In turn, Perrone secured government contracts for military supplies for himself and the companies he represented Rugafiori P. But, in a country that had never been the setting of a military coup, Italian-American entrepreneurs were supposed to deliver the votes of their fellow ethnics at the polls, not to mobilize them as cannon fodder at times of political turmoil and revolutionary upsurges, with the only exception of the U. Civil War Alduino F. The case of Generoso Pope is an illuminating example. In the late s and s, he exploited the Italian-American votes he allegedly controlled by means of his chain of periodicals to become the most influential broker between the Democratic Party and his own national minority.
These political connections also enabled Pope to consolidate his business as a construction contractor Cannistraro P. Other entrepreneurs of Italian ancestry played a role in the electoral mobilization of their fellow ethnics in the United States, even if they were less effective than Pope. For instance, in , Charles C. Placed next to the bottom of the social ladder, tens of thousands of destitute newcomers from Italy regarded their right to vote as a sort of commodity that could be sold to the highest bidder to receive benefits.
Therefore, the urban bosses of party machines in the United States and the caudillos electorales in Argentina played a similar role in stimulating Italian turnout by distributing political patronage in exchange for votes. A few of them were of Italian ancestry themselves. Vaccarelli operated in association with the International Longshoremen Association, a union affiliated with the American Federation of Labor.
His role, however, was quite an exception because some U.
They urged workers, including those of Italian ancestry, to cast their ballots for incumbent President Franklin D. Roosevelt in to protect the labor legislation of the New Deal Kennedy D. A few labor officials of Italian descent also took the lead in bringing their fellow ethnics to the polls. Unlike their counterparts in the United States, such labor organizations as the Union General de Trabajo usually took a partisan stand and motivated their members to go to the polls Baily S.
Stimuli for electoral participation resulted from radical organizations, too. It urged the naturalization of both German and Italian newcomers to turn immigrants into a voting bloc Baily S. On the other hand, Italian Socialists generally abstained in the United States because they thought that elections under a bourgeois regime were a fraud to the detriment of the working class Vezzosi E. The new measure did not affect the numerous immigrants who stuck to their Italian nationality Devoto F.
In addition, applicants for naturalization active in the labor movement were often disqualified as public officials feared that they would vote for the Socialist Party Solberg C. The Argentine government distrusted especially Italian immigrants because they included many subversives Ostuni M. For instance, anarchists from Italy such as Errico Malatesta, Ettore Mattei, and Pietro Gori played a key role in organizing workers in Argentina between the s and the turn of the 20 th century Baer J.
Federal authorities felt satisfied with incarcerating and deporting the subversives, especially in the wake of the Red Scare , arising from fears that a Bolshevik-like revolution could storm the United States Temkin M. In particular, the Radical Party drew on government patronage to expand the pre-existing network of the caudillos de barrio so as to control the electoral process, although the introduction of the secret ballot ended the open purchase of votes Rock D.
A Catholic of Irish ancestry, Smith was the first presidential candidate of either major party who was not a Protestant of Anglo-Saxon ancestry Slayton R. In view of his ethno-religious characteristics, many theretofore inactive Italian-American potential voters identified themselves with Smith and went to the polls for the first time to support his presidential bid. For example, the Italian-American electoral participation rose by 21 percent in Philadelphia, It further increased respectively by 70 percent, For instance, mayors of Italian extraction ruled three among the largest cities in the country in the mid s and early s : Angelo Rossi in San Francisco , Fiorello H.
It had no analogue for their fellow ethnics in the United States, where no candidate of Italian descent has heretofore managed to become president or vice president in the United States.
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This dissimilar outcome was hardly a consequence of the different dynamics of political mobilization in the two countries. Rather, it resulted from the diverse environments immigrants found at the time of their mass arrival. However, ethnic discrimination was stronger in the latter locale than in the former Scarzanella E. When the bulk of Italian newcomers reached the United States in the late 19 th century, an Anglo-Saxon and Protestant establishment was already entrenched.
Instead, Italians landed in Catholic Argentina while this society was still in the making and were able to play a leading role in the process of nation building. They not only partook in the domestic struggles of the second half of the 19 th century. Accordingly, Italians secured a fairly smooth acceptance by the host society Audenino P. Baily has demonstrated for Buenos Aires in contrast to New York City, but also in electoral politics, at least when Italian immigrants pursued such opportunities.
Alduino, Frank W.
Allswang, John M. Baer, James A. Baily, Samuel L. Tomasi and Madeline H.
Sons of Garibaldi in Blue and Gray: Italians in the American Civil War
Engel eds. Bletz, May E. Cannistraro, Philip V. Tomasi ed. Cartosio, Bruno ed. Connell, William J.
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Sons of Garibaldi in Blue and Gray : Italians in the American Civil War
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However, with the cessation of Austro-Prussian hostilities, the Austrians looked ready to send reinforcements to Italy. Unwilling to risk another defeat and facing the risk of being severely outnumbered by Austrian reinforcements, the Italians were compelled to come to the peace table. His reply was simply "Obbedisco" "I shall obey" and became famous in Italy soon after. The cessation of hostilities was agreed to at the Armistice of Cormons signed on 12 August, followed by the Treaty of Vienna on 3 October The Austrians also refused to surrender Venetia directly to Italy as the Italian army had not defeated the Austrian army.
The Italian government felt humiliated that it was not involved in the Austro-Prussian peace talks, and that Italy was to receive Venetia as a gift from France. Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses. Home FAQ Contact. Third Italian War of Independence Wikipedia open wikipedia design. Austrian Empire Principality of Liechtenstein . Retrieved Alduino, David J. Coles, Cambria Press, New York p. Italian unification—Risorgimento.