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Measuring Personality: Crash Course Psychology #22

The diathesis—stress model [23] emphasizes the importance of applying multiple causality to psychopathology by stressing that disorders are caused by both precipitating causes and predisposing causes. A precipitating cause is an immediate trigger that instigates a person's action or behavior. A predisposing cause is an underlying factor that interacts with the immediate factors to result in a disorder.

Both causes play a key role in the development of a psychological disorder. The standard abnormal psychology and psychiatry reference book in North America is the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association. The current version of the book is known as DSM It lists a set of disorders and provides detailed descriptions on what constitutes a disorder such as Major Depressive Disorder or anxiety disorder. It also gives general descriptions of how frequently the disorder occurs in the general population, whether it is more common in males or females and other such facts.

The DSM-5 identifies three key elements that must be present to constitute a mental disorder. These elements include:. The diagnostic process uses five dimensions, each of which is identified as an "axis", to ascertain symptoms and overall functioning of the individual.

History of Mental Illness

It is important to note that the DSM-5 no longer uses this axis system. These axes are as follows:. The major international nosologic system for the classification of mental disorders can be found in the most recent version of the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision ICD Chapter five covers some mental and behavioral disorders. Below are the main categories of disorders:.

Psychologists may use different perspectives to try to get better understanding on abnormal psychology. Some of them may just concentrate on a single perspective. But the professionals prefer to combine two or three perspectives together in order to get significant information for better treatments. Psychoanalytic theory is heavily based on the theory of the neurologist Sigmund Freud. These ideas often represented repressed emotions and memories from a patient's childhood. According to psychoanalytic theory, these repressions cause the disturbances that people experience in their daily lives and by finding the source of these disturbances, one should be able to eliminate the disturbance itself.

This is accomplished by a variety of methods, with some popular ones being free association , hypnosis , and insight. The goal of these methods is to induce a catharsis or emotional release in the patient which should indicate that the source of the problem has been tapped and it can then be helped. Freud's psychosexual stages also played a key role in this form of therapy; as he would often believe that problems the patient was experiencing were due to them becoming stuck or " fixated " in a particular stage.

Dreams also played a major role in this form of therapy as Freud viewed dreams as a way to gain insight into the unconscious mind. Patients were often asked to keep dream journals and to record their dreams to bring in for discussion during the next therapy session. There are many potential problems associated with this style of therapy, including resistance to the repressed memory or feeling, and negative transference onto the therapist.

Psychoanalysis was carried on by many after Freud including his daughter Ana Freud and Jacques Lacan. These and many others have gone on to elaborate on Freud's original theory and to add their own take on defense mechanisms or dream analysis. Behavior therapy relies on the principles of behaviorism , such as involving classical and operant conditioning. Behaviorism arose in the early 20th century due to the work of psychologists such as James Watson and B.

Behaviorism states that all behaviors humans do is because of a stimulus and reinforcement.

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While this reinforcement is normally for good behavior, it can also occur for maladaptive behavior. In this therapeutic view, the patients maladaptive behavior has been reinforced which will cause the maladaptive behavior to be repeated. The goal of the therapy is to reinforce less maladaptive behaviors so that with time these adaptive behaviors will become the primary ones in the patient.

Humanistic therapy aims to achieve self-actualization Carl Rogers , In this style of therapy, the therapist will focus on the patient themselves as opposed to the problem which the patient is afflicted with. The overall goal of this therapy is that by treating the patient as "human" instead of client will help get to the source of the problem and hopefully resolve the problem in an effective manner. Humanistic therapy has been on the rise in recent years and has been associated with numerous positive benefits. It is considered to be one of the core elements needed therapeutic effectiveness and a significant contributor to not only the well being of the patient but society as a whole.

Some say that all of the therapeutic approaches today draw from the humanistic approach in some regard and that humanistic therapy is the best way for treat a patient. Children are often sent to therapy due to outburst that they have in a school or home setting, the theory is that by treating the child in a setting that is similar to the area that they are having their disruptive behavior, the child will be more likely to learn from the therapy and have an effective outcome.

In play therapy, the clinicians will "play" with their client usually with toys, or a tea party. Playing is the typical behavior of a child and therefore playing with the therapist will come as a natural response to the child. In playing together the clinician will ask the patient questions but due to the setting; the questions no longer seem intrusive and therapeutic more like a normal conversation. This should help the patient realizes issues they have and confess them to the therapist with less difficulty than they may experience in a traditional counselling setting.

Cognitive behavioural therapy aims to influence thought and cognition Beck, This form of therapy relies on not only the components of behavioral therapy as mentioned before, but also the elements of cognitive psychology. This relies on not only the clients behavioral problems that could have arisen from conditioning; but also there negative schemas, and distorted perceptions of the world around them. These negative schemas may be causing distress in the life of the patient; for example the schemas may be giving them unrealistic expectations for how well they should perform at their job, or how they should look physically.

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When these expectations are not met it will often result in maladaptive behaviors such as depression , obsessive compulsions , and anxiety. With cognitive behavior therapy; the goal is to change the schemas that are causing the stress in a persons life and hopefully replace them with more realistic ones. Once the negative schemas have been replaced, it will hopefully cause a remission of the patients symptoms. CBT is considered particularly effective in the treatment of depression and has even been used lately in group settings. It is felt that using CBT in a group setting aids in giving its members a sense of support and decreasing the likelihood of them dropping out of therapy before the treatment has had time to work properly.

For example, patients with the disease multiple sclerosis have found a lot of help using CBT.

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The treatment often helps the patients cope with the disorder they have and how they can adapt to their new lives without developing new problems such as depression or negative schemas about themselves. According to RAND , therapies are difficult to provide to all patients in need. A lack of funding and understanding of symptoms provides a major roadblock that is not easily avoided. Understanding behavior makes it more normal. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Field of science. Basic types. Applied psychology.

Main article: History of mental disorders. The examples and perspective in this section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this section , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new article , as appropriate. May Learn how and when to remove this template message.

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Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please do not remove this message until conditions to do so are met. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: Outline of abnormal psychology. Abnormal Psychology: An Integrative Approach. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology. Abnormal Psychology 6th ed. Abnormal Psychology. Toronto: Veronica Visentin.

Boston: McGraw-Hill. New York: Academic, Psychiatric Quarterly. Police Practice and Research. Community Mental Health Journal. Treating the Homeless: Urban Psychiatry's Challenge.

Washington, D. Barlow and Vincent Mark Durand Retrieved Behaviour Research and Therapy.

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These disorders have different criteria as found in the DSM IV, however, they fall under a spectrum of disorders that are developmental, usually presenting symptoms by the age of 3, with impairment in the following areas: 1 communication, 2 social functioning, and 3 restricted or repetitive interests, activities or stereotyped behavior.

Autism occurs in as many as 1 in people with boys affected about 4 times as often as girls. It is the fastest growing category within special education. Most supported by research as effective are the use of early identification and interventions, specialized and individualized education, interventions with behavioral or applied behavior analysis approaches and other methods supported by well designed and peer reviewed research. Medications can be helpful for some symptom management, as well. Avoid basing your beliefs on celebrities with T.

Heward, W. This site is maintained by Dr. Stephen Barrett, MD, focusing on pseudoscience, unproven claims, and quackery. From Wikibooks, open books for an open world. The DSM is intended to be applicable in a wide array of contexts and used by clinicians and researchers of many different orientations e.