Product Details. Citations 3. Supplemental Products. Reviews 3. Summary Product Datasheets. Please refer to the product-specific package insert for more information. Product Datasheets Product Datasheet. Preparation and Storage Shipping. The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below. Do not use past expiration date. Reagent Diluent Concentrate 1 DY Reagent Diluent Concentrate 2 DY Substrate Reagent Pack DY Cell Lysis Buffer 5 1 x 21 mL Clear Polystyrene Microplates DY Cell Lysis Buffer 1 1 x 21 mL Have you used Cell Lysis Buffer 2?
On the other hand, a high enough potential can completely disintegrate the cell. At such high voltages, it is found that the electric field does not have any effect on the intracellular components [ 86 ].
Electric field is the critical parameter to lyse the cell. As higher electric field is required for cell lysis, high voltage generator is required in order to generate this high electric field in macroscale. Thus, this method is not common in macroscale. However, in microscale due to small size of the devices, higher electric field can be obtained at lower voltage.
For this reason and as a method for fast and reagentless procedure of lysis, electrical lysis has achieved substantial popularity in microfluidic community. Ameri et al. Figure 13 shows the fabrication and working principle of their chip. Their device consists of a glass slide coated with indium tin oxide coating patterned for electrodes.
The Microwell arrays are fabricated using SU-8 polymer by photolithography technique. Inlet and outlet channels are created using PDMS polymer and is sealed using a glass slide with ITO electrode for impedance measurement. A DC voltage of 2 V for 10 s was applied to the cell for lysis. The lysis process was monitored using impedance measurement before and after lysis and a decrease in impedance suggested a complete lysis of cells.
The authors proposed a device for cell lysis by electric fields and optical free monitoring of the lysis process on a microfluidic platform which could have potential use in the medical diagnostic field. Electrical cell lysis device: a fabrication protocol of the device; b working principle of the device; and c microfluidic device used in the study for lysing red blood cells. Reproduced with permission from [ 87 ]. Jiang et al. They observed bubble formation in their device during cell lysis due to joule heating effect.
De Lange et al. They demonstrated a robust new technique for detergent free cell lysis in droplets. In their device, electric field was applied to lyse bacteria immediately before merging the cell stream with lysozyme and encapsulating the mixture in droplets.
Figure 14 shows their microfluidic device for cell lysis in droplets. The authors suggest that their device could be used in applications where use of cell lysis detergents could hinder the cell analysis such as binding assays or studying the chemical activity of proteins and in mass spectroscopy studies where chemical lysis agents can hamper the results.
Electrical cell lysis microfluidic device: A schematic of the electrical lysis and coflow droplet generation microfluidic chip; B actual image of the droplet generation part; and C complete electrical lysis with electroporation channels. Reproduced with permission from [ 89 ]. Escobedo et al. A metal electrode was embedded inside the channel which was used to discharge 10 to 30 kV to lyse the cells in less than ms. Lysis was assessed by observing before and after images of cells using bright field and high speed microscope and also by cell-viability fluorescence probes.
They also report no bubble formation during lysis indicating no joule heating effect thereby making this method suitable for analyzing sensitive proteins and intracellular components. Figure 15 shows the setup and results of the study. Electrical lysis through handheld plasma device: a schematic of the device. Cells were lysed using a hand held corona device by applying electric field at the inlet of the device; b bright field and fluorescent images of before and after of lysis of K cells.
Reproduced with permission from [ 90 ]. Besant et al. They applied a potential of 20 V, which initiated the cell lysis by producing hydroxide ions from water at cathode to break down bacterial membranes. They reported lysis and detection of E. Gabardo et al. These micron-sized electrodes can be rapidly prototyped using craft cutting, polymer induced wrinkling and electro-deposition techniques.
They report that these tunable electrodes performed better as compared to lithographically prepared electrodes. They were able to successfully extract nucleic acids extracted from lysed bacteria on a microfluidic platform. Figure 16 shows the device and electrode structures. Bacterial lysis device: a schematic of the lysis device; b scanning electron micrographs of: i planar; ii wrinkled; and iii electrodeposited electrodes; c cyclic voltammetry scan of the electrodes. Reproduced with permission from [ 92 ]. Li et al. Similarly, Wassermann et al.
Ma et al. They report that their device can be effective for mRNA release from hard to lyse cells. Islam et al. They used a nanoporous membrane sandwiched between two microfluidic channels to trap and lyse E. Figure 17 shows the schematic of the device used for lysis in their study. Electrical cell lysis microfluidic device: a schematic of cell lysis device; and b experimental setup. Reproduced with permission from [ 96 ]. Different types of voltages such as alternating current AC [ 97 , 98 ], DC pulses [ 99 , , ] and continuous DC voltages [ ] have been used in order to lyse the cells.
Along with electric field, exposure time of cells within that electric field is also an important parameter for cell lysis. It has been found that cells can be lysed by using higher electric field for short period of time as well as lower electric field for long period of time [ ]. For that reason, AC and DC pulses of a higher electric field are needed as compared to a continuous DC electric field. As the electric field depends on the distance between the electrodes, microfabricated electrodes have been used during AC or DC pulses.
An overview of different electrical lysis devices and the characteristics of the designed system is presented in Table 4. Lu et al. Microfabricated saw-tooth electrode array was used in order to intensify the electric field periodically along the channel. Seventy-four-percent efficiency was obtained for an operational voltage of 8.
However, this mode of lysis is not suitable for bacteria due their sizes and shapes. Compared to mammalian cell, high electric field and longer exposure is needed to lyse bacteria. Rosa [ ] developed a chip to lyse bacteria consisting of an array of circular gold electrodes. In , Wang et al. The device consists of a single channel with uniform depth and variable width.
Since the electric field is inversely proportional to width of the channel, high electric field can be obtained at the narrow section of the channel. Thus, lysis occurs into a predetermined portion of the device. Exposure time of the cell to the electric field can be tuned by changing the length of this narrow section.
The configuration of the device was optimized and lysis of complete E. This device was very simple and did not need any microfabricated electrodes. Pt wires were used as electrodes. Only a power generator was needed to operate it. However, bubble generation and Joule heating issue could not be completely eliminated. Similar kind of device was used by Lee [ ] where the length and width of the narrow section was modified in order to lyse mammalian cell. Bao et al. In conclusion, electrical method offers a simple, fast and reagent less lysis procedure to lyse various kinds of cells.
This method is also suitable for selective lysis and is compatible with other downstream assays such as amplification and separation. Although requirement of high voltage is a problem in this procedure, it can be overcome by decreasing the gap between electrodes through microfabrication. However, heat generation and formation of bubble is a major problem for electric lysis method.
Various microfluidic technologies for cell lysis are compared in Table 5. The advantages and disadvantages of different methods are listed for each technique. Comparison of different microfluidic lysis methods. Cell lysis efficiency was determined by averaging the lysis efficiencies from the references cited. Single cell analysis has gained much popularity in the recent years owing to the development of new technology. Single cell analysis can be used to understand the cellular heterogeneity in a cell culture as well as used in popular areas of genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics.
Single lysis is one of the first steps involved in single cell analysis of intracellular components proteins, enzymes, DNA, etc. Many different platforms have been used to study single cell lysis including microfluidics, high speed imaging, capillary electrophoresis and PCR. Cell lysis methods such as laser pulse, nanoscale barbs, acoustic, electrical and chemical detergents and enzymes have been utilized to lyse cells.
Brown et al. Single cell lysis buffers offered commercially are optimized for single cell RNA extraction. These buffers are designed to reduce sample loss and are compatible with enzymatic reactions such as reverse transcription. Single cell lysis buffers are commercially available from companies such as Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc.
Lysis Buffer Specific for ELISA / CLIA
Svec et al. They concluded that bovine serum albumin BSA resulted in the best lysis reagent which resulted in the maximum lysis efficiency and high RNA stability. Kemmerling et al. The cell lysates were aspirated into the microcapillary to be later analyzed directly in a transmission electron microscope for protein analysis. Developments in single cell analysis technologies have opened up new possibilities and discoveries in the area of genomics and proteomics. This review provides an overview of cell lysis techniques in the macro and micro scale.
The macroscale cell lysis techniques are well established and commercialized by many companies. These techniques include mechanical, chemical, physical and biological techniques. On the other hand, microscale and single cell lysis techniques have recently evolved and use the same macroscale principles for lysis in a miniaturized device.
The choice of cell lysis method depends on the type of cells, concentration, application post processing and efficiency required. It is difficult to choose one technology, since each method has its own advantages and disadvantages. This review provides a guideline for researchers to choose the cell lysis technology specific for their application. As novel fabrication techniques are introduced in the microfluidics field, we will see better cell lysis techniques with higher efficiency and faster lysis times at reduced cost.
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Micromachines Basel v. Micromachines Basel. Published online Mar 8. Aaron T. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Jan 21; Accepted Mar 3. Abstract The lysis of cells in order to extract the nucleic acids or proteins inside it is a crucial unit operation in biomolecular analysis. Keywords: cell lysis, cell lysis methods, microfluidics, electrical lysis, mechanical lysis, thermal lysis.
Introduction Cell lysis or cellular disruption is a method in which the outer boundary or cell membrane is broken down or destroyed in order to release inter-cellular materials such as DNA, RNA, protein or organelles from a cell. Overview of Cell Lysis Cells are the fundamental unit of all living organisms. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Classification of Cell Types Cells are of two types: eukaryotic such as mammalian cells and prokaryotic such as bacteria. Figure 2. Anatomy of: a mammalian cell; and b bacteria. Cytoplasmic Membrane Cytoplasmic membrane also known as plasma membrane is a thin structure which acts as a barrier between internal and external environment of cell.
Figure 3. Figure 4. Structure of: a Sterols; and b Hopanoids.
Cell Wall Osmotic pressure is developed inside the cell due to the concentration difference of solutes across the membrane. Outer Membrane In addition to the peptidoglycan layer, there is another layer in the gram-negative bacteria known as the outer membrane. Classification of Cell Lysis Methods A number of methods, as depicted in Figure 5 , have been established to lyse cells in the macro and micro scale and these methods can be categorized mainly as mechanical and non-mechanical techniques.
Figure 5. Mechanical Lysis In mechanical lysis, cell membrane is physically broken down by using shear force. Figure 6. Bead Mill Bead mill, also known as bead beating method, is a widely used laboratory scale mechanical cell lysis method. Table 1 List of commercially available mechanical cell lysis instruments. Non-Mechanical Lysis Non-mechanical lysis can be categorized into three main groups, namely physical, chemical and biological, where each group is further classified based on the specific techniques and methods used for lysis. Physical Disruption Physical disruption is a non-contact method which utilize external force to rupture the cell membrane.
Thermal Lysis Cell lysis can be conducted by repeated freezing and thawing cycles. Cavitation Cavitation is a technique which is used for the formation and subsequent rupture of cavities or bubbles. Osmotic Shock When the concentration of salt surrounding a cell is suddenly changed such that there is a concentration difference between the inside and outside of the cell, the cell membrane becomes permeable to water due to osmosis.
Chemical Cell Disruption Chemical lysis methods use lysis buffers to disrupt the cell membrane. Detergent Lysis Detergents also called surfactants have an ability to disrupt the hydrophobic-hydrophilic interactions. Table 2 List of some detergents and their properties. Good for most cells.
Not suitable for sensitive protein extraction. Triton X , Non-ionic Mild lysis agent. Good for protein analysis. NP Non-ionic Mild lysis agent. Good for isolating cytoplasmic proteins but not nuclear proteins. Tween 20, 80 Non-ionic Mild lysis agent. Good for cell lysis and protein isolation. Good for protein isolation. Enzymatic Cell Lysis Enzymatic lysis is a biological cell lysis method in which enzymes such as lysozyme, lysostaphin, zymolase, cellulose, protease or glycanase are used. Combination of Mechanical and Non-Mechanical Methods From the aforementioned discussion, it can be concluded that chemical methods make the membrane permeable which is good for selective product release from cells such as protein or enzymes, however complete cell disruption may not be achieved which may be required for release of other products such as nucleic acid or cell debris.
Overview and Comparison of Different Cell Lysis Methods A comparison between different types of cell lysis techniques mechanical and non-mechanical is summarized in Table 3. Table 3 Overview and comparison of cell lysis techniques. Microfabricated Platforms for Cell Lysis Microfluidics is one of the emerging platforms for cell lysis on a micro scale.
Mechanical Lysis Mechanical lysis in microfluidics involves physically disrupting the cell membrane using shear or frictional forces and compressive stresses. Figure 7. Figure 8. Figure 9. Thermal Lysis In thermal lysis, heat is supplied to the cells to denature the membrane proteins and lyse the cells. Chemical Lysis Chemical lysis methods use chemical reagents such as surfactants, lysis buffers and enzymes to solubilize lipids and proteins in the cell membrane to create pores and lyse cells.
Figure Optical Lysis Optical lysis of cells involves the use of lasers and optically induced dielectrophoresis ODEP techniques to break open the cell membrane. Acoustic Lysis In acoustic lysis, a high energy sound wave is generated which is used for cell lysis. Electrical Lysis In electrical method, cells are lysed by exposing them to a strong electric field. Table 4 Different electrical lysis devices used for cell lysis. Comparison of Different Microfluidic Technologies for Cell Lysis Various microfluidic technologies for cell lysis are compared in Table 5.
Table 5 Comparison of different microfluidic lysis methods. Single Cell Lysis Single cell analysis has gained much popularity in the recent years owing to the development of new technology. Summary This review provides an overview of cell lysis techniques in the macro and micro scale.
Cell Lysis Buffer 2 R&D Systems
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Cell Lysis Buffer 2
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Cell Lysis Buffer 2 Summary
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