That process can only produce inorganic, mechanical or chemical processes, not living organisms. The zygote to adult embryonic development of every species also follows a fixed unique blueprint leading to the production of an adult organism of that particular species. Driesch explained this in a sequence of results where embryological growth progressed by the interactions of the nucleus and cytoplasm:. This spectacular realization of the concept of nuclear-cytoplasmic interaction and nuclear equivalence finally forced Driesch to reject the vision of the living organism as a physical machine.
Examining natural history, researchers have also reported that many living organisms never evolved into different novel anatomical structures; rather, they continued unaltered, even over a period of hundreds of millions of years. In molecular genetics, organisms deliberately and aggressively act to correct or destroy random mutational changes. Life's ability to preserve its own species offers a significant challenge to Darwinian gradualism. Living organisms exhibit many such overtly noticeable goal-oriented or teleological activities self-determination, self-formation, self-preservation, self-reproduction, self-restitution and so on , which make them distinct from insentient mechanical and chemical systems.
Darwin's Origin of Species invokes natural selection to explain the goal-driven activities of the living organisms, but insists that random mutations are exclusively responsible for the gradual but steady appearance of more complicated organisms. This irrational inability to scientifically explain how novel body types arise in study of life and its evolution is the major deficiency of Darwinism.
Such an incorrect representation of life mechanistic insentient picture for sentient living organism can be called abiology. On the other hand, as we will discuss in this paper, 21st century biology strongly presents the case for the sentient nature of all living organisms, thus rejecting any major role for Darwinian objective evolution and trying to understand the evolution of sentience. The present article is an attempt to elaborate how earlier ruled out concepts of genuine biology have been again substantiated by empirical evidence.
They burned, scalded, and mutilated animals in every conceivable manner. When the animals reacted as though they were suffering pain, Descartes dismissed the reaction as no different from the sound of a machine that was functioning improperly. A crying dog, Descartes maintained, is no different from a whining gear that needs oil.
Based on this ideology, many innocent animals are treated cruelly on a daily basis for the purpose of food, entertainment, research, and profit. Influenced by such a line of thought, most of the scientists were also thinking that only humans are conscious and all other creatures are not. However, the ubiquity of consciousness in all living organisms is an attractive alternative. Eshel Ben-Jacob was a pioneer in the study of bacterial intelligence and social behaviors of bacteria. Ben-Jacob has stated that all organisms, and even the most primitive fundamental ones, must be able to sense the environment and perform internal information processing for thriving on latent information embedded in the complexity of their environment.
The fundamental primitive elements of cognition in such systems include interpretation of chemical messages, discrimination between internal and external information, and some self versus non-self distinction peers and cheaters. We must note that not only the unicellular organisms display cognitive behavior, but that even individual cells in the multicellular organisms exhibit individual cognitive behavior.
Gametes of the multicellular living entities display sentient-like cell-cell communication and chemotaxis. There is also ample empirical evidence that establishes cell sentience from the perspective of cell functions. Cells can cognitively read their environment, analyze the received information and then execute the necessary action to continue their survival. Living cells regulate practically every cell function, including DNA synthesis, RNA synthesis, protein synthesis, cell division, cell differentiation, morphogenesis, and neuroendocrine regulation.
A cell activates a checkpoint and stops the entire cycle until all has been set accurately to further advance the cycle. To coordinate the functions in cell communities, they use the integration-receptors which respond to information signals. In different environments, using intercellular signaling molecules cells can select and execute various essential actions.
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We should not be under the misconception that biologists are the only ones with a monopoly on the study and understanding of life. The verse 2. In the healthy body of a multicellular organism, every individual cell, despite having its own individuality, is meant to work for the welfare of the whole body. In contrast to Darwinism, symbiogenesis proclaims that life did not take over the globe by competition, but by cooperation. In the body of an organism, there are different organs like heart, kidneys, lungs and so on, which perform different tasks to serve the function of the body as a whole.
One organ does not try to become another. In the similar manner, different living entities and also their environment are related to each other like an organic whole. Evidence in symbiotic exchanges confirms that the sphere of life is like a net, with the different species representing the nodes of that net network. If changes occur in the network as a whole, then the various nodes species change accordingly, to maintain the harmony of the network of life.
This viewpoint is completely ignored by many modern evolutionists. Shapiro, Professor in the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology at the University of Chicago, provided ample examples where molecular biology has recognized cell cognition from cell sensing, information transfer, decision-making processes.
In this book Shapiro, thoroughly dismisses the traditional Neo-Darwinian evolution theory that is widely accepted by biologists. In Darwinism, organisms are often assumed as optimally designed machines blindly engineered by natural selection. However, based on cell cognition, Shapiro challenges that view:. A shift from thinking about gradual selection of localized random changes to sudden genome restructuring by sensory network-influenced cell systems is a major conceptual change. The emphasis is systemic rather than atomistic and information-based rather than stochastic. In recent time Neo-Darwinian evolution theory is facing several challenges from various corners 34,35 and hence, it is the right time to find the proper alternative explanation for biological evolution, based on cognitive principles.
Even though 21st century biology has established that from humans to the smallest cells bacteria without brain organ , all living organisms are conscious entities, several enthusiastic propositions in the field of Artificial Intelligence AI claim that by simulating the neuronal network in the brain, we can produce conscious machines. Often referred to as the Turing test, an imitation game proposed by Alan Turing in , is taken as the litmus test of machine intelligence in Strong AI.
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In this test, an interrogator asks questions to a human being and a machine, and if the interrogator fails to distinguish between human and machine, then the machine is declared as intelligent. Chinese observers outside the room may feel that whatever is in the room passes the Turing test by communicating in Chinese, but in reality the man in the room has no real understanding about the meaning of that conversation. In this way Searle explained that a machine may pass the Turing test but this does not guarantee that it has developed thinking, understanding or the ability to grasp meaning.
On the other hand, certain living organisms have the ability to grasp meaning and such ability cannot be produced in machines by any computer program. With the ample empirical evidence and emphasis of the halting problem is there a program which determines whether any given algorithm halts for a given input? Therefore, we must know what algorithms cannot do.
Therefore, scientists and philosophers following the concept of identity theory believe that the brain secretes thought like the liver secretes bile. However, neurologists do not know whether coding is performed by individual neurons or by nervous system. An individual living entity selects according to its behavior only those aspects of neural firing that make sense for its behavior.
Different qualitative and quantitative stimulus attributes of sentient living organisms are represented by different neural codes — and therefore, unlimitedly, many neural codes are necessary. Apart from the behavior of organism whose brain is under study, interpretations of neural action are also very much influenced by the brain states of the neuroscientists.
Eggermont explains this difficulty:. There need not be any correspondence between these two interpretations. Therefore, it is not clear whether any neural code exists in reality, or whether it is only in the minds of neurologists. As Erlich stated:. Further, the neural code that purportedly allows the brain to coordinate synaptic modulation over wide areas of cortex has yet to be found and may not exist. Code, by its meaning, is a predetermined representation of information that is independent of the sender, receiver, and mechanisms of transmission.
The foundation of Tononi's IITC is based on 2 thought experiments: 1 the generation of information and 2 the integration with previous memories integrated information. The main point that Tononi emphasized in his first thought experiment is that the explanations of experience necessitate a situation where they distinguish between several possible choices; in other words, they must generate information.
In his second thought experiment, Tononi explains that information alone is not enough for conscious experience. However, the mere producing of more information than that of a human nose cannot provide the artificial smell detectors the ability to experience the smell the way humans do. Tononi explained that the major difference between artificial detector and human experience is that in the case of the artificial detector, each aroma is detected in seclusion of every other aroma.
Even if the entries of other aromas except the one detected are deleted from the database of the machine, we will find exactly the same response by the artificial detector. The human nose has different neurons which are specifically equipped to sense particular smells. It may be possible that by selective damage of certain olfactory receptors an individual may lose the ability to smell a particular aroma.
In the case of human subjects, even though the process of detection of a particular aroma is not itself integrated, the experience of smell is thoroughly integrated concerning the type of information it records in response. Conscious behavior is an outcome of integrated information in the mind, and those conscious responses cannot be decomposed or disintegrated into a set of causally independent parts.
The failure to create machines that can produce integrated information is the reason why scientists in this field believe that machines can never develop the ability to have subjective experience. To establish the difference between machine and organism, Neil D Theise has mentioned in his article in Nature :. However, biological entities at all levels of scale are not machines. They are not described by classical, Newtonian mechanics. Their behaviors are not deterministic, but stochastic. They are self-organizing, complex, dynamic systems.
As such they are creative, adaptive and alive. This is a good attempt to describe the difference between biological systems and machines, but we must realize that the concept of self-organization was first developed in chemistry and physics and its direct application to a living system is highly doubtful. Prigogine cited the vortex say a tornado in thunderstorm as an example of self-organization. The thunderstorm or tornado has a localized higher degree of organization than is present in either of the air masses alone. Following such analogies and examples of self ordering molecules during an influx of energy, a few biologists have tried to explain the origin of highly complex macromolecules essential for living systems.
Prigogine confirms the same:. This problem is far from being solved. Even primitive cellular life requires a certain minimum number of systems, like 1 the means to transmit heredity RNA, DNA, or something similar , 2 a mechanism to obtain energy to generate work metabolic system , 3 an enclosure to hold and protect these components from the environment cell membrane , and finally, 4 a unique principle to connect all of these components together sentience. Can self-organization theory address all these requirements? The main problem is that a physical analysis can only elucidate the structure and function of a system as characterized from an external viewpoint.
However, living organisms are conscious systems and their subjective experiences are within. Serving Director, Bhakti Vedanta Institute: www. One of his statements is very much relevant in the present context of self-organization:. Ultimately it is from the ideas of the author that the letters of the book come to be. In the same way, the molecules of a biological organism are the result, not the origin of life. This is the difference between the order in which we come to know things ordo cognoscendi and the order in which something comes to be ordo essendi.
The legs and the seat of a chair or balance wheel, hairspring, gear system and so on in a watch, can exist only in virtue of designer's concept of the whole. In other words, the legs of the chair or the hairspring of the watch exist only in order that the chair or watch as a whole exist. Even though in both artifacts and living organisms, the ends are determined by purpose a cognitive act , the difference is that in the case of artifacts, the purpose designer is outside the system external teleology , and in the case of a living organism, the purpose is within internal teleology.
Following a linear logic in the case of artifacts, parts are produced and combined into a whole by the designer. On the other hand, following a circular logic, the body of the living organism appears from another living organism by a developmental process cell division and not by the linear accumulation of parts — design. Even though the attempt toward mechanization of nature served as an important driving force behind the scientific revolution, it also created an image of a clockwork universe set in motion by an intelligent first cause.
Such machine analogy is also applied to living organisms. However, the view that a supernatural being, God, 54 is external to living organisms and that He imposes form on matter from the outside intelligent design is also reductionistic, and shows a logical fallacy. The logic of extrinsically purposive systems machines cannot be applied to intrinsically purposive systems living organisms. The process of externally assembling parts can only produce inorganic, mechanical machines or chemical processes, not living organisms.
It is impossible for a designer to produce an artifact with the 2 fundamental characters Naturzweck and bildende Kraft that life has. Therefore, unlike machines, the generation, properties, and functions of the parts of an organism cannot be understood independently from the organism as a whole. After all, no machine has ever built itself, replicated itself, programmed itself, or been able to procure its own energy.
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The similarity between an organism and a machine is exceedingly superficial. Abiogenesis and the theory of evolution explain that the first life came from the accumulation of inert matter and that biodiversity is a result of random mutation and natural selection. Evolutionary theory and the principles in biology are applied directly to behavior, and they avoid psychological or cognitive level analysis. Both abiogenesis and evolution theory are outcomes of mechanistic or reductionistic thinking and that is why they cannot explain how organisms have cognitive features like thinking, feeling and willing.
These concepts also do not explain how matter developed the 2 fundamental characteristics that life has Naturzweck and bildende Kraft. Therefore, both the origin and evolution of life must be rewritten on the basis of sentience. In biology, the predominant ontological view of the organism is that of a complex machine programmed by its genetic software and decomposable into its component mechanisms. However, through her work on transposons, Nobel laureate Barbara McClintock has established that genes are not the foundational concept of life.
There are no genomic or other molecular units for life. In contrast to Darwinism, 21st century biology accepts that life is a totality of organism, environment and nature. Continually mounting evidence thoroughly challenges the common consensus that genes determine living function. Therefore, to begin the inquiry into our true nature, we must first inquire into the original source of everything.
Consciousness arises from consciousness, or life comes from life. Where there is life there is consciousness. Consciousness does not originate from that which is unconscious or impersonal, and life is not a product of insentient matter. The conception that life comes from life biogenesis is the only scientific idea that has ever been verified by experiment and observation.
Every species produces their own chemicals necessary within their bodies. On the other hand, materialism life originates from matter is an unverified ideological presupposition that has no scientific or observation-based evidence to support it. In BG 30,31 Consciousness is absolutely necessary for the living body to be what it is and to function as it does.
We can witness voluntary functions the action that are apparently under the control of our mind and involuntary functions in the living organisms. There are terms in science that we cannot perceive directly by our senses. We cannot taste, smell, touch, see and hear entities like force, energy, electron, quarks, and so on. Scientists explain to us many such terms using inference and we accept them as scientific proof.
When an apple falls down from a tree, we infer that there is a gravitational force that pulled the apple down. We never ask for a direct observation of the gravitational force itself. Doctors can keep patients survive on ventilators and even they can replace the heart with an artificial heart running with a battery. Sometimes, it is possible to keep an organism functioning by electrical equipment outside the body, but the organism is unconscious — showing no EEG activity, in a vegetative state.
Remove the equipment and the organism cannot maintain even that function. Then, what is supplying the organism's energy for functioning when the machines are disconnected and it has to function independently? We can supply the energy by some machines to maintain the body but we cannot make a body conscious with those machines. All life exhibits these same qualities. Every living organism wants to maintain its life forever sat and is willing to engage in the struggle for existence until it is forced by the laws of material nature to succumb to physical death of the body.
The fact that life goes on generation after generation for thousands or millions of years is not something we would expect in chemical or physical material processes. It is sentient or conscious cit and seeks knowledge in the human form. Matter, as it is known in modern science in terms of physical and chemical properties, does not have sentience or consciousness.
Even though the same chemicals are present in the dead body as in the living one, we do not find life or sentient quality in a dead body or a dead cell. Even though the same biochemicals are present in both the cases, the complex biochemical reactions that occur in a living cell do not take place in a dead cell. Modern science has not yet approached that area of knowledge and only focused its studies on insentient matter. Due to a gross negligence to the area of sentient science, modern science finds itself at an impasse when it tries to understand biology, which deals with mind or consciousness.
Unless a designer or an external agent interferes, a machine always consists of the same material stuff. Unlike a machine, a living organism displays a transitional material identity. The constituent materials of the body of the living organism are under constant change, yet the organization of the whole and its identity remain. The body of a living organism is in a state of continuous flux in which there is creation, maintenance replacement and destruction of its constituent material stuff by the processes of anabolism, metabolism and catabolism.
Scientists believe that the DNA is stable after a cell has gone through its last cell division. Therefore, they use 14 C level on the DNA as a date mark for when a cell was born. Verse 2. Translation: As the embodied soul continuously passes, in this body, from boyhood to youth to old age, the soul similarly passes into another body at death.
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A self-realized soul is not bewildered by such a change. Our body was in the state of a single cell zygote when it first came into existence and by miraculous embryological development it has acquired a child body. By several changes, it has acquired its present state and it will further change to acquire its future state. Therefore, our body is in a constant state of flux, like a river. In the gross body, the senses are primary and if they are removed, no world is apparent to us.
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If we are not mindful of the sense objects, then even though something is moving in front of our eyes we cannot see it. The mind can determine something, but it is the intelligence that helps an individual to come to a decision to accept something or not. Considering a machine analogy of the living organism, abiogenesis and evolution theory in biology do not include these subtle elements when it studies living organisms. It excludes mind, intelligence and false ego. Obviously, consciousness is untouched in those theories. The acquired reactions from those misdeeds are known as karmic reactions.
This ancient theory of evolution is based on the subjective evolution of consciousness 67 and the Darwinian objective evolution theory of bodies is a perverted representation of this ancient wisdom. Twenty first century biology also teaches us that we should not inflict our ideas on nature; let nature reveal herself to us. Life and its evolution cannot be understood by imposing simplistic Darwinian mechanistic reductionism on sentient biological systems.
Evidence is forcing biologists to go beyond physics and chemistry to properly comprehend the science of consciousness. In a living cell proteins can distinctively catalyze a chemical reaction or identify an antigen not only because their amino acids are arranged in a particular manner, but also because their 3-dimensional structure and function are controlled by sentient living cell. The reductionistic view in biology finds its limits and biology should shift its lens from the parts to the whole.
Science has witnessed that biology has evolved from DNA-centrism central dogma to cell-centrism, where cells operate in a sentient manner which a few biologists are trying to compare with information processing, while on the other hand, some try to see it as computational result. However, none of these explanations include the sensory feature of how cells act. All these developments give the impression that cells possess a mind which is the essential character of cognition. In contrast to genetic determinism, scientific evidence is forcing the scientists, philosophers and other scholars to reconsider the explanations of cognition as traditionally associated with life.
In other words, we have numerous precise molecular descriptions of cell cognition, which range all the way from bacterial nutrition to mammalian cell biology and development. Page 24 in Consciousness is ubiquitous in all living organisms, starting from bacteria to human beings. The individual cells in the multicellular organisms are also individually cognitive entities. Chuka Ummuna. Shappi Khorsandi. Gina Miller. Our view. Sign the petition. Spread the word. Steve Coogan. Rugby union. Motor racing. US sports. Rugby League. Geoffrey Macnab. Tech news. Tech culture.
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Keep me logged in. Try Independent Minds free for 1 month See the options. You can form your own view. Subscribe now. Shape Created with Sketch. Science news in pictures Show all African elephant poaching rates have dropped by 60 per cent in six years, an international study has found. It is thought the decline could be associated with the ivory trade ban introduced in China in Scientists have identified a four-legged creature with webbed feet to be an ancestor of the whale.
Dr Sidney Tamm of the Marine Biological Laboratory could not initially find any trace of an anus on the species. However, as the animal gets full, a pore opens up to dispose of waste. Feared extinct, the Wallace's Giant bee has been spotted for the first time in nearly 40 years. An international team of conservationists spotted the bee, that is four times the size of a typical honeybee, on an expedition to a group of Indonesian Islands.
Fossilised bones digested by crocodiles have revealed the existence of three new mammal species that roamed the Cayman Islands years ago. The bones belonged to two large rodent species and a small shrew-like animal. Scientists at the University of Maryland have created a fabric that adapts to heat, expanding to allow more heat to escape the body when warm and compacting to retain more heat when cold.
A study from the University of Tokyo has found that the tears of baby mice cause female mice to be less interested in the sexual advances of males. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has issued a report which projects the impact of a rise in global temperatures of 1. The nobel prize for chemistry has been awarded to three chemists working with evolution. Frances Smith is being awarded the prize for her work on directing the evolution of enzymes, while Gregory Winter and George Smith take the prize for their work on phage display of peptides and antibodies.
The nobel prize for physics has been awarded to three physicists working with lasers. Arthur Ashkin L was awarded for his "optical tweezers" which use lasers to grab particles, atoms, viruses and other living cells. The Ledumahadi Mafube roamed around million years ago in what is now South Africa. Recently discovered by a team of international scientists, it was the largest land animal of its time, weighing 12 tons and standing at 13 feet. In Sesotho, the South African language of the region in which the dinosaur was discovered, its name means "a giant thunderclap at dawn".
Scientists have witnessed the birth of a planet for the first time ever. The planet stands clearly out, visible as a bright point to the right of the center of the image, which is blacked out by the coronagraph mask used to block the blinding light of the central star. These compartments are found beneath the skin, as well as lining the gut, lungs, blood vessels and muscles, and join together to form a network supported by a mesh of strong, flexible proteins.
Working in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso, a team led by archaeologists at the University of Exeter unearthed hundreds of villages hidden in the depths of the rainforest. These excavations included evidence of fortifications and mysterious earthworks called geoglyphs. More than one in 10 people were found to have traces of class A drugs on their fingers by scientists developing a new fingerprint-based drug test.
Using sensitive analysis of the chemical composition of sweat, researchers were able to tell the difference between those who had been directly exposed to heroin and cocaine, and those who had encountered it indirectly. The storm bigger than the Earth, has been swhirling for years. The image's colours have been enhanced after it was sent back to Earth. Included in Wellcome Image Awards, this 3D image of an African grey parrot shows the highly intricate system of blood vessels. Another Wellcome Images Award winner, this time of baby Hawaiian bobtail squid.
The people are thought to have been unusually tall and strong. The tallest of the skeletons uncovered measured at 1. Enter your email address Continue Continue Please enter an email address Email address is invalid Fill out this field Email address is invalid Email already exists. I would like to receive morning headlines Monday - Friday plus breaking news alerts by email.
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