time.

Today the picture of development has many overlapping layers. The actors and the causes in both underdevelopment and development are manifold, the faults and the merits are differentiated. This fact should prompt us to liberate ourselves from ideologies, which often oversimplify reality in artificial ways, and it should lead us to examine objectively the full human dimension of the problems.

As John Paul II has already observed, the demarcation line between rich and poor countries is no longer as clear as it was at the time of Populorum Progressio [55]. The world's wealth is growing in absolute terms, but inequalities are on the increase. In rich countries, new sectors of society are succumbing to poverty and new forms of poverty are emerging. Corruption and illegality are unfortunately evident in the conduct of the economic and political class in rich countries, both old and new, as well as in poor ones.

Among those who sometimes fail to respect the human rights of workers are large multinational companies as well as local producers. International aid has often been diverted from its proper ends, through irresponsible actions both within the chain of donors and within that of the beneficiaries. Similarly, in the context of immaterial or cultural causes of development and underdevelopment, we find these same patterns of responsibility reproduced. On the part of rich countries there is excessive zeal for protecting knowledge through an unduly rigid assertion of the right to intellectual property, especially in the field of health care.

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At the same time, in some poor countries, cultural models and social norms of behaviour persist which hinder the process of development. Many areas of the globe today have evolved considerably, albeit in problematical and disparate ways, thereby taking their place among the great powers destined to play important roles in the future. Yet it should be stressed that progress of a merely economic and technological kind is insufficient.

Development needs above all to be true and integral. The mere fact of emerging from economic backwardness, though positive in itself, does not resolve the complex issues of human advancement, neither for the countries that are spearheading such progress, nor for those that are already economically developed, nor even for those that are still poor, which can suffer not just through old forms of exploitation, but also from the negative consequences of a growth that is marked by irregularities and imbalances.

After the collapse of the economic and political systems of the Communist countries of Eastern Europe and the end of the so-called opposing blocs , a complete re-examination of development was needed. Pope John Paul II called for it, when in he pointed to the existence of these blocs as one of the principal causes of underdevelopment [57] , inasmuch as politics withdrew resources from the economy and from the culture, and ideology inhibited freedom. Moreover, in , after the events of , he asked that, in view of the ending of the blocs, there should be a comprehensive new plan for development, not only in those countries, but also in the West and in those parts of the world that were in the process of evolving [58].

This has been achieved only in part, and it is still a real duty that needs to be discharged, perhaps by means of the choices that are necessary to overcome current economic problems. The world that Paul VI had before him — even though society had already evolved to such an extent that he could speak of social issues in global terms — was still far less integrated than today's world. Economic activity and the political process were both largely conducted within the same geographical area, and could therefore feed off one another.

Production took place predominantly within national boundaries, and financial investments had somewhat limited circulation outside the country, so that the politics of many States could still determine the priorities of the economy and to some degree govern its performance using the instruments at their disposal.

In our own day, the State finds itself having to address the limitations to its sovereignty imposed by the new context of international trade and finance, which is characterized by increasing mobility both of financial capital and means of production, material and immaterial. This new context has altered the political power of States. Today, as we take to heart the lessons of the current economic crisis, which sees the State's public authorities directly involved in correcting errors and malfunctions, it seems more realistic to re-evaluate their role and their powers, which need to be prudently reviewed and remodelled so as to enable them, perhaps through new forms of engagement, to address the challenges of today's world.

Once the role of public authorities has been more clearly defined, one could foresee an increase in the new forms of political participation, nationally and internationally, that have come about through the activity of organizations operating in civil society; in this way it is to be hoped that the citizens' interest and participation in the res publica will become more deeply rooted. From the social point of view, systems of protection and welfare, already present in many countries in Paul VI's day, are finding it hard and could find it even harder in the future to pursue their goals of true social justice in today's profoundly changed environment.

The global market has stimulated first and foremost, on the part of rich countries, a search for areas in which to outsource production at low cost with a view to reducing the prices of many goods, increasing purchasing power and thus accelerating the rate of development in terms of greater availability of consumer goods for the domestic market. Consequently, the market has prompted new forms of competition between States as they seek to attract foreign businesses to set up production centres, by means of a variety of instruments, including favourable fiscal regimes and deregulation of the labour market.

These processes have led to a downsizing of social security systems as the price to be paid for seeking greater competitive advantage in the global market, with consequent grave danger for the rights of workers, for fundamental human rights and for the solidarity associated with the traditional forms of the social State.

Systems of social security can lose the capacity to carry out their task, both in emerging countries and in those that were among the earliest to develop, as well as in poor countries. Here budgetary policies, with cuts in social spending often made under pressure from international financial institutions, can leave citizens powerless in the face of old and new risks; such powerlessness is increased by the lack of effective protection on the part of workers' associations. Through the combination of social and economic change, trade union organizations experience greater difficulty in carrying out their task of representing the interests of workers, partly because Governments, for reasons of economic utility, often limit the freedom or the negotiating capacity of labour unions.

Hence traditional networks of solidarity have more and more obstacles to overcome. The repeated calls issued within the Church's social doctrine, beginning with Rerum Novarum [60] , for the promotion of workers' associations that can defend their rights must therefore be honoured today even more than in the past, as a prompt and far-sighted response to the urgent need for new forms of cooperation at the international level, as well as the local level. The mobility of labour , associated with a climate of deregulation, is an important phenomenon with certain positive aspects, because it can stimulate wealth production and cultural exchange.

Nevertheless, uncertainty over working conditions caused by mobility and deregulation, when it becomes endemic, tends to create new forms of psychological instability, giving rise to difficulty in forging coherent life-plans, including that of marriage. This leads to situations of human decline, to say nothing of the waste of social resources. In comparison with the casualties of industrial society in the past, unemployment today provokes new forms of economic marginalization, and the current crisis can only make this situation worse.

Being out of work or dependent on public or private assistance for a prolonged period undermines the freedom and creativity of the person and his family and social relationships, causing great psychological and spiritual suffering. On the cultural plane, compared with Paul VI's day, the difference is even more marked.

At that time cultures were relatively well defined and had greater opportunity to defend themselves against attempts to merge them into one. Today the possibilities of interaction between cultures have increased significantly, giving rise to new openings for intercultural dialogue: a dialogue that, if it is to be effective, has to set out from a deep-seated knowledge of the specific identity of the various dialogue partners. Let it not be forgotten that the increased commercialization of cultural exchange today leads to a twofold danger.

First, one may observe a cultural eclecticism that is often assumed uncritically: cultures are simply placed alongside one another and viewed as substantially equivalent and interchangeable. This easily yields to a relativism that does not serve true intercultural dialogue; on the social plane, cultural relativism has the effect that cultural groups coexist side by side, but remain separate, with no authentic dialogue and therefore with no true integration. Secondly, the opposite danger exists, that of cultural levelling and indiscriminate acceptance of types of conduct and life-styles. In this way one loses sight of the profound significance of the culture of different nations, of the traditions of the various peoples, by which the individual defines himself in relation to life's fundamental questions [62].

What eclecticism and cultural levelling have in common is the separation of culture from human nature. Thus, cultures can no longer define themselves within a nature that transcends them [63] , and man ends up being reduced to a mere cultural statistic. When this happens, humanity runs new risks of enslavement and manipulation. Life in many poor countries is still extremely insecure as a consequence of food shortages, and the situation could become worse: hunger still reaps enormous numbers of victims among those who, like Lazarus, are not permitted to take their place at the rich man's table, contrary to the hopes expressed by Paul VI [64].

Feed the hungry cf. Mt 35, 37, 42 is an ethical imperative for the universal Church, as she responds to the teachings of her Founder, the Lord Jesus, concerning solidarity and the sharing of goods. Moreover, the elimination of world hunger has also, in the global era, become a requirement for safeguarding the peace and stability of the planet.

Hunger is not so much dependent on lack of material things as on shortage of social resources, the most important of which are institutional. What is missing, in other words, is a network of economic institutions capable of guaranteeing regular access to sufficient food and water for nutritional needs, and also capable of addressing the primary needs and necessities ensuing from genuine food crises, whether due to natural causes or political irresponsibility, nationally and internationally.

The problem of food insecurity needs to be addressed within a long-term perspective, eliminating the structural causes that give rise to it and promoting the agricultural development of poorer countries.

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This can be done by investing in rural infrastructures, irrigation systems, transport, organization of markets, and in the development and dissemination of agricultural technology that can make the best use of the human, natural and socio-economic resources that are more readily available at the local level, while guaranteeing their sustainability over the long term as well. All this needs to be accomplished with the involvement of local communities in choices and decisions that affect the use of agricultural land.

In this perspective, it could be useful to consider the new possibilities that are opening up through proper use of traditional as well as innovative farming techniques, always assuming that these have been judged, after sufficient testing, to be appropriate, respectful of the environment and attentive to the needs of the most deprived peoples.

At the same time, the question of equitable agrarian reform in developing countries should not be ignored. The right to food, like the right to water, has an important place within the pursuit of other rights, beginning with the fundamental right to life. It is therefore necessary to cultivate a public conscience that considers food and access to water as universal rights of all human beings, without distinction or discrimination [65].

It is important, moreover, to emphasize that solidarity with poor countries in the process of development can point towards a solution of the current global crisis, as politicians and directors of international institutions have begun to sense in recent times. Through support for economically poor countries by means of financial plans inspired by solidarity — so that these countries can take steps to satisfy their own citizens' demand for consumer goods and for development — not only can true economic growth be generated, but a contribution can be made towards sustaining the productive capacities of rich countries that risk being compromised by the crisis.

One of the most striking aspects of development in the present day is the important question of respect for life , which cannot in any way be detached from questions concerning the development of peoples. It is an aspect which has acquired increasing prominence in recent times, obliging us to broaden our concept of poverty [66] and underdevelopment to include questions connected with the acceptance of life, especially in cases where it is impeded in a variety of ways. Not only does the situation of poverty still provoke high rates of infant mortality in many regions, but some parts of the world still experience practices of demographic control, on the part of governments that often promote contraception and even go so far as to impose abortion.

In economically developed countries, legislation contrary to life is very widespread, and it has already shaped moral attitudes and praxis, contributing to the spread of an anti-birth mentality; frequent attempts are made to export this mentality to other States as if it were a form of cultural progress. Some non-governmental Organizations work actively to spread abortion, at times promoting the practice of sterilization in poor countries, in some cases not even informing the women concerned.

Moreover, there is reason to suspect that development aid is sometimes linked to specific health-care policies which de facto involve the imposition of strong birth control measures. Further grounds for concern are laws permitting euthanasia as well as pressure from lobby groups, nationally and internationally, in favour of its juridical recognition. Openness to life is at the centre of true development.

When a society moves towards the denial or suppression of life, it ends up no longer finding the necessary motivation and energy to strive for man's true good. If personal and social sensitivity towards the acceptance of a new life is lost, then other forms of acceptance that are valuable for society also wither away [67]. The acceptance of life strengthens moral fibre and makes people capable of mutual help. By cultivating openness to life, wealthy peoples can better understand the needs of poor ones, they can avoid employing huge economic and intellectual resources to satisfy the selfish desires of their own citizens, and instead, they can promote virtuous action within the perspective of production that is morally sound and marked by solidarity, respecting the fundamental right to life of every people and every individual.

There is another aspect of modern life that is very closely connected to development: the denial of the right to religious freedom. I am not referring simply to the struggles and conflicts that continue to be fought in the world for religious motives, even if at times the religious motive is merely a cover for other reasons, such as the desire for domination and wealth.

Today, in fact, people frequently kill in the holy name of God, as both my predecessor John Paul II and I myself have often publicly acknowledged and lamented [68]. Violence puts the brakes on authentic development and impedes the evolution of peoples towards greater socio-economic and spiritual well-being. This applies especially to terrorism motivated by fundamentalism [69] , which generates grief, destruction and death, obstructs dialogue between nations and diverts extensive resources from their peaceful and civil uses.

Yet it should be added that, as well as religious fanaticism that in some contexts impedes the exercise of the right to religious freedom, so too the deliberate promotion of religious indifference or practical atheism on the part of many countries obstructs the requirements for the development of peoples, depriving them of spiritual and human resources.

Man is not a lost atom in a random universe [70] : he is God's creature, whom God chose to endow with an immortal soul and whom he has always loved. If man were merely the fruit of either chance or necessity, or if he had to lower his aspirations to the limited horizon of the world in which he lives, if all reality were merely history and culture, and man did not possess a nature destined to transcend itself in a supernatural life, then one could speak of growth, or evolution, but not development. When the State promotes, teaches, or actually imposes forms of practical atheism, it deprives its citizens of the moral and spiritual strength that is indispensable for attaining integral human development and it impedes them from moving forward with renewed dynamism as they strive to offer a more generous human response to divine love [71].

In the context of cultural, commercial or political relations, it also sometimes happens that economically developed or emerging countries export this reductive vision of the person and his destiny to poor countries. In this context, the theme of integral human development takes on an even broader range of meanings: the correlation between its multiple elements requires a commitment to foster the interaction of the different levels of human knowledge in order to promote the authentic development of peoples. Often it is thought that development, or the socio-economic measures that go with it, merely require to be implemented through joint action.

In view of the complexity of the issues, it is obvious that the various disciplines have to work together through an orderly interdisciplinary exchange. Charity does not exclude knowledge, but rather requires, promotes, and animates it from within. Knowledge is never purely the work of the intellect. Deeds without knowledge are blind, and knowledge without love is sterile. Faced with the phenomena that lie before us, charity in truth requires first of all that we know and understand, acknowledging and respecting the specific competence of every level of knowledge.

Charity is not an added extra, like an appendix to work already concluded in each of the various disciplines: it engages them in dialogue from the very beginning. The demands of love do not contradict those of reason. Human knowledge is insufficient and the conclusions of science cannot indicate by themselves the path towards integral human development.

There is always a need to push further ahead: this is what is required by charity in truth [76]. Going beyond, however, never means prescinding from the conclusions of reason, nor contradicting its results. Intelligence and love are not in separate compartments: love is rich in intelligence and intelligence is full of love. This means that moral evaluation and scientific research must go hand in hand, and that charity must animate them in a harmonious interdisciplinary whole, marked by unity and distinction.

It allows faith, theology, metaphysics and science to come together in a collaborative effort in the service of humanity. It is here above all that the Church's social doctrine displays its dimension of wisdom. The excessive segmentation of knowledge [80] , the rejection of metaphysics by the human sciences [81] , the difficulties encountered by dialogue between science and theology are damaging not only to the development of knowledge, but also to the development of peoples, because these things make it harder to see the integral good of man in its various dimensions.

The significant new elements in the picture of the development of peoples today in many cases demand new solutions. These need to be found together, respecting the laws proper to each element and in the light of an integral vision of man, reflecting the different aspects of the human person, contemplated through a lens purified by charity. Remarkable convergences and possible solutions will then come to light, without any fundamental component of human life being obscured.

The dignity of the individual and the demands of justice require, particularly today, that economic choices do not cause disparities in wealth to increase in an excessive and morally unacceptable manner [83] , and that we continue to prioritize the goal of access to steady employment for everyone. Through the systemic increase of social inequality, both within a single country and between the populations of different countries i.

Economic science tells us that structural insecurity generates anti-productive attitudes wasteful of human resources, inasmuch as workers tend to adapt passively to automatic mechanisms, rather than to release creativity. On this point too, there is a convergence between economic science and moral evaluation. Human costs always include economic costs , and economic dysfunctions always involve human costs. It should be remembered that the reduction of cultures to the technological dimension, even if it favours short-term profits, in the long term impedes reciprocal enrichment and the dynamics of cooperation.

It is important to distinguish between short- and long-term economic or sociological considerations. Lowering the level of protection accorded to the rights of workers, or abandoning mechanisms of wealth redistribution in order to increase the country's international competitiveness, hinder the achievement of lasting development.

Moreover, the human consequences of current tendencies towards a short-term economy — sometimes very short-term — need to be carefully evaluated. This requires further and deeper reflection on the meaning of the economy and its goals [84] , as well as a profound and far-sighted revision of the current model of development, so as to correct its dysfunctions and deviations. This is demanded, in any case, by the earth's state of ecological health; above all it is required by the cultural and moral crisis of man, the symptoms of which have been evident for some time all over the world.

More than forty years after Populorum Progressio , its basic theme, namely progress, remains an open question , made all the more acute and urgent by the current economic and financial crisis. If some areas of the globe, with a history of poverty, have experienced remarkable changes in terms of their economic growth and their share in world production, other zones are still living in a situation of deprivation comparable to that which existed at the time of Paul VI, and in some cases one can even speak of a deterioration.

It is significant that some of the causes of this situation were identified in Populorum Progressio , such as the high tariffs imposed by economically developed countries, which still make it difficult for the products of poor countries to gain a foothold in the markets of rich countries. Other causes, however, mentioned only in passing in the Encyclical, have since emerged with greater clarity.

A case in point would be the evaluation of the process of decolonization, then at its height. Paul VI hoped to see the journey towards autonomy unfold freely and in peace. More than forty years later, we must acknowledge how difficult this journey has been, both because of new forms of colonialism and continued dependence on old and new foreign powers, and because of grave irresponsibility within the very countries that have achieved independence. The principal new feature has been the explosion of worldwide interdependence , commonly known as globalization.

Paul VI had partially foreseen it, but the ferocious pace at which it has evolved could not have been anticipated. Originating within economically developed countries, this process by its nature has spread to include all economies. It has been the principal driving force behind the emergence from underdevelopment of whole regions, and in itself it represents a great opportunity. Nevertheless, without the guidance of charity in truth, this global force could cause unprecedented damage and create new divisions within the human family.

Hence charity and truth confront us with an altogether new and creative challenge, one that is certainly vast and complex. Charity in truth places man before the astonishing experience of gift. Gratuitousness is present in our lives in many different forms, which often go unrecognized because of a purely consumerist and utilitarian view of life. The human being is made for gift, which expresses and makes present his transcendent dimension.

Sometimes modern man is wrongly convinced that he is the sole author of himself, his life and society. This is a presumption that follows from being selfishly closed in upon himself, and it is a consequence — to express it in faith terms — of original sin. In the list of areas where the pernicious effects of sin are evident, the economy has been included for some time now.

We have a clear proof of this at the present time. The conviction that man is self-sufficient and can successfully eliminate the evil present in history by his own action alone has led him to confuse happiness and salvation with immanent forms of material prosperity and social action. In the long term, these convictions have led to economic, social and political systems that trample upon personal and social freedom, and are therefore unable to deliver the justice that they promise.

As I said in my Encyclical Letter Spe Salvi , history is thereby deprived of Christian hope [86] , deprived of a powerful social resource at the service of integral human development, sought in freedom and in justice. Hope encourages reason and gives it the strength to direct the will [87]. It is already present in faith, indeed it is called forth by faith. Charity in truth feeds on hope and, at the same time, manifests it. As the absolutely gratuitous gift of God, hope bursts into our lives as something not due to us, something that transcends every law of justice.

Gift by its nature goes beyond merit, its rule is that of superabundance. It takes first place in our souls as a sign of God's presence in us, a sign of what he expects from us. Truth — which is itself gift, in the same way as charity — is greater than we are, as Saint Augustine teaches [88]. Likewise the truth of ourselves, of our personal conscience, is first of all given to us. In every cognitive process, truth is not something that we produce, it is always found, or better, received. Because it is a gift received by everyone, charity in truth is a force that builds community, it brings all people together without imposing barriers or limits.

The human community that we build by ourselves can never, purely by its own strength, be a fully fraternal community, nor can it overcome every division and become a truly universal community. The unity of the human race, a fraternal communion transcending every barrier, is called into being by the word of God-who-is-Love.

In addressing this key question, we must make it clear, on the one hand, that the logic of gift does not exclude justice, nor does it merely sit alongside it as a second element added from without; on the other hand, economic, social and political development, if it is to be authentically human, needs to make room for the principle of gratuitousness as an expression of fraternity.

In a climate of mutual trust, the market is the economic institution that permits encounter between persons, inasmuch as they are economic subjects who make use of contracts to regulate their relations as they exchange goods and services of equivalent value between them, in order to satisfy their needs and desires. The market is subject to the principles of so-called commutative justice , which regulates the relations of giving and receiving between parties to a transaction. But the social doctrine of the Church has unceasingly highlighted the importance of distributive justice and social justice for the market economy, not only because it belongs within a broader social and political context, but also because of the wider network of relations within which it operates.

In fact, if the market is governed solely by the principle of the equivalence in value of exchanged goods, it cannot produce the social cohesion that it requires in order to function well. Without internal forms of solidarity and mutual trust, the market cannot completely fulfil its proper economic function.

And today it is this trust which has ceased to exist, and the loss of trust is a grave loss. It was timely when Paul VI in Populorum Progressio insisted that the economic system itself would benefit from the wide-ranging practice of justice, inasmuch as the first to gain from the development of poor countries would be rich ones [90]. According to the Pope, it was not just a matter of correcting dysfunctions through assistance.

It is nevertheless erroneous to hold that the market economy has an inbuilt need for a quota of poverty and underdevelopment in order to function at its best. It is in the interests of the market to promote emancipation, but in order to do so effectively, it cannot rely only on itself, because it is not able to produce by itself something that lies outside its competence.

It must draw its moral energies from other subjects that are capable of generating them. Economic activity cannot solve all social problems through the simple application of commercial logic. This needs to be directed towards the pursuit of the common good , for which the political community in particular must also take responsibility. Therefore, it must be borne in mind that grave imbalances are produced when economic action, conceived merely as an engine for wealth creation, is detached from political action, conceived as a means for pursuing justice through redistribution.

The Church has always held that economic action is not to be regarded as something opposed to society. In and of itself, the market is not, and must not become, the place where the strong subdue the weak. Society does not have to protect itself from the market, as if the development of the latter were ipso facto to entail the death of authentically human relations.

Admittedly, the market can be a negative force, not because it is so by nature, but because a certain ideology can make it so. It must be remembered that the market does not exist in the pure state. It is shaped by the cultural configurations which define it and give it direction.

Economy and finance, as instruments, can be used badly when those at the helm are motivated by purely selfish ends. Instruments that are good in themselves can thereby be transformed into harmful ones. But it is man's darkened reason that produces these consequences, not the instrument per se. Therefore it is not the instrument that must be called to account, but individuals, their moral conscience and their personal and social responsibility. The economic sphere is neither ethically neutral, nor inherently inhuman and opposed to society.

It is part and parcel of human activity and precisely because it is human, it must be structured and governed in an ethical manner. The great challenge before us, accentuated by the problems of development in this global era and made even more urgent by the economic and financial crisis, is to demonstrate, in thinking and behaviour, not only that traditional principles of social ethics like transparency, honesty and responsibility cannot be ignored or attenuated, but also that in commercial relationships the principle of gratuitousness and the logic of gift as an expression of fraternity can and must find their place within normal economic activity.

This is a human demand at the present time, but it is also demanded by economic logic. It is a demand both of charity and of truth. The Church's social doctrine has always maintained that justice must be applied to every phase of economic activity , because this is always concerned with man and his needs. Locating resources, financing, production, consumption and all the other phases in the economic cycle inevitably have moral implications. Thus every economic decision has a moral consequence. The social sciences and the direction taken by the contemporary economy point to the same conclusion.

Perhaps at one time it was conceivable that first the creation of wealth could be entrusted to the economy, and then the task of distributing it could be assigned to politics. Today that would be more difficult, given that economic activity is no longer circumscribed within territorial limits, while the authority of governments continues to be principally local. Hence the canons of justice must be respected from the outset, as the economic process unfolds, and not just afterwards or incidentally.

Space also needs to be created within the market for economic activity carried out by subjects who freely choose to act according to principles other than those of pure profit, without sacrificing the production of economic value in the process. The many economic entities that draw their origin from religious and lay initiatives demonstrate that this is concretely possible. In the global era, the economy is influenced by competitive models tied to cultures that differ greatly among themselves. The different forms of economic enterprise to which they give rise find their main point of encounter in commutative justice.

Economic life undoubtedly requires contracts , in order to regulate relations of exchange between goods of equivalent value. But it also needs just laws and forms of redistribution governed by politics, and what is more, it needs works redolent of the spirit of gift. The economy in the global era seems to privilege the former logic, that of contractual exchange, but directly or indirectly it also demonstrates its need for the other two: political logic, and the logic of the unconditional gift. My predecessor John Paul II drew attention to this question in Centesimus Annus , when he spoke of the need for a system with three subjects: the market , the State and civil society [92].

He saw civil society as the most natural setting for an economy of gratuitousness and fraternity, but did not mean to deny it a place in the other two settings. Today we can say that economic life must be understood as a multi-layered phenomenon: in every one of these layers, to varying degrees and in ways specifically suited to each, the aspect of fraternal reciprocity must be present.

In the global era, economic activity cannot prescind from gratuitousness, which fosters and disseminates solidarity and responsibility for justice and the common good among the different economic players. It is clearly a specific and profound form of economic democracy. Solidarity is first and foremost a sense of responsibility on the part of everyone with regard to everyone [93] , and it cannot therefore be merely delegated to the State.

While in the past it was possible to argue that justice had to come first and gratuitousness could follow afterwards, as a complement, today it is clear that without gratuitousness, there can be no justice in the first place. What is needed, therefore, is a market that permits the free operation, in conditions of equal opportunity, of enterprises in pursuit of different institutional ends. Alongside profit-oriented private enterprise and the various types of public enterprise, there must be room for commercial entities based on mutualist principles and pursuing social ends to take root and express themselves.

It is from their reciprocal encounter in the marketplace that one may expect hybrid forms of commercial behaviour to emerge, and hence an attentiveness to ways of civilizing the economy. Charity in truth, in this case, requires that shape and structure be given to those types of economic initiative which, without rejecting profit, aim at a higher goal than the mere logic of the exchange of equivalents, of profit as an end in itself.

Paul VI in Populorum Progressio called for the creation of a model of market economy capable of including within its range all peoples and not just the better off. In this way he was applying on a global scale the insights and aspirations contained in Rerum Novarum , written when, as a result of the Industrial Revolution, the idea was first proposed — somewhat ahead of its time — that the civil order, for its self-regulation, also needed intervention from the State for purposes of redistribution.

The mortal so-called mind produces all that is unlike 27 the immortal Mind. The human mind determines the Disease-production nature of a case, and the practitioner improves or injures the case in proportion to the truth 30 or error which influences his conclusions. A corrupt mind is manifested in a corrupt body. Lust, malice, and all sorts of evil are diseased beliefs, and you can destroy them only by destroying the wicked 12 motives which produce them.

The healthy sinner is the hardened sinner. The temperance reform, felt all over our land, results 18 from metaphysical healing, which cuts down every tree Temperance reform that brings not forth good fruit. Arouse the sinner to this new and true view of sin, show him that sin confers no pleasure, 24 and this knowledge strengthens his moral courage and increases his ability to master evil and to love good. Healing the sick and reforming the sinner are one and 27 the same thing in Christian Science. Both cures require Sin or fear the root of sickness the same method and are inseparable in Truth.

The basic error is mortal mind. Hatred inflames the brutal propensities. The indulgence 3 of evil motives and aims makes any man, who is above the lowest type of manhood, a hopeless sufferer. Choke these errors in their early stages, if you would not cherish an army of conspirators against health, happiness, and success. They will deliver you 12 to the judge, the arbiter of truth against error.

The judge will deliver you to justice, and the sentence of the moral law will be executed upon mortal mind and 15 body. The abiding consciousness of wrong- doing tends to destroy the ability to do right. If sin is not regretted and is not lessening, then it is 27 hastening on to physical and moral doom.

The pains of sinful sense are less harmful than its 30 pleasures. Belief in material suffering causes mortals to retreat from their error, to flee from body to Spirit, and to appeal to divine sources outside of themselves. Sin will submit to Christian Science when, in place of modes and forms, the power of God is understood and demonstrated 9 in the healing of mortals, both mind and body. The Science of being unveils the errors of sense, and 12 spiritual perception, aided by Science, reaches Truth.

Sickness will abate Then error disappears. Sin and sickness will abate and seem less real as we approach the 15 scientific period, in which mortal sense is subdued and all that is unlike the true likeness disappears. The moral man has no fear that he will commit a murder, and he 18 should be as fearless on the question of disease. Error is opposed to Life. This normal control is gained through divine strength and understanding. Every 9 hour of delay makes the struggle more severe. If man is not victorious over the passions, they crush out happiness, health, and manhood.

No faculty of Mind is lost. This spiritualization of thought lets in the light, 27 and brings the divine Mind, Life not death, into your consciousness. There are many species of insanity. Sin is spared from this classification, only because its method of madness is in consonance with common mortal belief.

The supposition that we can correct insanity by the use 15 of purgatives and narcotics is in itself a mild species of Drugs and brain-lobes insanity. A dislocation of the tarsal joint would produce insanity as perceptibly as would congestion of the brain, 24 were it not that mortal mind thinks that the tarsal joint is less intimately connected with the mind than is the brain.

Reverse the belief, and the results would be perceptibly 27 different. Intelligent matter is an impossibility. The animate should be governed by God alone. This 24 mortal is put off, and the new man or real man is put on, in proportion as mortals realize the Science of man and seek the true model.

We cannot Death no benefactor spend our days here in ignorance of the Science 30 of Life, and expect to find beyond the grave a reward for this ignorance. Death will not make us harmonious and immortal as a recompense for ignorance. Every trial of our faith in God makes us stronger. The Science of mental practice is susceptible of no 24 misuse. Selfishness does not appear in the practice of Be not afraid Truth or Christian Science.

If Spirit or the power of divine Love bear witness to the truth, this is the ultimatum, the scientific 12 way, and the healing is instantaneous. The Scripture seems to import that Jesus caused the evil to be self-seen and so destroyed. The procuring cause and foundation of all sickness is 21 fear, ignorance, or sin.

Disease is always induced by a Fear as the foundation false sense mentally entertained, not destroyed. Disease is an image of thought externalized. Whatever is cherished in mortal mind as the physical condition is imaged forth on the body. If you succeed in wholly removing the fear, your patient is healed. You may call the disease by name when you mentally deny it; but by naming it audibly, you are liable under 12 Eloquent silence some circumstances to impress it upon the thought.

The power of Christian Science and divine Love is omnipotent. To prevent disease or to cure it, the power of Truth, of divine Spirit, must break the dream of the material 18 Insistence requisite senses. To heal by argument, find the type of the ailment, get its name, and array your mental plea against the physical. Mentally insist that harmony is the fact, and 24 that sickness is a temporal dream. Realize the presence of health and the fact of harmonious being, until the body corresponds with the normal conditions of health 27 and harmony.

The Scientist knows that there can be no hereditary disease, since matter is not intelligent and cannot transmit good or evil intelligence to man, and God, the only Mind, does not produce pain in matter. Mind regulates the condition of the stomach, bowels, and food, the temperature of children and of men, and matter 9 does not. The wise or unwise views of parents and other persons on these subjects produce good or bad effects on the health of children.

330 Health Quotes For A Better Mind, Body (And Life)

Water is not the natural habitat of humanity. I am not patient with a speck of dirt; but in caring for an infant one need not wash his little body all over each day in order to keep it sweet as the new-blown flower. Thus are laid the foundations of the belief in disease and death, and thus are children educated 3 into discord.

The treatment of insanity is especially interesting. However obstinate the case, it yields more readily than 6 Cure of insanity do most diseases to the salutary action of truth, which counteracts error. Hold these points strongly in view. Matter cannot be inflamed. Inflammation is fear, an excited state of mortals which is not normal. Mind in every case is the eternal God, good. Sin, disease, and death have no foundations in Truth. That is why opiates relieve inflammation.

Opiates do not remove the pain in any scientific sense. Note how thought makes the face pallid. To remove the error producing disorder, you must calm and instruct mortal mind with immortal Truth. Before the thoughts are fully at rest, the limbs Effects of etherization will vanish from consciousness. Indeed, the 30 whole frame will sink from sight along with surrounding objects, leaving the pain standing forth as distinctly as a mountain-peak, as if it were a separate bodily member. At last the agony also vanishes. To him there is no longer any 9 pain.

This materialism of parent and child is only in 21 mortal mind, as the dead body proves; for when the mortal has resigned his body to dust, the body is no longer the parent, even in appearance. If they ask about their disease, tell them only what is best for them to know. Assure them that they think too much about their ailments, and 30 have already heard too much on that subject. Teach them that their being is sustained by Spirit, not by matter, and that they find health, peace, and harmony in God, divine Love.

Always support their trust in the Helpful encouragement power of Mind to sustain the body. Never 6 tell the sick that they have more courage than strength. Tell them rather, that their strength is in proportion to their courage. If you make the sick 9 realize this great truism, there will be no reaction from over-exertion or from excited conditions. Then hold your ground with 15 the unshaken understanding of Truth and Love, and you will win. The evidence before the corporeal senses is not the Science of immortal man. To the Christian Science healer, sickness is a dream 21 from which the patient needs to be awakened.

To do this, the physician must understand the unreality of disease in Science. Show them how mortal mind seems to induce 30 disease by certain fears and false conclusions, and how divine Mind can cure by opposite thoughts. Give your patients an underlying understanding to support them and to shield them from the baneful effects of their own conclusions. Show them that the conquest over sickness, 3 as well as over sin, depends on mentally destroying all belief in material pleasure or pain.

Stick to the truth of being in contradistinction to the 6 error that life, substance, or intelligence can be in matter. Then, if your fidelity is half equal to the truth of your plea, you will heal the sick. This mortal dream Truthful arguments of sickness, sin, and death should cease 15 through Christian Science. Truth is affirmative, and confers 21 harmony. By the truthful arguments you employ, and especially by the 24 spirit of Truth and Love which you entertain, you will heal the sick.

Include moral as well as physical belief in your efforts 27 to destroy error. Cast out all manner of evil. Lurking error, lust, envy, revenge, malice, or hate will 3 perpetuate or even create the belief in disease. Errors of all sorts tend in this direction. Your true course is to destroy the foe, and leave the field to God, Life, Truth, 6 and Love, remembering that God and His ideas alone are real and harmonious.

If your patient from any cause suffers a relapse, meet 9 the cause mentally and courageously, knowing that Relapse unnecessary there can be no reaction in Truth. Neither disease itself, sin, nor fear has the power to 12 cause disease or a relapse. Disease has no intelligence with which to move itself about or to change itself from one form to another.

Meet every adverse circumstance as its master. Think less of material conditions and more of spiritual. Mind produces all action. A relapse cannot in reality occur in mortals or 24 so-called mortal minds, for there is but one Mind, one God. Never fear the mental malpractitioner, the mental assassin, who, in attempting to rule mankind, 27 tramples upon the divine Principle of metaphysics, for God is the only power. If it is found necessary to treat against relapse, know that disease or its symptoms cannot change forms, nor go from one part to another, for Truth destroys disease.

There is no metastasis, no stoppage of harmonious 3 True government of man action, no paralysis. Truth not error, Love not hate, Spirit not matter, governs man. If students do not readily heal themselves, they should 6 early call an experienced Christian Scientist to aid them. If they are unwilling to do this for themselves, they need only to know that error cannot produce this 9 unnatural reluctance.

Instruct the sick that they are not helpless victims, for if they will only accept Truth, they can resist disease 12 Positive reassurance and ward it off, as positively as they can the temptation to sin. The fact that Truth overcomes both disease 18 and sin reassures depressed hope. It imparts a healthy stimulus to the body, and regulates the system.

Tell the sick that they can meet disease fearlessly, if they only realize that divine Love gives them all power over every physical 27 action and condition. If it becomes necessary to startle mortal mind to break its dream of suffering, vehemently tell your patient that 30 Awaken the patient he must awake.

Turn his gaze from the false evidence of the senses to the harmonious facts of Soul and immortal being. Tell him that he suffers only as the insane suffer, from false beliefs. The only difference is, that insanity implies belief in a diseased 3 brain, while physical ailments so-called arise from the belief that other portions of the body are deranged. Should you thus startle mortal mind in order to remove its beliefs, afterwards make known 9 to the patient your motive for this shock, showing him that it was to facilitate recovery.

If a crisis occurs in your treatment, you must treat 12 the patient less for the disease and more for the mental How to treat a crisis disturbance or fermentation, and subdue the symptoms by removing the belief that this 15 chemicalization produces pain or disease. There is no disease. It is no more Christianly scientific to see disease than it is to experience it. If you would destroy the sense 27 No perversion of Mind-science of disease, you should not build it up by wishing to see the forms it assumes or by employing a single material application for 30 its relief.

Continue to read, and the book 9 will become the physician, allaying the tremor which Truth often brings to error when destroying it. Patients, unfamiliar with the cause of this commotion 12 and ignorant that it is a favorable omen, may be alarmed. Disease neutralized If such be the case, explain to them the law of this action. As when an acid and alkali 15 meet and bring out a third quality, so mental and moral chemistry changes the material base of thought, giving more spirituality to consciousness and causing it to depend 18 less on material evidence.

These changes which go on in mortal mind serve to reconstruct the body. Thus Christian Science, by the alchemy of Spirit, destroys sin 21 and death. Let us suppose two parallel cases of bone-disease, both similarly produced and attended by the same symptoms. His treatment is therefore tentative. This mental state invites defeat.

Remember that the 6 unexpressed belief oftentimes affects a sensitive patient more strongly than the expressed thought. The Christian Scientist, understanding scientifically 9 that all is Mind, commences with mental causation, the Scientific corrective truth of being, to destroy the error. He regards the ailment as weakened or Coping with difficulties strengthened according to the evidence which 18 matter presents.

The metaphysician, making Mind his basis of operation irrespective of matter and regarding the truth and harmony of being as superior to 21 error and discord, has rendered himself strong, instead of weak, to cope with the case; and he proportionately strengthens his patient with the stimulus of courage and 24 conscious power. Both Science and consciousness are now at work in the economy of being according to the law of Mind, which ultimately asserts its absolute supremacy.


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Bones have 30 only the substance of thought which forms them. Soon the child becomes a separate, individualized mortal mind, 3 which takes possession of itself and its own thoughts of bones. Under divine Providence there can be no accidents, since there is no room for imperfection in perfection. While it is certain that the 21 divine Mind can remove any obstacle, still you need the ear of your auditor.

The patient may tell you that he has a humor in the blood, a scrofulous diathesis. His parents or some of his progenitors farther back have so believed. You will have humors, just so long as you believe them to be safety-valves or to be ineradicable. Then these ills will disappear. If the body is diseased, this is but one of the beliefs of 15 mortal mind. What if the belief is consumption?

Consciousness constructs a better body when 24 faith in matter has been conquered. Correct material belief by spiritual understanding, and Spirit will form you anew. If you have sound and capacious lungs and want 30 Soundness maintained them to remain so, be always ready with the mental protest against the opposite belief in heredity. The discoverer of Christian Science finds the path less 6 difficult when she has the high goal always before her Our footsteps heavenward thoughts, than when she counts her footsteps in endeavoring to reach it.

The struggle for Truth makes one strong instead of weak, resting instead of wearying one. When it is learned that disease cannot destroy life, and that 18 mortals are not saved from sin or sickness by death, this understanding will quicken into newness of life. It will master either a desire to die or a dread of the grave, 21 and thus destroy the great fear that besets mortal existence. The relinquishment of all faith in death and also of 24 the fear of its sting would raise the standard of health Christian standard and morals far beyond its present elevation, and would enable us to hold the banner of 27 Christianity aloft with unflinching faith in God, in Life eternal.

Sin brought death, and death will disappear with the disappearance of sin. If man believes in death now, he must disbelieve in it when learning that there is no reality 9 in death, since the truth of being is deathless. Nothing can interfere with the 15 Mortality vanquished harmony of being nor end the existence of man in Science. Man is the same after as before a bone is broken or the body guillotined. The tenor of the Word shows that we shall obtain the victory 21 over death in proportion as we overcome sin. The great difficulty lies in ignorance of what God is.

God, Life, Truth, and Love make man undying. Immortal Mind, 24 governing all, must be acknowledged as supreme in the physical realm, so-called, as well as in the spiritual. Called to the bed of death, what material remedy has 27 man when all such remedies have failed? Spirit is his No death nor inaction last resort, but it should have been his first and only resort. The dream of death must 30 be mastered by Mind here or hereafter.

We must realize the ability of mental might to offset human misconceptions and to replace them 21 with the life which is spiritual, not material.

True & False labour pain -- Lets discuss health together --

The great spiritual fact must be brought out that man is, not shall be, perfect and immortal. We must hold 24 The present immortality forever the consciousness of existence, and sooner or later, through Christ and Christian Science, we must master sin and death. We must begin, however, with the more simple demonstrations of control, and 6 the sooner we begin the better. The final demonstration takes time for its accomplishment. When walking, we are guided by the eye. We look before our feet, and if 9 we are wise, we look beyond a single step in the line of spiritual advancement. The corpse, deserted by thought, is cold and decays, 12 but it never suffers.

If man did not exist before the material organization began, he could not exist after the body is disintegrated.

Do you believe this? Do you understand it? This is why you doubt the statement and do not demonstrate 27 the facts it involves. Jesus said John viii. Jesus demonstrated this, healing the dying 3 Life all-inclusive and raising the dead. Mortal mind must part with error, must put off itself with its deeds, and immortal manhood, the Christ ideal, will appear. When man gives up his belief in death, he will advance more rapidly 9 towards God, Life, and Love.


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  • Belief in sickness and death, as certainly as belief in sin, tends to shut out the true sense of Life and health. When will mankind wake 12 to this great fact in Science? Suppose a mental case to be on trial, as cases are tried 18 in court. A man is charged with having committed liver- A mental court case complaint. The patient feels ill, ruminates, and the trial commences. Personal Sense is 21 the plaintiff. Mortal Man is the defendant. False Belief is the attorney for Personal Sense.

    The court- room is filled with interested spectators, and Judge Medicine is on the bench. I represent Health-laws. I was present on certain nights 30 when the prisoner, or patient, watched with a sick friend. Although I have the superintendence of human affairs, I was personally abused on those occasions. I was told that I must remain silent until called for at this trial, when I would be allowed to testify in the case. Notwithstanding 3 my rules to the contrary, the prisoner watched with the sick every night in the week.

    When the sick mortal was thirsty, the prisoner gave him drink. At last he committed liver-complaint, 9 which I considered criminal, inasmuch as this offence is deemed punishable with death. The struggle on their part was long. I am covered with a foul fur, placed on me the night of the liver-attack. I am Sallow Skin. I have been dry, hot, and chilled by 27 turns since the night of the liver-attack.

    I have lost my healthy hue and become unsightly, although nothing on my part has occasioned this change. I practise daily ablutions 30 and perform my functions as usual, but I am robbed of my good looks. I was witness to the crime of liver-complaint. I knew the prisoner would commit it, for I convey messages from my residence in matter, alias brain, to body.

    The Judge asks if by doing good to his neighbor, it is possible for man to become diseased, transgress the laws, 18 and merit punishment, and Governor Mortality replies in the affirmative. The jury must regard in such cases only the evidence of Personal Sense against Mortal 12 Man. As the Judge proceeds, the prisoner grows restless. His sallow face blanches with fear, and a look of despair and 15 death settles upon it.

    The case is given to the jury. Because he has Mortal Man sentenced loved his neighbor as himself, Mortal Man has 21 been guilty of benevolence in the first degree, and this has led him into the commission of the second crime, liver-complaint, which material laws condemn as 24 homicide. For this crime Mortal Man is sentenced to be tortured until he is dead. Witnesses, judges, 12 and jurors, who were at the previous Court of Error, are now summoned to appear before the bar of Justice and eternal Truth.

    What Is Health?

    The prisoner at the bar has been unjustly sentenced. His trial was a tragedy, and is morally illegal. Mortal 24 Man has had no proper counsel in the case. The only valid testimony in the case shows the alleged crime never to have been committed. Who or 3 what has sinned? Has the body or has Mortal Mind committed a criminal deed?

    The body committed no offence. Mortal Man, in obedience to higher law, helped his fellow- 9 man, an act which should result in good to himself as well as to others. The law of our Supreme Court decrees that whosoever 12 sinneth shall die; but good deeds are immortal, bringing joy instead of grief, pleasure instead of pain, and life instead of death.

    For naught else can he be punished, according to the 27 law of Spirit, God. Then what jurisdiction had his Honor, Judge Medicine, in this case? Upon this statute hangs all the law and testimony. Laying down his life for a good deed, Mortal Man should find it again. But they brought with them Fear, the sheriff, to precipitate the result which they were called to prevent. It was Fear who handcuffed Mortal Man and would now 21 punish him. You have left Mortal Man no alternative.

    His friends struggled hard to rescue the 24 prisoner from the penalty they considered justly due, but they were compelled to let him be taken into custody, tried, and condemned. Claiming to protect Mortal Man 33 in right-doing, that court pronounced a sentence of death for doing right.

    One of the principal witnesses, Nerve, testified that he was a ruler of Body, in which province Mortal Man resides. He also testified that he was on intimate terms with the 3 plaintiff, and knew Personal Sense to be truthful; that he knew Man, and that Man was made in the image of God, but was a criminal. It blots the fair escutcheon of omnipotence. At the bar of Truth, 9 in the presence of divine Justice, before the Judge of our higher tribunal, the Supreme Court of Spirit, and before its jurors, the Spiritual Senses, I proclaim this witness, 12 Nerve, to be destitute of intelligence and truth and to be a false witness.

    Behold, I give unto you power. If a man keep my saying, he shall never see death. Then Christian Science proved the witness, Nerve, to 9 be a perjurer. Instead of being a ruler in the Province of Body, in which Mortal Man was reported to reside, Nerve was an insubordinate citizen, putting in false 12 claims to office and bearing false witness against Man. Also, be it known that False Belief, the 3 counsel for the plaintiff, Personal Sense, is a buyer for this firm. He manufactures for it, keeps a furnishing store, and advertises largely for his employers.

    At this request 9 Death repaired to the spot where the liver-complaint was in process, frightening away Materia Medica, who was then manacling the prisoner in the attempt to save him. True, 12 Materia Medica was a misguided participant in the misdeed for which the Health-officer had Mortal Man in custody, though Mortal Man was innocent.

    God will smite you, O whited walls, for injuring in your 21 ignorance the unfortunate Mortal Man who sought your aid in his struggles against liver-complaint and Death. You came to his rescue, only to fasten upon him an offence 24 of which he was innocent. You aided and abetted Fear and Health-laws. Our higher statutes declare you all, witnesses, jurors, and judges, to be offenders, awaiting the sentence which General Progress and Divine Love will 30 pronounce.

    Good deeds are transformed into crimes, to which you attach penalties; but no warping of justice 12 can render disobedience to the so-called laws of Matter disobedience to God, or an act of homicide. Even penal law holds homicide, under stress of circumstances, to be 15 justifiable. You cannot trample upon the decree of the Supreme Bench. Mortal Man has his appeal 21 to Spirit, God, who sentences only for sin.

    I ask that he be forbidden to enter against Mortal Man any more suits to be tried at the Court of Material Error. He also decided that the plaintiff, Personal Sense, be 6 not permitted to enter any suits at the bar of Soul, but be enjoined to keep perpetual silence, and in case of temptation, to give heavy bonds for good behavior. The plea of False Belief we deem unworthy of a hearing. Reversing the 18 testimony of Personal Sense and the decrees of the Court of Error in favor of Matter, Spirit decides in favor of Man and against Matter.

    The Supreme Bench decides in favor of intelligence, that no law outside of divine Mind can punish or reward Mortal 27 Man. Your personal jurors in the Court of Error are myths. The plaintiff, Personal Sense, is recorded in our Book of books as a liar. There, Man is adjudged innocent of transgressing physical laws, because there are no such 3 laws. Our statute is spiritual, our Government is divine.

    The Jury of Spiritual Senses agreed at once upon a 6 verdict, and there resounded throughout the vast audience- Divine verdict chamber of Spirit the cry, Not guilty. Then the prisoner rose up regenerated, strong, free. His form was erect and commanding, his 12 countenance beaming with health and happiness. Divine Love had cast out fear. Neither animal magnetism nor hypnotism enters into the practice of Christian Science, in which truth cannot 18 Christ the great physician be reversed, but the reverse of error is true. An improved belief cannot retrograde.

    This website uses cookies to improve functionality and performance. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies. Skip to main content. Science and Health. Why art thou cast down, O my soul [sense]? And why art thou disquieted within me? And these signs shall follow them that believe: In my name shall they cast out devils: they shall speak with new tongues; they shall take up serpents; and if they drink any deadly thing, it shall not hurt them; they shall lay hands on the sick, and they shall recover.

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