WordPress Shortcode. Full Name Comment goes here. Are you sure you want to Yes No. No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Dedicated to the M. Tabulae of Philosophy, -a device for the establishment of wisdom and advancement in learning. Tabulae of Science, -a device for the interpretation of nature; for the foundation of knowledge gained through his new method. Tabulae of Poetry and Plays including the works of Shakespeare , —a reflective device for the interpretation of the self.
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Bacon was the guiding hand, who, along with his worthy companions, secretly produced the works attributed to William Shakespeare in the completion of his design. I Fra. These idols would be replaced by the mastery of true causes and true knowledge. What do we conceal? We are concealed. What does he reveal?
The Code that Failed: Testing a Bacon-Shakespeare Cipher
He reveals the art of finding new arts. In light of this understanding, he revealed that with Divine Providence and by mastery of true causes and with true knowledge gained through the application of his devices, man and the world could escape the dungeon and rise up, by degrees, through the pyramid to its illuminated apex. As You Like It. The Tragedy of Coriolanus. Titus Andronicus. Romeo and Juliet. Timon of Athens. The Life and death of Julius Caesar. The Tragedy of Macbeth.
The Tragedy of Hamlet. King Lear Othello the Moore of Venice. Anthony and Cleopater. Cymbeline King of Britaine. The Tempest. The two Gentlemen of Verona. The Merry Wives of Windsor. Measure for Measure. The Comedy of Errours. Much ado about Nothing.
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Loves Labour lost. Midsommer Nights Dreame. The Merchant of Venice. As you like it. A pamphlet entitled The Story of the Learned Pig circa and alleged research by James Wilmot have been described by some as the earliest instances of the claim that Bacon wrote Shakespeare's work, but the Wilmot research has been exposed as a forgery, and the pamphlet makes no reference to Bacon. The idea was first proposed by Delia Bacon in lectures and conversations with intellectuals in America and Britain.
William Henry Smith was the first to publish the theory in a letter to Lord Ellesmere published in the form of a sixteen-page pamphlet entitled Was Lord Bacon the Author of Shakespeare's Plays? A year later, both Smith and Delia Bacon published books expounding the Baconian theory. In , in the library of Northumberland House , one John Bruce happened upon a bundle of bound documents, some of whose sheets had been ripped away. On the outer sheet was scrawled repeatedly the names of Bacon and Shakespeare along with the name of Thomas Nashe.
There were several quotations from Shakespeare and a reference to the word Honorificabilitudinitatibus , which appears in both Love's Labour's Lost and Nashe's Lenten Stuff.
The Earl of Northumberland sent the bundle to James Spedding , who subsequently penned a thesis on the subject, with which was published a facsimile of the aforementioned cover. Spedding hazarded a date, making it possibly the earliest extant mention of Shakespeare. After a diligent deciphering of the Elizabethan handwriting in Francis Bacon's notebook, known as the Promus of Formularies and Elegancies , Constance Mary Fearon Pott — argued that many of the ideas and figures of speech in Bacon's book could also be found in the Shakespeare plays.
Sir Francis Bacon, Shakespeare Author | The Summit Lighthouse
Pott founded the Francis Bacon Society in and published her Bacon-centered theory in Wigston,  that Francis Bacon was the founding member of the Rosicrucians , a secret society of occult philosophers, and claimed that they secretly created art, literature and drama, including the entire Shakespeare canon, before adding the symbols of the rose and cross to their work. William Comyns Beaumont also popularized the notion of Bacon's authorship.
Other Baconians ignored the esoteric following that the theory was attracting. The argument runs that, he intended to set up new institutes of experimentation to gather the data to which his inductive method could be applied. He needed high office to gain the requisite influence,  and being known as a dramatist, allegedly low-class profession, would have impeded his prospects see Stigma of print. Realising that play-acting was used by the ancients "as a means of educating men's minds to virtue",  and being "strongly addicted to the theatre"  himself, he is claimed to have set out the otherwise-unpublished moral philosophical component of his Great Instauration project in the Shakespearean work.
In this way, he could influence the nobility through dramatic performance with his observations on what constitutes "good" government. By the end of the 19th century, Baconian theory had received support from a number of high-profile individuals. Mark Twain showed an inclination for it in his essay Is Shakespeare Dead? Friedrich Nietzsche expressed interest in and gave credence to the Baconian theory in his writings. He eventually published two pamphlets supporting the theory in and In a judge in Chicago ruled in a civil trial that Bacon was the true author of the Shakespeare canon.
Francis Bacon – The Shakespeare Author
Furthermore, alternative authorship theories failed to make any headway among academics. In Ignatius L. Donnelly , a U. Congressman , science fiction author and Atlantis theorist, wrote The Great Cryptogram , in which he argued that Bacon revealed his authorship of the works by concealing secret ciphers in the text. This produced a plethora of late 19th-century Baconian theorising, which developed the theme that Bacon had hidden encoded messages in the plays.
The most remarkable revelation was that Bacon was the son of Queen Elizabeth. According to Owen, Bacon revealed that Elizabeth was secretly married to Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester , who fathered both Bacon himself and Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex , the latter ruthlessly executed by his own mother in This tragic life-story was the secret hidden in the plays. Elizabeth Wells Gallup developed Owen's views, arguing that a bi-literal cipher , which she had identified in the First Folio of Shakespeare's works, revealed concealed messages confirming that Bacon was the queen's son. Dawbarn in Uncrowned He argued that Fabyan's advocacy of Bacon threatened the profits expected from a forthcoming film about Shakespeare.
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Orville Ward Owen had such conviction in his own cipher method that, in , he began excavating the bed of the River Wye , near Chepstow Castle , in the search of Bacon's original Shakespearean manuscripts. The project ended with his death in Nothing was found.
The American art collector Walter Conrad Arensberg — believed that Bacon had concealed messages in a variety of ciphers, relating to a secret history of the time and the esoteric secrets of the Rosicrucians, in the Shakespearean works. He published a variety of decipherments between and , concluding finally that, although he had failed to find them, there certainly were concealed messages.
He established the Francis Bacon Foundation in California in and left it his collection of Baconiana. In the expert cryptographers William and Elizebeth Friedman published The Shakespearean ciphers examined , a study of all the proposed ciphers identified by Baconians and others up to that point. The Friedmans had worked with Gallup. They showed that the method is unlikely to have been employed by the author of Shakespeare's works, concluding that none of the ciphers claimed to exist by Baconians were valid.
Early Baconians were influenced by Victorian bardolatry , which portrayed Shakespeare as a profound intellectual, "the greatest intellect who, in our recorded world, has left record of himself in the way of Literature", as Thomas Carlyle stated. Even mainstream Shakespearean scholar Horace Howard Furness , wrote that "Had the plays come down to us anonymously — had the labour of discovering the author been imposed upon future generations — we could have found no one of that day but Francis Bacon to whom to assign the crown.
In this case it would have been resting now upon his head by almost common consent. Baconians have also argued that Shakespeare's works show a detailed scientific knowledge that, they claim, only Bacon could have possessed. Certain passages in Coriolanus , first published in , are alleged to refer to the circulation of the blood , a theory known to Bacon through his friendship with William Harvey , but not made public until after Shakespeare's death in Opponents of this view argue that Shakespeare's erudition was greatly exaggerated by Victorian enthusiasts, and that the works display the typical knowledge of a man with a grammar school education of the time.
His Latin is derived from school books of the era. Ben Jonson and Francis Beaumont both refer to his lack of classical learning. Not only does he mistake the scansion of many classical names, in Troilus and Cressida he has Greeks and Trojans citing Plato and Aristotle a thousand years before their births. In addition, it is argued that Bacon's and Shakespeare's styles of writing are profoundly different, and that they use very different vocabulary.
These are two different writers. Baconians have claimed that some contemporaries of Bacon and Shakespeare were in on the secret of Bacon's authorship, and have left hints of this in their writings. He did not name Shakespeare among the sixteen greatest cards of the epoch but wrote of Bacon that he "hath filled up all the numbers and performed that in our tongue which may be compared or preferred either to insolent Greece and haughty Rome so that he may be named, and stand as the mark and acme of our language. According to Caldecott, "If Ben Jonson knew that the name 'Shakespeare' was a mere cloak for Bacon, it is easy enough to reconcile the application of the same language indifferently to one and the other.
Otherwise," declared Caldecott, "it is not easily explicable. Baconians Walter Begley and Bertram G. They take this to be a coded reference to Bacon on the grounds that the name derives from Rome's most famous legal scholar, Marcus Labeo , with Bacon holding an equivalent position in Elizabethan England. Hall denigrates several poems by Labeo and states that he passes off criticism to "shift it to another's name".
This is taken to imply that he published under a pseudonym. In the following year Marston used Bacon's Latin motto in a poem and seems to quote from Venus and Adonis , which he attributes to Labeo. Critics of this view argue that the name Labeo derives from Attius Labeo , a notoriously bad poet, and that Hall's Labeo could refer to one of many poets of the time, or even be a composite figure, standing for the triumph of bad verse. Only the latter uses the name Labeo, so there is no link between Labeo and Bacon.
This describes an imaginary trial of recent writers for crimes against literature. Apollo presides at a trial. The jury comprises poets and playwrights, including "William Shakespeere". One of the convicted "criminals" challenges the court, attacking the credentials of the jury, including Shakespeare, who is called a mere "mimic". Despite the fact that Bacon and Shakespeare appear as different individuals, Baconians have argued that this is a coded assertion of Bacon's authorship of the canon, or at least proof that he was recognised as a poet.
Various images, especially in the frontispieces or title pages of books, have been said to contain symbolism pointing to Bacon's authorship. A book on codes and cyphers entitled Cryptomenytices et Cryptographiae , is said to depict Bacon writing a work and Shakespeare signified by the spear he carries receiving it. Other books with similar alleged coded imagery include the third edition of John Florio 's translation of Montaigne, and various editions of works by Bacon himself.
Gray's Inn law school traditionally held revels over Easter 94 and '95, all performed plays were amateur productions. The Gesta Grayorum  is a pamphlet of 68 pages first published in It informs us that The Comedy of Errors received its first known performance at these revels at on 28 December Innocents Day when "a Comedy of Errors like to Plautus his Menechmus was played by the Players [ Chambers  informs us that "the Court performances were always at night, beginning about 10pm and ending at 1am", so their presence at both performances is highly unlikely; furthermore, the Gray's Inn Pension Book, which recorded all payments made by the Gray's Inn committee, exhibits no payment either to a dramatist or to professional company for this play.
One problem with this argument is that the Gesta Grayorum refers to the players as "a Company of base and common fellows",  which would apply well to a professional theatre company, but not to law students. But, given the jovial tone of the Gesta , and that the description occurred during a skit in which a "Sorcerer or Conjuror" was accused of causing "disorders with a play of errors or confusions", Baconians interpret it as merely a comic description of the Gray's Inn players.
The Code that Failed: Testing a Bacon-Shakespeare Cipher
Gray's Inn actually had a company of players during the revels. There is, most importantly to the Baconians' argument, evidence that Bacon had control over the Gray's Inn players. In a letter either to Lord Burghley , dated before , or to the Earl of Somerset in ,  he writes, "I am sorry the joint masque from the four Inns of Court faileth [ T]here are a dozen gentlemen of Gray's Inn that will be ready to furnish a masque".
The discrepancy surrounding the whereabouts of the Chamberlain's Men is normally explained by theatre historians as an error in the Chamber Accounts. Greg suggested the following explanation:. The final paragraph of the Gesta Grayorum — see Figure — uses a "greater lessens the smaller" construction that occurs in an exchange from the Merchant of Venice —97 , 5. The Merchant of Venice uses both the same theme as the Gesta Grayorum see Figure and the same three examples to illustrate it — a subject obscured by royalty, a small light overpowered by that of a heavenly body and a river diluted on reaching the sea.
In an essay  from , Bacon makes further use of two of these examples: "The second condition [of perfect mixture] is that the greater draws the less. So we see that when two lights do meet, the greater doth darken and drown the less. And when a small river runs into a greater, it loseth both the name and stream. Bacon was usually careful to cite his sources but does not mention Shakespeare once in any of his work. Baconians claim, furthermore, that, if the Gesta Grayorum was circulated prior to its publication in — and no one seems to know if it was — it was probably only among members of the Inns of Court.
In the 19th century, a waste book entitled the Promus of Formularies and Elegancies  was discovered. It contained 1, hand written proverbs , metaphors , aphorisms , salutations and other miscellany. A section at the end aside, the writing was, by Sir Edward Maunde-Thompson 's reckoning, in Bacon's hand; indeed, his signature appears on folio verso. Only two folios of the notebook were dated, the third sheet 5 December and the 32nd 27 January Bacon supporters found similarities between a great number of specific phrases and aphorisms from the plays and those written by Bacon in the Promus.
In Mrs. Henry Pott edited Bacon's Promus and found 4, parallels of thought or expression between Shakespeare and Bacon. The orthodox view is that these were commonplace phrases; Baconians claim the occurrence in the last two examples of two ideas from the same Promus folio in the same Shakespeare speech is unlikely.