People who experience gratitude can cope more effectively with everyday stress, show increased resilience in the face of trauma-induced stress, recover more quickly from illness, and enjoy more robust physical health. Many of these effects are quantifiable. Experiencing gratitude leads to increased feelings of connectedness, improved relationships, and even altruism. We also have found that, when people experience gratitude, they feel more loving and forgiving--and closer to God.
Dozens of research studies with diverse participant groups also have revealed that the practice of gratitude leads to increased feelings of energy, alertness, enthusiasm, and vigor; success in achieving personal goals; better coping with stress; a sense of closure in traumatic memories; bolstered feelings of self-worth and -confidence; solidified and secure social relationships; generosity and helpfulness; prolonging of the enjoyment produced by pleasurable experiences; improved cardiac health through increases in vagal tone; and a greater sense of purpose and resilience.
The evidence on practicing gratitude contradicts the widely held view that all people have a set point of, or predisposition to, happiness that cannot be reset. The luck of the genetic draw has some of us happier and some of us less happy from the start. However, the science of happiness has taught us that we can do a great deal about our sense of happiness, regardless of our set point. In some cases, people have reported that gratitude led to transformative life changes. All in all, science confirms that the life-giving practice of gratitude broadens our lives by enabling healing of the past, providing contentment in the present, and delivering hope for the future.
I pioneered the use of gratitude journaling as a research methodology in which people counted their blessings by systematically putting their thoughts and feelings down on paper. This powerful exercise encourages reflection that allows us to regain perspective and a sense of control over the events that move through our lives.
Several hundred persons between the ages of eight and 80 now have practiced gratitude journaling under controlled experimental conditions and we have scientific evidence of what works best.
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It might be argued that techniques such as gratitude journaling are so commonplace and perhaps so patently obvious that they require no further explanation. Some even think that counting blessings is a corny or cheesy activity. I would beg to differ, based on a number of not-so-obvious and even counterintuitive findings that recently have been reported in the gratitude literature.
That gratitude should help adolescents build purpose and thrive makes sense when considering the consistent finding in research with adults and youth that gratitude helps hone both an inward focus on self-improvement and an outward focus on establishing a social support network that is consistent with such efforts. Skip to main content Skip to table of contents. Encyclopedia of Adolescence Living Edition. Editors: Roger J. Contents Search. Living reference work entry First Online: 23 May Download entry PDF. How to cite.
This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. Overview Gratitude is experienced when people receive something beneficial; it is the appreciation they feel when somebody does something kind or helpful for them. The most significant finding seems to be the relation between counting blessings and satisfaction with school. Students instructed to count blessings, compared with either students in the hassles or control conditions, reported more satisfaction with their school experience i.
Many early and late adolescents, however, indicate significant amounts of dissatisfaction with their school experience Huebner et al. Therefore, inducing gratitude in students via counting blessings may be a viable intervention for mitigating negative academic appraisals and simultaneously promoting a positive attitude about school. Holding such a view predisposes students to improving both their academic and social competence and may help motivate them to get the most out of school. Open image in new window. In the second study Froh et al. Students in the gratitude condition were asked to write a letter to a benefactor whom they have never properly thanked, to read the letter to the benefactor in person, and to then share their experience with other students in the same condition.
To illustrate, one year-old female wrote and read the following letter to her mother: I would like to take this time to thank you for all that you do on a daily basis and have been doing my whole life …. Students in the control condition were asked to record and think about daily events. It was found that students who began the study low in positive emotions reported more gratitude see Fig. These students reported more positive emotions 2 months after the study as well see Fig. There are several key principles that adults can use to promote gratitude among youth.
These are all incorporated into the recently developed gratitude curriculum Froh et al. This curriculum aims to instill grateful thinking in youth through five lesson plans that do not require an explicit focus on gratitude itself. There are three key principles within the gratitude curriculum that can foster the practice of gratefulness in everyday life. They are: Notice intentions. Noticing intentions consists of encouraging youth to appreciate the thought behind gifts they receive from others.
Another component of this principle involves reflecting on how someone noticed their need and acted to fulfill it. Appreciate costs. It is important to emphasize to children that when someone is helpful that person is usually sacrificing something time or preferred activities to be helpful Froh et al. Within the gratitude curriculum, children are prompted to focus on the personal value of the kind acts of others. And a weekly version of the curriculum was related with increases in gratitude, grateful thinking, and positive emotions up to 5 months later Froh et al.
While this gratitude curriculum has only been tested with children ages 8—11, it can easily be adapted for use with early and late adolescents. Algoe, S.
Gratitude: The Leader's Most Underused but Powerful Tools
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Gratitude and the science of positive psychology.
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Cultivating the Art of Gratitude
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The high price of materialism. Li, D. Gratitude and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among Chinese adolescents: Direct, mediated, and moderated effects. Journal of Adolescence, 35 1 , 55— Lin, C. Gratitude and depression in young adults: The mediating role of self-esteem and well-being. Personality and Individual Differences, 87 , 30— Lyubomirsky, S.
The how of happiness: A scientific approach to getting the life you want. New York: Penguin Press.