Volume 23 offers a name index for church transactions, baptisms, deaths, marriages, and members. Call Number: F 63 R Volumes 1 - 2 George Bowman, considered "the greatest genealogical scholar of Plymouth Colony," accumulated 20, pages of documents for all known descendants of Mayflower passengers.
These volumes provide a compilation of births and deaths extracted and transcribed from the Bowman Files for 23 Mayflower families. Each section contains a list of genealogical articles pertaining to that particular family. Mayflower families through five generations: descendants of the Pilgrims who landed at Plymouth, Mass. Each volume includes a name index and an index of places. Especially useful for those seeking a valid line back to a Mayflower passenger. Mayflower increasings: for three generations - Roser, Susan E. Call Number: F 63 R68 Provides "a summary of all that is presently known about the passengers of the Mayflower for the first three generations in America names, dates, places, spouses, children, etc.
Family Life. Every day life in the Massachusetts Bay Colony - Dow, George Francis Call Number: F 67 D68 Relies on original source materials to examine such subjects as apparel, home furnishings, money, medicine, farming, manners, pewter, sports, and trades. Plymouth tercentenary: illustrated with a brief history of the life and struggles of the Pilgrim fathers, including original program of the "Pilgrim Spirit," by Professor George P. Baker, President Harding's visit, all scenes, episodes and official photographs of the tercentenary celebration - Bloomingdale, Harry Call Number: F 68 B66 Photo record souvenir that includes the names of the townspeople who participated in the events marking the th anniversary.
Plymouth Colony, its history and people, - Stratton, Eugene Aubrey Call Number: F 68 S93 Includes more than biographical sketches of Plymouth Colony residents, the and tax lists, and chapters concerning land, inheritance, everyday life, manners, morals, and law and order. Early Massachusetts marriages prior to - Bailey, Frederic W. Call Number: F 63 B16 "The most complete collection of early Massachusetts marriages ever published for the period The second volume covers Plymouth County.
Plymouth Colony marriages to - Wakefield, Robert S. That she was "square-rigged," and generally of the then prevalent style of vessels of her size and class, is altogether probable. The name pinnace was applied to vessels having a wide range in tonnage, etc. It was a term of pretty loose and indefinite adaptation and covered most of the smaller craft above a shallop or ketch, from such as could be propelled by oars, and were so fitted, to a small ship of the SPEEDWELL'S class, carrying an armament.
Weir's painting of the "Embarkation of the Pilgrims," in the Capitol at Washington and Parker's copy of the same in Pilgrim Hall, Plymouth ; Lucy's painting of the "Departure of the Pilgrims," in Pilgrim Hall; Copes great painting in the corridor of the British Houses of Parliament, and others of lesser note, all depict the vessel on much the same lines, but nothing can be claimed for any of them, except fidelity to a type of vessel of that day and class.
Perhaps the best illustration now known of a craft of this type is given in the painting by the Cuyps, father and son, of the "Departure of the Pilgrims from Delfshaven," as reproduced by Dr. Griffis, as the frontispiece to his little monograph, "The Pilgrims in their Three Homes. That she was fairly "roomy" for a small number of passengers, and had decent accommodations, is inferable from the fact that so many as thirty were assigned to her at Southampton, for the Atlantic voyage while the MAY-FLOWER, three times her tonnage, but of greater proportionate capacity, had but ninety , as also from the fact that "the chief [i.
We have seen that Bradford notes the purchase and refitting of this "smale ship of 60 tune" in Holland. The story of her several sailings, her "leakiness," her final return, and her abandonment as unseaworthy, is familiar. We find, too, that Bradford also states in his "Historie," that "the leakiness of this ship was partly by her being overmasted and too much pressed with sails. It would seem that the historian, unduly elated at what he thought the discovery of another "turning-point of modern history," endeavors to establish it by such assertions and such partial references to Bradford as would support the imaginary "find.
Cushman also shows, by his letter,--written after the ships had put back into Dartmouth,--a part of which Professor Arber uses, but the most important part suppresses, that what he evidently considers the principal leak was caused by a very "loose board" plank , which was clearly not the result of the straining due to "crowding sail," or of "overmasting.
Moreover, as the Leyden chiefs were careful to employ a presumably competent man "pilott," afterwards "Master" Reynolds to take charge of refitting the consort, they were hence clearly, both legally and morally, exempt from responsibility as to any alterations made. It is clear, however, that the "overmasting" cut but small figure in the case; "confessed" rascality in making a leak otherwise, being the chief trouble, and this, as well as the "overmasting," lay at the door of Master Reynolds.
The treachery of Captain Jones, in league with Gorges, would as readily have landed them, by some pretext, on Cape Cod in October, as in December. But even though they had landed at the mouth of the Hudson, there is no good reason why the Pilgrim influence should not have worked north and east, as well as it did west and south, and with the Massachusetts Bay Puritans there, Roger Williams in Rhode Island, and the younger Winthrop in Connecticut, would doubtless have made New England history very much what it has been, and not, as Professor Arber asserts, "entirely different.
The Rev. Griffis "The Pilgrims in their Three Homes," p. Was their sagacity ever found unequal to the problems they met? Were the men who commanded confidence and respect in every avenue of affairs they entered; who talked with kings and dealt with statesmen; these diplomats, merchants, students, artisans, and manufacturers; these men who learned law, politics, state craft, town building, navigation, husbandry, boat-building, and medicine, likely to deal negligently or presumptuously with matters upon which they were not informed?
What need had they, having done this very probably upon the advice of those experienced ship-merchants, their own "Adventurers" and townsmen, Edward Pickering and William Greene , to consult Dutch ship-builders or mariners? She was to be an English ship, under the English flag, with English owners, and an English captain; why: should they defer to Dutch seamen or put other than an English "expert" in charge of her alterations, especially when England rightfully boasted the best?
But not only were these Leyden leaders not guilty of any laches as indicted by Arber and too readily convicted by Griffis, but the "overmasting" was of small account as compared with the deliberate rascality of captain and crew, in the disabling of the consort, as expressly certified by Bradford, who certainly, as an eye-witness, knew whereof he affirmed. Having bought a vessel, it was necessary to fit her for the severe service in which she was to be employed; to provision her for the voyage, etc. The Pilgrim leaders at Leyden seem, therefore, as noted, to have sent to their agents at London for a competent man to take charge of this work, and were sent a "pilott" or "mate" , doubtless presumed to be equal to the task.
He soon returned with a pilot doubtless [sic] Robert Coppin , who was to conduct the Continental party to England. Dexter and Goodwin coincide--the latter undoubtedly copying the former--concerning Coppin; both being doubtless in error, as hereafter shown. The former as noted, say: "We received diverse letters at the coming of Master Nash [probably Thomas] and our pilott, which is a great incouragement unto us.
It is not reasonable to suppose that, for so small a craft but just purchased, and with the expedition yet uncertain, the Leyden leaders or their London agents had by June 11, employed both a "Master" and a "pilott" for the SPEEDWELL, as must have been the case if this "pilott" was, as Goodwin so confidently assumes, "doubtless Robert Coppin. Duly considering all the facts together, there can be no doubt that only one "pilott" was sent from England; that he was expected to return when the work was done for which he went apparently the refitting of the SPEEDWELL ; that he was ordered to remain for a new duty, and that the man who performed that duty and brought the ship to Southampton who, we know was Master Reynolds must have been the "pilott", sent over.
The pinnace herself was intended, as we have seen, for the permanent use of they colonists, and was to remain indefinitely. Neither is there anywhere any suggestion that there was at Southampton any change in the second mate of the larger ship, as there must have been to make good the suggestion of Dr. Where the SPEEDWELL lay while being "refitted" has not been ascertained, though presumably at Delfshaven, whence she sailed, though possibly at one of the neighboring larger ports, where her new masts and cordage could be "set up" to best advantage.
We know that Reynolds--"pilott" and "Master" went from London to superintend the "making-ready" for sea. Nothing is known, however, of his antecedents, and nothing of his history after he left the service of the Pilgrims in disgrace, except that he appears to have come again to New England some years later, in command of a vessel, in the service of the reckless adventurer Weston a traitor to the Pilgrims , through whom, it is probable, he was originally selected for their service in Holland.
Bradford and others entitled to judge have given their opinions of this cowardly scoundrel Reynolds in unmistakable terms. That the fears of the SPEEDWELL'S men had been worked upon, and their cooperation thus secured by the artful Reynolds, is clearly indicated by the statement of Bradford: "For they apprehended that the greater ship being of force and in which most of the provisions were stored, she would retain enough for herself, whatever became of them or the passengers, and indeed such speeches had been cast out by some of them.
The evidence that he was there is well-nigh as conclusive as that Robert Cushman sailed on the MAY-FLOWER from London, and that Carver, who had been for some months in England,--chiefly at Southampton, making preparations for the voyage, was there to meet the ships on their arrival. Among the passengers, however, were some who, like Thomas Blossom and his son, William Ring, and others, abandoned the voyage to America at Plymouth, and returned in the pinnace to London and thence went back to Holland. They may have been of the Leyden contingent and so have come with their brethren on the SPEEDWELL, or they may have been of the English colonists, and first embarked either at London or at Southampton, or even at Plymouth,--though none are supposed to have joined the emigrants there or at Dartmouth.
The list of those embarking at Delfshaven on the SPEEDWELL, and so of the participants in that historic event,--a list now published for the first time, so far as known,--is undoubtedly accurate, within the limitations stated, as follows, being for convenience' sake arranged by families: The Family of Deacon John Carver probably in charge of John Howland , embracing Mrs. Carver, perhaps kinswoman , Roger Wilder, "servant," "Mrs. Carver's maid" whose name has never transpired. Master William Bradford and Mrs. Dorothy May Bradford. Master Edward Winslow and Mrs.
Master Isaac Allerton and Mrs. Samuel Fuller and William Butten, "servant"-assistant. Captain Myles Standish and Mrs. Rose Standish. Master William White and Mrs. Master Edward Tilley and Mrs. Ann Tilley. Master John Tilley and Mrs. Bridget Van der Velde? Tilley 2d wife , Elizabeth Tilley, a daughter of Mr. Tilley by a former wife? John Crackstone and John Crackstone Jr. Francis Cooke and John Cooke, a son. John Turner and Turner, a son, Turner, a son. Degory Priest. Thomas Rogers and Joseph Rogers, a son.
Moses Fletcher. Thomas Williams.
Thomas Tinker and Mrs. Edward Fuller and Mrs. John Rigdale and Mrs. Alice Rigdale. Francis Eaton and Mrs. Peter Browne. William Ring. Richard Clarke. John Goodman. Edward Margeson. Richard Britteridge. Katherine Carver and her family, it is altogether probable, came over in charge of Howland, who was probably a kinsman, both he and Deacon Carver coming from Essex in England,--as they could hardly have been in England with Carver during the time of his exacting work of preparation.
He, it is quite certain, was not a passenger on the Speedwell, for Pastor Robinson would hardly have sent him such a letter as that received by him at Southampton, previously mentioned Bradford's "Historie," Deane's ed. Nor if he had handed it to him at Delfshaven, would he have told him in it, "I have written a large letter to the whole company.
Desire Minter or Minther was undoubtedly the daughter of Sarah, who, the "Troth Book" or "marriage-in-tention" records for , at the Stadtbuis of Leyden, shows, was probably wife or widow of one William Minther--evidently of Pastor Robinson's congregation--when she appeared on May 13 as a "voucher" for Elizabeth Claes, who then pledged herself to Heraut Wilson, a pump-maker, John Carver being one of Wilson's "vouchers.
These two records and the rarity of the name warrant an inference that Desire Minter or Minther was the daughter of William and Sarah Willet Minter or Minther , of Robinson's flock; that her father had died prior to perhaps before ; that the Carvers were near friends, perhaps kinsfolk; that her father being dead, her mother, a poor widow there were clearly no rich ones in the Leyden congregation , placed this daughter with the Carvers, and, marrying herself, and removing to Amsterdam the year before the exodus, was glad to leave her daughter in so good a home and such hands as Deacon and Mistress Carver's.
The record shows that the father and mother of Mrs. Sarah Minther, Thomas and Alice Willet, the probable grandparents of Desire Minter, appear as "vouchers" for their daughter at her Leyden betrothal. Of them we know nothing further, but it is a reasonable conjecture that they may have returned to England after the remarriage of their daughter and her removal to Amsterdam, and the removal of the Carvers and their granddaughter to America, and that it was to them that Desire went, when, as Bradford records, "she returned to her friends in England, and proved not very well and died there. Carver's maid" we know but little about, but the presumption is naturally strong that she came from; Leyden with her mistress.
Her early marriage and; death are duly recorded. Roger Wilder, Carver's "servant;" was apparently in his service at Leyden and accompanied the family from thence. Bradford calls him "his [Carver's] man Roger," as if an old, familiar household servant, which as Wilder died soon after the arrival at Plymouth Bradford would not have been as likely to do--writing in , thirty years after--if he had been only a short-time English addition to Carver's household, known to Bradford only during the voyage. The fact that he speaks of him as a "man" also indicates something as to his age, and renders it certain that he was not an "indentured" lad.
It is probable that Carver's "servant-boy," William Latham, and Jasper More, his "bound-boy," were obtained in England, as more fully appears. Bradford's "Historie," etc. Master Edward Winslow's very full published account of the embarkation "Hypocrisie Unmasked," pp. George Soule, who seems to have been a sort of "upper servant" or "steward," it is not certain was with Winslow in Holland, though it is probable.
Elias Story, his "under-servant," was probably also with him in Holland, though not surely so. He was, in fact, the ranking man of the Leyden brethren till they reached Southampton and the respective ships' "governors" were chosen. The Church to that point was dominant.
There is, on careful study, no warrant to be found for the remarkable statements of Goodwin "Pilgrim Republic," p. Professor Arber, who is certainly a better authority upon the "hidden press" of the Separatists in Holland, and the official correspondence relating to its proprietors and their movements, says "The Story of the Pilgrim Fathers," p.
If the Pilgrims had gone to London to embark for America, many, if not most of them, would have been put in prison [and this is the opinion of a British historian, knowing the temper of those times, especially William Brewster. It is not improbable that the personal friendship of Sir Robert Naunton Principal Secretary of State to King James for Sir Edward Sandys and the Leyden brethren though officially seemingly active under his masters' orders in pushing Sir Dudley Carleton, the English ambassador at the Hague, to an unrelenting search for Brewster may have been of material aid to the Pilgrims in gaining their departure unmolested.
The only basis known for the positive expression of Goodwin resides in the suggestions of several letters' of Sir Dudley Carleton to Sir Robert Naunton, during the quest for Brewster; the later seeming clearly to nullify the earlier. Under date of July 22, , Carleton says: "One William Brewster, a Brownist, who has been for some years an inhabitant and printer at Leyden, but is now within these three weeks removed from thence and gone back to dwell in London," etc.
On August 16, N. On September 7, N. On September 13, N. I understand he prepares to settle himself at a village called Leerdorp, not far from Leyden, thinking there to be able to print prohibited books without discovery, but I shall lay wait for him, both there and in other places, so as I doubt but either he must leave this country; or I shall, sooner or later, find him out.
It was a mistake, and Brewster's partner Thomas Brewer , one of the Merchant Adventurers, was arrested instead. On September 28, N. While, as appears by a letter of Robert Cushman, written in London, in May, , Brewster was then undoubtedly there, one cannot agree, in the light of the official correspondence just quoted, with the conclusion of Dr.
Alexander Young "Chronicles of the Pilgrim Fathers," vol. Although by July, , the King had, as usual, considerably "cooled off," we may be sure that with full knowledge of the harsh treatment meted out to his partner Brewer when caught, though unusually mild by agreement with the authorities of the University and Province of Holland , Brewster did not deliberately put himself "under the lion's paw" at London, or take any chances of arrest there, even in disguise. There can be no doubt that, with his ever ready welcome of sound amendment, he will, on examination, revise his opinion, as would the clear-sighted Goodwin, if living and cognizant of the facts as marshalled against his evident error.
As the leader and guide of the outgoing part of the Leyden church we may, with good warrant, believe--as all would wish--that Elder Brewster was the chief figure the departing Pilgrims gathered on the SPEEDWELL deck, as she took her departure from Delfshaven. John Hooke, Allerton's "servant-lad," may have been detained at London or Southampton, but it is hardly probable, as Allerton was a man of means, consulted his comfort, and would have hardly started so large a family on such a journey without a servant.
Samuel Fuller was, as is well known, one of the Leyden chiefs, connected by blood and marriage with many of the leading families of Robinson's congregation. His wife and child were left behind, to follow later as they did. William Butten, the first of the Pilgrim party to die, was, in all probability, a student-"servant" of Doctor Fuller at Leyden, and doubtless embarked with him at Delfshaven. Bradford calls him writing of his death "Wm. Butten, a youth, servant to Samuel Fuller. Arber calls him "The Story of the Pilgrim Fathers," p.
By some writers, though apparently with insufficient warrant, Standish has been declared a Roman Catholic. It does not appear that he was ever a communicant of the Pilgrim Church. His family, moreover, was not of the Roman Catholic faith, and all his conduct in the colony is inconsistent with the idea that he was of that belief. Master William White, his wife and son, were of the Leyden congregation, both husband and wife being among its principal people, and nearly related to several of the Pilgrim band.
The marriage of Mr. White is duly recorded in Leyden. William Holbeck and Edward Thompson, Master White's two servants, he probably took with him from Leyden, as his was a family of means and position, though they might possibly have been procured at Southampton. They returned, moreover, to Holland from Plymouth, England where they gave up the voyage , via London.
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The father went to New Plymouth ten years later, the son dying before that time. See Blossom's letter to Governor Bradford. Bradford's "Historie," p. Humility Cooper returned to England after the death of Tilley and his wife. That Mrs. Tilley's "given name" was Ann is not positively established, but rests on Bradford's evidence.
John Tilley who is also sometimes called Master is reputed a brother of Edward, and is known to have been--as also his wife--of the Leyden church Bradford, Deane's ed. His second wife Bridget Van der Velde, was evidently of Holland blood, and their marriage is recorded in Leyden. Elizabeth Tilley was clearly a daughter by an earlier wife. He is said by Goodwin "Pilgrim Republic," p.
John Crackstone is of record as of the Leyden congregation. His daughter remained there, and came later to America. John Crackstone, Jr. Francis Cooke has been supposed a very early member of Robinson's flock in England, who escaped with them to Holland, in He and his son perhaps embarked at Delfshaven, leaving his wife and three other children to follow later. See Robinson's letter to Governor Bradford, "Mass. He was a prominent man in the colony, like his father, and the founder of Dartmouth Mass.
John Turner and his sons are also known to have been of the Leyden party, as he was undoubtedly the messenger sent to London with the letter of May 31 of the leaders to Carver and Cushman, arriving there June 10, Degory Priest--or "Digerie," as Bradford calls him--was a prominent member of the Leyden body. His marriage is recorded there, and he left his family in the care of his pastor and friends, to follow him later.
He died early. Thomas Rogers and his son are reputed of the Leyden company. He left according to Bradford some of his family there--as did Cooke and Priest--to follow later. It has been suggested that Rogers might have been of the Essex England lineage, but no evidence of this appears. The Rogers family of Essex were distinctively Puritans, both in England and in the Massachusetts colony.
Moses Fletcher was a "smith" at Leyden, and of Robinson's church. He was married there, in , to his second wife. He was perhaps of the English Amsterdam family of Separatists, of that name. As the only blacksmith of the colonists, his early death was a great loss. Thomas Williams, there seems no good reason to doubt, was the Thomas Williams known to have been of Leyden congregation.
Murphy and Arber include him--apparently through oversight alone --in the list of those of Leyden who did not go, unless there were two of the name, one of whom remained in Holland. Thomas Tinker, wife, and son are not certainly known to have been of the Leyden company, or to have embarked at Delfshaven, but their constant association in close relation with others who were and who so embarked warrants the inference that they were of the SPEEDWELL'S passengers. It is, however, remotely possible, that they were of the English contingent.
He is reputed to have been a brother of Dr. Fuller, and is occasionally so claimed by early writers, but by what warrant is not clear. John Rigdale and his wife have always been placed by tradition and association with the Leyden emigrants but there is a possibility that they were of the English party. Francis Eaton, wife, and babe were doubtless of the Leyden list. He is said to have been a carpenter there Goodwin, "Pilgrim Republic," p. Peter Browne has always been classed with the Leyden party. There is no established authority for this except tradition, and he might possibly have been of the English emigrants, though probably a SPEEDWELL passenger; he is needed to make good her putative number.
William Ring is in the same category as are Eaton and Browne. Cushman speaks of him, in his Dartmouth letter to Edward Southworth of August 17 , in terms of intimacy, though this, while suggestive, of course proves nothing, and he gave up the voyage and returned from Plymouth to London with Cushman. He was certainly from Leyden.
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They have always been traditionally classed with the Leyden colonists, yet some of them were possibly among the English emigrants. They are all needed, however, to make up the number usually assigned to Leyden, as are all the above "doubtfuls," which is of itself somewhat confirmatory of the substantial correctness of the list. Thomas English, Bradford records, "was hired to goe master of a [the] shallopp" of the colonists, in New England waters. John Alderton sometimes written Allerton was, Bradford states, "a hired man, reputed [reckoned] one of the company, but was to go back being a seaman and so making no account of the voyages for the help of others behind" [probably at Leyden].
Both English and Alderton seem to have stood on a different footing from Trevore and Ely, the other two seamen in the employ of the colonists. As the Master Reynolds and others of her crew undoubtedly returned to London in her from Plymouth, and her voyage was cancelled, the presumption is that Trevore and Ely were either hired anew or--more probably--retained under their former agreement, to proceed by the MAY-FLOWER to America, apparently practically as passengers.
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This, being their usual meeting-place, would naturally be the place of rendezvous on the morning of departure. From thence it was but a stone's throw to the boats, and quickly after starting they would enter the Vliet, as the section of the canal between Leyden and Delft is named, and which for a little distance runs within the city bounds, its quays forming the streets.
In those days the point where the canal leaves the city was guarded by a water-gate, which has long since been removed, as have also the town walls, the only remaining portions of which are the Morsch-gate and the Zylgate. So, gliding along the quiet waters of the Vliet, past the Water-gate, and looking up at the frowning turrets of the Cow-gate, 'they left that goodly and pleasant city which had been their resting-place near twelve years.
Nine miles from Leyden a branch canal connects the Vliet with the Hague, and immediately beyond their junction a sharp turn is made to the left, as the canal passes beneath the Hoom-bridge; from this point, for the remaining five miles, the high road from the Hague to Delft, lined with noble trees, runs side by side with the canal. In our time the canal-boats make a circuit of the town to the right, but in those days the traffic went by canal through the heart of the city.
Passing out of the gates of Delft and leaving the town behind, they had still a good ten miles of canal journey before them ere they reached their vessel and came to the final parting, for, as Mr. Below Delft the canal, which from Leyden thither is the Vliet, then becomes the Schie, and at the village of Overschie the travellers entered the Delfshaven Canal, which between perfectly straight dykes flows at a considerable height above the surrounding pastures.
Then finally passing through one set of sluice gates after another, the Pilgrims were lifted from the canal into a broad receptacle for vessels, then into the outer haven, and so to the side of the SPEEDWELL as she lay at the quay awaiting their arrival. Holmes has prettily pictured the "Departure" in his "Robinson of Leyden," even if not altogether correctly, geographically.
Of these, thirty, probably, were males and twelve females. The exact proportion this number bore to the numerical strength of Robinson's church at that time cannot be determined, because while something less than half as we know, gave their votes for the American undertaking, it cannot be known whether or not the women of church had a vote in the matter.
Presumably they did not, the primitive church gave good heed to the words of Paul i Corinthians xiv. Allowing for [i. George, a token that the emigrants had at last resumed their dearly-loved nationality. Far above them at the main was seen the Union Jack of new device. On the German Ocean. Wind fair. General course D. Wind moderate. Dover Straits English Channel. In sight Dover Cliffs. Enters Southampton Water. At anchor in port of Southampton. Lying at anchor at Southampton. Lying at Southampton. Tuesday, Aug. Wednesday, Aug. Pinnace leaking.
Re-trimmed again. Receiving passengers, etc. Friday, Aug. Making ready to leave. Saturday, Aug. Dropped down Southampton Water and beat down Channel. Wind dead ahead. Laid general course W. Sunday, Aug.
Wind baffling. Beating down Channel. Monday, Aug. Ship leaking. Ship leaking badly. Wind still ahead. Thursday, Aug. Ship still leaking badly. Gaining on pumps. Hove to.
Consultation with Captain Jones and principal passengers. Decided vessels shall put back, Dartmouth, being nearest convenient port. Wore ship and laid course for Dartmouth with good wind. Lying at anchor, Dartmouth harbor. Josselyn, in his "Two Voyages to New England," gives as the result of the experience and observations had in his voyages, but a few years later, much that is interesting and of exceptional value as to the food and equipment of passengers to, and colonists in, this part of America.
It has especial interest, perhaps, for the author and his readers, in the fact that Josselyn's statements were not known until after the data given in these pages had been independently worked out from various sources, and came therefore as a gratifying confirmation of the conclusions already reached. Josselyn says as to food, as follows"The common proportion of victuals for the sea to a mess being 4 men is as followeth "2 pieces of Beef of 3 lb.
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Pork seems to have been inadvertently omitted. It is of good use. It certainly cannot be accounted strange that infectious diseases, once started among them, should have run through their ranks like fire, taking both old and young. Nor is it strange that--though more inured to hardship and the conditions of sea life--with the extreme and unusual exposure of boat service on the New England coast in mid winter, often wading in the icy water and living aboard ship in a highly infected atmosphere, the seamen should have succumbed to disease in almost equal ratio with the colonists.
The author is prepared, after careful consideration, to accept and professionally indorse, with few exceptions, the conclusions as to the probable character of the decimating diseases of the passengers and crew of the MAY-FLOWER, so ably and interestingly presented by Dr. Edward E. It would, in view of the hardship of the voyage, have been very remarkable if this had not been the case.
It would have been still more remarkable if the ill-conditioned, thin- blooded, town-bred "servants" and apprentices had not suffered first and most. It is significant that eight out of nine of the male "servants" should have died in the first four months. It was impossible that scurvy should not have been prevalent with both passengers and crew.
If clearing at a custom-house of to-day her manifest would excite no little interest and surprise. Taking no account of the ship's stores and supplies necessarily large, like her crew, when bound upon such a voyage, when every possible need till her return to her home port must be provided for before sailing , the colonists' goods and chattels were many, their provisions bulky, their ordnance, arms, and stores in the hold heavy, and their trading-stock fairly ample. It is altogether probable that the crowded condition of her spar and main decks caused the supply of live-stock taken--whether for consumption upon the voyage or for the planters' needs on shore--to be very limited as to both number and variety.
It has been matter of surprise to many that no cattle not even milch-cows were taken, but if--as is not unlikely--it was at first proposed to take a cow or two when both ships were to go and larger space was available , this intent was undoubtedly abandoned at Plymouth, England, when it became evident that there would be dearth of room even for passengers, none whatever for cattle or their fodder a large and prohibitive quantity of the latter being required for so long a voyage , and that the lateness of the season and its probable hardships would endanger the lives of the animals if taken.
It is quite possible that some few sheep, rabbits, and poultry for immediate consumption these requiring but little forage may have been shipped, this being customary then as now. It is also probable that some household pets--cats and caged singing-birds, the latter always numerous in both England and Holland--were carried on board by their owners, though no direct evidence of the fact is found.
There is ample proof that goats, swine, poultry, and dogs were landed with the colonists at New Plymouth, and it is equally certain that they had at first neither cattle, horses, nor sheep. Of course the she-goats were their sole reliance for milk for some time, whether afloat or ashore, and goat's flesh and pork their only possibilities in the way of fresh meat for many months, save poultry and game after landing , though we may be sure, in view of the breeding value of their goats, poultry, and swine, few were consumed for food.
The "fresh meat" mentioned as placed before Massasoit' on his first visit was probably venison, though possibly kid's meat, pork, or poultry. Of swine and poultry they must have had a pretty fair supply, judging from their rapid increase, though their goats must have been few. They were wholly without beasts of draft or burden though it seems strange that a few Spanish donkeys or English "jacks" had not been taken along, as being easily kept, hardy, and strong, and quite equal to light ploughing, hauling, carrying, etc.
The space they and their forage demanded it was doubtless considered impracticable to spare. The only dogs that appear in evidence are a large mastiff bitch the only dog of that breed probably seen on these shores since Pring's "bigge dogges" so frightened the Indians' in this region seventeen years before [Captain Martin Pring had at Plymouth, in , two great "mastive dogges" named "Fool" and "Gallant," the former being trained to carry a half-pike in his mouth. Speaking of the venison found in a tree by one of the exploring parties, Winslow says: "We thought it fitter for the dogs than for us," perhaps suggesting by his word "the" their own dogs aboard ship and provision for them.
There is an intimation as to the ownership of these two dogs in the facts that on certainly two occasions John Goodman was accompanied by the little spaniel once when alone , from which it may perhaps be inferred that he was the dog's master; while the big mastiffs presence when only Peter Browne and Goodman were together suggests that Browne was her owner. The goats, swine, rabbits, and poultry were doubtless penned on the spar-deck forward, while possibly some poultry, and any sheep brought for food, may have been temporarily housed--as was a practice with early voyagers--in the unused ship's boats, though these appear to have been so few in number and so much in demand that it is doubtful if they were here available as pens.
The heavy cargo and most of the lighter was of course stowed in the hold, as the main deck or "'tween decks" was mostly occupied as quarters for the male passengers, old and young, though the colonists' shallop, a sloop-rigged boat some thirty feet in length, had been "cut down" and stowed "between the decks" for the voyage. A glimpse of the weary life at sea on that long and dreary passage is given in Bradford's remark that "she was much opened with the people's lying in her during the voyage:' This shallop with her equipment, a possible spare skiff or two, the chests, "boxes," and other personal belongings of the passengers, some few cases of goods, some furniture, etc.
The provisions in use, both by passengers and crew, were probably kept in the lazarette or "runs," in the stern of the ship, which would be unusually capacious in vessels of this model; some--the bulkiest--in the hold under the forward hatch, as the custom was, and to some extent still is. Oatmeal in barrels or hogsheads. Rye meal in hogsheads. Butter in firkins. Cheese, "Hollands" and English in boxes. Eggs, pickled in tubs. Fish, "haberdyne" [or salt dried cod] in boxes. Smoked herring in boxes. Meats, including,-- Beef, salt, or "corned" in barrels.
Dry-salted in barrels. Smoked in sacks. Dried neats'-tongues in boxes. Pork, bacon, smoked in sacks or boxes. Salt [" corned "] in barrels. Hams and shoulders, smoked in canvas sacks or hogsheads. Salt in bags and barrels. Vegetables, including,-- Beans in bags and barrels. Cabbages in sacks and barrels. Onions in sacks. Turnips in sacks. Parsnips in sacks. Pease in barrels , and Vinegar in hogsheads , while,-- Beer in casks , brandy, "aqua vitae" in pipes , and gin ["Hollands," "strong waters," or "schnapps"] in pipes were no small or unimportant part, from any point of view, of the provision supply.
Winslow, in his letter to George Morton advising him as to his preparations for the voyage over, says: "Be careful to have a very good bread-room to keep your biscuit in. Winthrop gives us the memorandum of his order for the ship- bread for his voyage in He says: "Agreed with Keene of Southwark, baker, for 20, of Biscuit, 15, of brown, and 5, of white. Wood, in his "New England's Prospect" ch. There is a single mention, in the literature of the day, of eggs preserved in salt, for use on shipboard. No house or ship of England or Holland in that day but made great dependence upon them.
Bacon was, of course, a main staple at sea. In its half-cooked state as it came from the smoke-house it was much relished with their biscuit by seamen and others wishing strong food, and when fried it became a desirable article of food to all except the sick. Mention is made of it by several of the early Pilgrim writers.
Salt "corned" beef has always been a main article of food with seamen everywhere. Wood' states that the "beef" of the Pilgrims was "tainted. It must have been a very different article from that we now find so acceptable under that name in England. Winthrop' gives the price of his beef at "19 shillings per cwt. A "dried neat's- tongue" is named as a contribution of the Pilgrims to the dinner for Captain Jones and his men on February 21, , when they had helped to draw up and mount the cannon upon the platform on the hill at Plymouth. Winthrop paid "14d.
Hams seem to have been then, as now, a highly-prized article of diet. Goodwin mentions that the salt used by the Pilgrims was evaporated "sea-salt" and very "impure. As anti-scorbutics they were of much value. The same was true of onions, whether pickled, salted, raw, or boiled.
Turnips and parsnips find frequent mention in the early literature of the first settlers, and were among their stock vegetables. Pease were evidently staple articles of food with the Plymouth people, and are frequently named. They probably were chiefly used for porridge and puddings, and were used in large quantities, both afloat and ashore.
- Acqua - Score.
- Mayflower Records - Genealogy - LibGuides at University of Massachusetts Amherst.
- In Karin (German Edition);
Vinegar in hogsheads was named on the food-list of every ship of the Pilgrim era. It was one of their best antiscorbutics, and was of course a prime factor in their use of "sour krout," pickling, etc. The fruits, natural, dried, and preserved, were probably, in that day, in rather small supply. Apples, limes, lemons, prunes, olives, rice, etc.
Winslow, in the letter cited, urges that "your casks for beer. Cushman states that they had ample supplies of beer offered them both in Kent and Amsterdam. The planters' supply seems to have failed, however, soon after the company landed, and they were obliged to rely upon the whim of the Captain of the MAY-FLOWER for their needs, the ship's supply being apparently separate from that of the planters, and lasting longer. Winthrop's supply seems to have been large "42 tons"--probably tuns intended.
It was evidently a stipulation of the charter-party that the ship should, in part at least, provision her crew for the voyage,--certainly furnish their beer. This is rendered certain by Bradford's difficulty as stated by himself with Captain Jones, previously referred to, showing that the ship had her own supply of beer, separate from that of the colonists, and that it was intended for the seamen as well as the officers.
Bradford mentions "aqua vitae" as a constituent of their lunch on the exploring party of November Wine finds no mention. Bradford states in terms: "Neither ever had they any supply of foode from them [the Adventurers] but what they first brought with them;" and again, "They never had any supply of vitales more afterwards but what the Lord gave them otherwise , for all ye company [the Adventurers] sent at any time was allways too short for those people yt came with it.
By the will of Mr. Mullens it appears that he had twenty-one dozen of shoes and thirteen pairs of boots on board, doubtless intended as medium of exchange or barter.