Un patrimonio que nos enriquexe a toz os aragoneses. Leonese has no written policy officially regulated. On the other hand, other Leonese writers and associations intend to follow the spelling rules of the Academy of the Asturian Language. The term Leonese has also been used historically by some authors to refer to the whole linguistic region, which extends from Cantabria to Extremadura and is known primarily as the Astur-Leonese linguistic group.
Some authors speak of a Leonese language or historical dialect from Latin, and of Asturian and Mirandese as co-dialects of Leonese. Education At the end of the s, several associations unofficially promoted Leonese language courses. This Leonese language course is for pupils in their 5th and 6th year of Primary School children 11 and 12 years old , where Leonese is taught along with Leonese culture.
There are five levels for adults in the official courses organized by the Department for Leonese Culture of the Leonese City Council. Its protection, use and promotion will be subject of regulamentation". Leonese is also present in some of its bureaus, such as Education, Leonese Culture and New Technologies, and it organizes courses for adults. In they organized the Leonese Language Day where a wide variety of activities were officially advertised in Leonese. These languages have a bright future in Spain along with Catalan, Galician, Calo, and Basque at the expense of Castilian.
In the same way, Amerindian languages in Hispanic America such as Guarani, Quechua, Ayamara, and Quiche are now not just recognized but became official languages with Spanish and used in TV and radio broadcasting and medium of instruction. I believe that they were inspired by the developments in Hispanic America which is few steps ahead. BTW, Andalusian is about to follow in declaring their speech distinct from Castilian.
The more status an ethnolinguistic community has, the increased number of speakers in a region, the stronger the institutional support, and the stronger the ethnic identity held by a community, the stronger the ethnolinguistic vitality will be. However, the status of any language may depend on a number of issues, such as its relevance in the world, the extent to which it is taught in schools, and the culture it represents. Factors in Language Maintenance Language maintenance is a multifaceted notion.
Ethnic languages are generally maintained by first generation immigrants. In the second generation, heritage language proficiency usually decreases, whilst by the third generation the majority language becomes the sole language used Garcia, ; Schmid, Australian studies examining heritage languages have contributed to a better understanding of factors affecting language maintenance, bilingualism and language vitality. Persistent use of the heritage language proves to be the most successful strategy. The language preference parents and children have towards a language will have consequences for their future ability to communicate at more complex levels.
Nevertheless, for most immigrants and their children, the family home continues to be the main domain for language use. Moreover, family jointly with language maintenance education supported by government policies on language, linguistic and ethnic diversity constitute the main pillars for successful language maintenance. However, unless language maintenance is supported by the education system, the survival of heritage language will be at risk.
Paulston identifies endogamy as one of the main factors contributing to language maintenance. It is important to remark that all these factors are interrelated. Therefore, many different factors might need to be in play to affect language behavior. However, the speaker of the most prestigious language in an inter-ethnic marriage may determine the chances the ethnic language has of surviving in the home. The language maintenance factors described may vary or may not be applicable to all families of ethnolinguistic groups.
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Nonetheless, the above ethnolinguistic studies have provided important findings into heritage language dynamics in families. Australian Ethnolinguistic Studies Language maintenance has been a debated issue whenever languages come into contact. Multilingual societies, such as Australia offer great opportunities for in-depth sociolinguistic studies researching language maintenance and identity.
They revealed that the home was the first most important environment for the use and maintenance of the Spanish language in New South Wales. It was discovered that maintaining positive attitudes and beliefs towards Spanish determined how effectively parents transmitted Spanish to their children.
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Also, Spanish language education was a vital step for the preservation of Spanish in Australia. This was achieved through Spanish language instruction in primary and secondary schools, and Spanish Saturday classes. Furthermore, once children grew up and left the family home, the opportunity for Spanish use was reduced. Institutional support such as Spanish social and community clubs, Spanish-language newspapers, and Spanish radio and television programs assisted in language maintenance.
Positive attitudes and beliefs concerning Spanish, identity, bilingualism and the use of Spanish language material such as music, movies and technology supported Spanish language maintenance and identity. Other studies with similar findings were those conducted with the Greek and Turkish communities in Australia. Smolicz findings on the Greek community in Australia showed that Greeks had high Spanish language maintenance rates.
The factors attributed to their high Spanish language maintenance rates included the maintenance of the Greek language and culture in the home, positive attitudes towards the Greek language and identity, their religious participation in the Greek Orthodox Church, and they often married monolingual Greek speakers.
Turkish adolescents mostly spoke Turkish with their parents in the domestic domain and in the neighborhood with other Turkish immigrants. Yagmur et al. Studies of the German and Dutch community in Australia revealed quite opposite results from those found in the Spanish, Greek and Turkish studies. Clyne and Kipp and Schmid indicated that first generation Germans did not maintain the German language in Australia. Results from second generation Germans showed that they are interested in maintaining the German language, as German may provide them with Australian employment opportunities.
They also expressed that they would like their children to learn and be exposed to the German language and culture, through family, friends and clubs. Furthermore, a study by De Bot and Clyne reported that the Dutch community in Australia showed a low degree of Dutch language maintenance and a high degree of language shift to English. Nonetheless, these studies indicated that language purity is being lost the transition from the first to the second generation despite efforts of language maintenance.
The shift was particularly high in the home, the one domain considered crucial to intergenerational language maintenance. For the second generation, Italian and dialect no longer had a communication, but a phatic function Rubino, This indicates that one of the main reasons for the decline of Italian language maintenance in the home domain, perhaps like the Spanish language in Australia is due to its low status and prestige in comparison to the English language.
The formation and affirmation of Italo-Australian identity and culture was found to be attributed by the growth of Italo-Australian youth clubs in Melbourne and Sydney created through the assistance of Italian regional governments, and extremely well advertised and well attended events Baldassar, For, second generation Italians, having an Italian or Italo-Australian identity does not necessarily imply a need for the Italian language, since this generation constructed identity can have more salient elements than language Baldassar, Of paramount importance in renewing or establishing contacts with the Italian language and culture are trips to Italy.
For the second generation, a trip to Italy can trigger interest in the Italian language and culture. The second generation is usually decisive in relation to language maintenance. Attitudes of the Majority The attitude of the majority is an ambivalent factor Kloss, The second generation in Hughes study did not perceive Spanish as having an instrumental value.
Their use of Spanish was limited to their interactions with their parents. Added to this, the second generation had no significant contact with the Spanish community from the time they left the parental home and no longer participated in any of the community activities or attend celebrations organized by any Spanish clubs. Methodology In order to provide some insights into the language maintenance and the cultural identity of second generation Argentineans, qualitative and quantitative research methods were employed in to provide both a richer, deeper insight into the issue, through a semi- structured interview, and a broader, quantitative data approach through a questionnaire format.
The total research sample consisted of 24 second generation Argentineans, aged 18 to 35 - being the children of first generation Argentinean immigrants who came and settleted permanently in Australia from Twenty-four questionnaires were completed and twelve semi-structured interviews were conducted. The following selection criteria were applied to select the participants: a must have been born in Australia; b must have at least one parent who was born in Argentina and immigrated to Australia no earlier than ; and c must reside in the city of the Gold Coast, Australia 7.
These domains are explored in the following paragraphs for those that impact the most on language maintenance and usage, to those which impact the least. The Home The most common usage of Spanish language was in the home between parents and their children. The use of Spanish was mainly utilised by those from endogamous marriages. Siblings from both exogamous and endogamous parentage mostly spoke English to one another.
Yet, the first generation always spoke Spanish amongst themselves. In regards to traditions and customs, the best maintained traditions and customs were the celebration of Christmas Eve and Christmas Day, Easter and birthdays. The tradition maintained to a lesser extent was Argentinean cuisine. People living in endogamous marriages celebrated Argentinean traditions and customs more frequently than those in exogamous marriages.
In the case of exogamous marriages, of those who continued Argentinean traditions, the wife was almost always Argentinean. But, the availability of opportunities to use Spanish is limited. I could barely write Spanish before, but then I became so much more interested. They generally represent the heartland of the ideological system and act as identifying values which are symbolic of the group and its membership Smolicz, , p. They wanted to maintain the culture and be connected with their origins through access to literature and contacts with other Argentineans.
The Argentinean culture is rich and knowing Spanish helps me to understand it. The popular view among this group was that Spanish does not only exist as a communication medium but it is also an identity-cultural marker. Social Networks The second generation mainly had non-Spanish speaking friends This applied regardless of endogamous or exogamous parentage. In contrast, their parents mostly had Spanish speaking friends in Australia More than half Visits to Argentina Some members of the second generation accompanied their parents on trips to Argentina and were encouraged to learn Spanish.
One participant expressed her opinion as follows: My first visit was a real turning point in my attitude towards Spanish language and culture in Argentina.
I spent a lot of time with our cousins and their friends. I began perceiving Spanish as interesting. This visit helped me find my roots and gave me a sense of belonging to a nation with rich traditions and culture. Institutions of learning During this research, there were only two major universities and one private high school on the Gold Coast that provided Spanish language instruction. Interestingly, the greatest majority of the second generation attended Saturday ethnic school In the cases of exogamous parentage, the mother was Argentinean.
Only a few second generation participants 6. Spanish media The majority of the first and second generation did not receive satellite television at home If they did receive it, the first generation watched it A very small number 9. The majority of participants This view is collaborated by Schmid and Yagmur et al. Identity Language is an integral and pivotal part of ethnic identity and language preferences are important for the retention of identity Smolicz et al. In this study, more than half of the respondents A few members of the second generation This part of my findings agrees with the findings of Smolicz et al.
Language shift rates among different language groups Among the 24 respondent from this study, those who came from endogamous marriages retained language well while those from exogamous marriages did not, especially when the father was Argentinean. This is supported by Clyne when comparing language maintenance in the context of other ethnic groups in Australia.
According to Clyne , pre and post-migration experiences of groups and individuals determine the possible shift to English of the ethnic group. Nevertheless, Clyne also identified other factors such as: cultural similarity to the dominant group, the relative importance of language in the core value systems of different language communities, and the relative size and dispersion of the group.
Based on this, one could conclude that there is increasing language shift among Argentineans because of the lack of new immigration, length of residence and ageing of the population and lack of geographical concentration. As the above points show, challenges vary greatly depending on the particular circumstance of the family. Despite the difficultly of generalizing about the challenges families encounter, this study identified four main challenges. First, parents contemplating language maintenance may question their own proficiency level of their own native language.
Language maintenance requires a significant amount of effort. Third, parents who are more proficient in English than in their native language as well as parents who are bilingual held the opinion that it is a real effort to continue to speak Spanish to children who are hesitant to use it.
The most popular domain for Spanish language use is the family home, followed by social communication within the extended family. More specifically, the first generation used Spanish widely, while the second generation used it only with parents and, sometimes, with their friends and grandparents, whilst they talked to brothers and sisters mostly in English. Thus, parents who used Spanish in a consistent manner with their children had more success in heritage language maintenance than those who did not. The first generation always used Spanish when speaking to their relatives, compared with more than two thirds of the second generation who spoke English.
Some of the second generation respondents were proud of their Argentinean ancestry and they wished to maintain the link by taking Spanish classes or joining Spanish clubs in order to improve their Spanish language maintenance. Also, children without siblings maintained the Spanish language better than those with brothers and sisters. Siblings mostly spoke English to each other and only spoke Spanish to their parents or grandparents. However, this research has revealed that the second generation used Spanish media facilities to continue or revive their Spanish.
According to the second generation, their parents believed in maintaining cultural traditions as they did not want to deprive their children of their cultural roots. The participants from endogamous marriages retained Spanish and Argentinean traditions and culture well, while those from exogamous marriages did not. The most important question arising from this paper is what will be the future of the Spanish language in Australia?
The answer is uncertain, as it depends on the number of variables. Among these, is the most important factor which is that English is the dominant household language used. It is, therefore, very important to continue research on Spanish language maintenance particularly investigating the dynamics and any links between language and identity, and Spanish language maintenance. Bibliography Australian Bureau of Statistics. Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics.
Australian Bureau of Statistics. Baldassar, L. Bosworth and R. Ugolini eds.
Bennett, J. Klatter-Folmer and S. Kroon eds. Tilburg: Tilburg University Press. Bettoni, C. Pauwels ed, , The future of ethnic language in Australia. International Journal of the Sociology of Language. Special Issue, Berlin: De Gruyter. Caldas, S. Cavallaro, F. Language dynamics of the Italian community in Australia.
PhD Thesis. Monash University: Australia. Chiro, G. Bivona ed. The role of Italian Studies in Australian Universities. Prospects for the future. Melbourne: Victoria University of Technology. Clyne, M. Dynamics in language contact. English and immigrant languages. Clyne and J. Jupp eds. People and Place, 6 2. Australian Review of Applied Linguistics, 19, 1 , De Bot, K.
Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 15 1 , Department of Immigration and Citizenship. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
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International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 72, Reversing Language Shift: Theoretical and empirical foundations of assistance to threatened languages. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. Garcia, M. Gibbons, J. Maintaining a Minority Language. A Case Study of Hispanic Teenagers. Great Britain: Multilingual Matters.
Giles, H. Giles ed. European Monographs in Social Psychology London: Academic Press, International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 68, Giles eds. Oxford: Basil Blackwell Hechter, M. Annual Review of Political Science, 4, — Hogg, M. Katsikis, M. Generation gap: An insight into language and cultural maintenance of third generation Greek-Australians. Masters Thesis: Monash University: Australia. Lewis, M. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Sixteenth edition. Texas: SIL International. Lukas, I. Cambridge University Press. Markus, A. People and Place, 1, 4, Migliorino, P. Genovesi ed.
Melbourne: Gro-set, Murray, E. Third Generation German language maintenance in Australia. Masters Thesis. Melbourne: Flinders University: Australia. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 23, Studi Emigrazione, 31 14 , Paulston, C. Linguistic minorities in multilingual settings: Implications for language policies. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. Plaza-Coral, D. Rubino, A. Rassegna Italiana di Linguistica Appilicata, 32 2 , Saunders, G.
Bilingual Children: From Birth to Teens. Schmid, M. Rydin ed. Gothenburg: Nordicom Solimano, A. Helsinki: United Nations University. Smolicz, J. Ethnic and racial studies, 4, 1 , Culture and education in a plural society. Canberra: Curriculum Development Centre. Language Policy, 2, Tamis, A. Romaine ed. Tannenbaum, M. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 23, — Vasta, E. Castles ed. Culture and community in a changing society. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 20, 1 , Vocatives are one of the main linguistic features of naturally occurring speech often exploited in drama and film.
Research conducted on the topic of vocatives has shown that their presence plays a significant communicative role in an interaction, helping to fulfil pragmatic functions as well as marking and indexing the status of the relationship between the participants in a conversation. Their use signals levels and changes in intimacy and power relations between the speakers Leech, ; Biber et al, ; McCarthy and O'Keeffe, Introduction Vocatives are one of the linguistic features of naturally occurring speech often exploited in drama and film Palma-Fahey forthcoming.
The choice of vocatives in the novel seem to support the historical setting of the novel as the addressing forms used refer to variables of power and solidarity that were prevalent at that time Saint Domingue, end of eighteenth century. The same applies to the English term master. Originally the term amo comes from amma word that in the twelfth century referred to nodriza, the woman who provided nurturing, as it was used to address women who breastfed other children apart of their own. Subsequently the word developed into a term used for slaves to address their owners.
The philosophical notion that supported slavery adds to its complexity. In Greek philosophy, Plato fifth century AC and Aristotle fourth century AC , considered that slavery was a normal state of affairs, as nature created people to obey and others to be obeyed. Aristotle distinguished between slaves by nature and slaves by law. The slaves by nature were considered to be those completely different from a particular group of people.
Slaves were seen as property. In this novel the complexity of the relationship between master and slave is highlighted through the use of vocatives. The novel The novel La Isla Bajo el Mar, written by Isabel Allende , focuses on the themes of slavery, gender and freedom which are at the core of the plot development of this novel.
The story set in Saint Domingue at the end of the eighteenth century is framed against a historical background of slavery and French political dominance which culminates in the French revolution and subsequently in the abolition of slavery. Vocatives and pragmatic meaning Research on the topic of vocatives has acknowledged that vocatives are not only used for fulfilling the direct function of calling for attention or for addressee identification, but can also serve as linguistic devices to convey pragmatic meanings Zwicky ; Leech When vocatives are not used in a direct manner as attention-seekers, or for addressee identification, they can help to perform a range of pragmatic functions as well as indexing the status of the relationship between the participants in a conversation.
Vocatives have been found to mark and highlight changes in levels of intimacy and power relations between the speakers Leech ; Biber et al. Zwicky asserts that vocatives can play the pragmatic role of reinforcing the contact between the speaker and the addressee. On the same line of thought, Martiny states that the socio-pragmatic meanings conveyed throughout the use of vocatives help to reinforce a social relationship between the participants in the conversation and Quirke et al.
According to Brown and Levinson all speech acts are affected by considerations of politeness and present a potential for threat face. On the other hand Brown and Gilman assert that the variable of distance refers to the degree of solidarity perceived between the speakers: Not every personal attribute counts in determining whether two people are solidary enough to use the mutual T The similarities that matter seem to be those that make for like-minded or similar behaviour dispositions, … The T of solidarity can be produced by frequency of contact as well as by objective similarities.
However frequent contact does not necessarily lead to the mutual T. It depends on whether contact results in the discovery or creation of the like mindedness that seems to be at the core of the solidarity semantic. Brown and Gilman, Many languages require speakers to choose between two types of second person pronouns according to the perceived levels of distance and power between the speakers, the formal V and the intimate or informal pronoun, the mutual T Brown and Gilman, The mutual T refers to the address form that marks the solidarity between the speakers i.
Together with this, the choice of vocatives is also affected by the politeness codes considered valid in society at a particular time. Vocatives can also serve the pragmatic function of topic, supporting the introduction of a topic and its validation. Another pragmatic function that vocatives help to support is the one of badinage where humour, irony and banter are used to create closeness and intimacy between the speakers.
Vocatives can also function pragmatically supporting mitigation in potentially sensitive situations in which the speaker wants to minimise or redress the potential threat to face of a particular utterance. The most direct use of vocatives is the one of summoning, which is consequently not a pragmatic function and for that reason is not considered in this paper. In summary the following are the pragmatic functions that vocatives have been found to support: relational, topic, mitigation, badinage and turn management. The pragmatic function of booster can also be added to these categories as it has been found in research that vocatives can also boost and upgrade the threat for face contained in a sentence instead of downtoning it.
Vocatives in this category act in an opposite manner to the one of mitigator Spencer- Oatey, ; Palma-Fahey forthcoming. In order to gather this data, the novel was manually searched for nominal vocatives. The vocatives selected were those found to support pragmatic functions in the dialogues and in the verbal exchanges of the characters. A total of vocatives were found to serve a pragmatic role.
Vocatives that performed a summoning function were not accounted for in this paper because they performed a direct function and therefore not a pragmatic function. All the vocatives accounted for in this paper are categorised according to character, vocative form and the pragmatic functions that the vocatives help to support.
The analysis especially focuses on the vocatives used between the two main characters to address each other in their verbal interactions, as their use of vocatives depicts the dichotomy between dominance and submission, which is central to this study. In order to carry out this analysis the total amount of data gathered for this purpose has been quantified and looked at it qualitatively considering insights from Discourse Analysis and Pragmatics.
Analysis In this section the vocatives found in La Isla Bajo el Mar are quantified and classified according to their vocative form Leech, and according to the pragmatic functions they help to support. The following table presents the overall amount of vocative forms found in the novel. Title is the most frequent vocative form used in the novel Titles are used to comply with politeness requirements of the time marking also, amongst characters who do not share the same social status, perceptions of asymmetry regarding power and distance.
The politeness rules and conventions have changed since then and the use of some titles as vocatives has become outdated, as is the case of the title amo whose use in modern society Hispanic and otherwise can be considered unacceptable. Overall the use of titles as vocatives was found to serve relational and mitigator pragmatic functions supporting also the introduction and development of topic in conversation as seen in the next extract: Toulouse Valmorain and Dr Parmentier are discussing the topic of the treatment of slaves Toulouse Valmorain: No estoy de acuerdo.
Dr Parmentier: No. Slavery is a needed evil, and the only form of managing a plantation, but this can be done in a humanitarian manner. Dr Parmentier: It can not be humanitarian to own and exploit another person — he replied. Toulouse Valmorain: Have you ever had a slave, doctor?
As seen in this extract the vocative doctor is used pragmatically to support the development of the topic of slavery. Toulouse Valmorain wants to make the conversation more personal by sourcing direct information. The use of honorific terms is also frequent in the novel total percentage of honorific terms: Honorific are used as vocatives in relational and mitigator contexts in the novel.
Valmorain: No puedes ser libre. By using the vocative she downtones any challenge presented in this sensitive question. The use of first names Endearments terms 9. They are used pragmatically in the novel in relational contexts and in situations of mitigation. The term Mamam, also an endearment term acts a mitigator downtoning the potential imposition conveyed in the request.
Apart from these main vocative forms, familiariers 7.
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The use of the familiariser term madrina, which is used in Spanish to address a godmother, signals the closeness between the characters and supports mitigation by downtoning the imposition and with this the potential threat for face conveyed in the sentence. Surnames were used 1. The use of offensive terms as vocatives is scarce in the novel 1.
Pragmatic Functions of the Vocatives in La Isla Bajo el Mar voc As can be seen in this figure most of the vocatives used in the novel serve the purpose of maintaining the harmony between the speakers relational function, A few vocatives act as booster 6. There are also some vocatives that were found to support badinage 3. In summary, the vocatives found in the data are used in some instances primarily as terms of address to comply with the social politeness rules that prevail at the time but they seldom perform an identifying function supporting instead pragmatic functions while signalling at the same time levels of power and distance between the speakers.
This is followed by the use of titles In contrast Toulouse Valmorain uses honorific terms sparsely 3.
He uses titles to address his best friend Doctor Parmentier and also to address a priest and a military person. He uses first names to address one of his sons, his brother in law, his wife and one lady friend. This use of first names marks socially the recognition of individuality Leech Toulouse Valmorain in his verbal exchanges with Doctor Parmentier only uses the title doctor to address him, conveying with this his respect and his recognition for the academic background of his friend.
On the other hand Parmentier addresses Toulouse Valmorain as monsieur conveying respect and recognition for his social status. He also occasionally uses the term mon ami to signal the closeness he perceives exists between himself and Toulouse Valmorain. Violette addresses her using her first name Loula, conveying familiarity and respect. By using these terms both characters signal their perceptions of symmetry regarding their social distance as well as their respect for each other. Military people use honorific terms to address upper class characters signalling asymmetry regarding social distance.
The manner in which vocative forms are used between characters of high status and lower status in society in the novel shows that both types of characters prefer the use of vocatives that mark their social role or social identity in society. In general the use of vocatives amongst characters of different and similar levels of social distance and power reflects the times in which the novel is set. A ver si nos ayudas a resolver una duda. El doctor Parmentier sostiene que los negros son tan humanos como los blancos y yo digo lo contrario.
Dr Parmentier affirms that blacks are as human as the whites and I say the opposite. What do you think? The term mujer, which is used mostly in relational contexts No perteneces a ninguna parte, no tienes oficio y ya no eres tan joven. Valmorain: Pride will be your condemnation, woman. As seen in this extract the term mujer reinforces the threat for face contained in the sentence.
These vocatives, which are used in this context of antagonism, boosting and confrontational talk act as linguistic pragmatic resources to support division and separation. The pragmatic role supported by the use of the vocative monsieur in this verbal exchange is the one of establishing the new found autonomy of the character who at the same time continues expressing support, caring and respect for Toulouse Valmorain.
In order to do this, vocatives are pragmatically used at crucial points in the novel to alert the reader of changes affecting the emotional and social stance of the relationships between the characters. Vocatives are also used in the novel to highlight and assert the new psychological position that the main female character takes in the novel, that is the one of new found autonomy.
Allende, I. Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English. Brown, P. Politeness: Some Universals in Language Usage. Brown, R. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Goffman, E. Jucker eds. Diachronic Perspectives on Address Term Systems. Seller Inventory AZT More information about this seller Contact this seller 9.
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