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Lobell, in Beilage sum Programm der Grossherz-Realschule zu Oppenheim , published his notable observations ''uber litauische Volkspoesie. During the twentieth century the German literary community continued to pay its tribute to the Lithuanian nation. It took the forms of collections of Lithuanian folk songs, its "Nachdichtungen" 20 or became crystalized in literary publications pertaining to the cultural and philological aspects of the Lithuanian national character.

The title might appear misleading because it also encloses a section dedicated to the Lithuanian people and their national-cultural pattern of life. An exclusively Lithuanian Liederschrein Kaunas, containing German texts and German imitations, was dedicated to the Lithuanian nation by Victor Jungfer. It is, since the monumental collection of Herder, an outstanding achievement in "Lieder Sam-mlung," which includes a generous number of the folkloristic treasures of the nations, located in the Eastern and Western European cultural spheres. Among the corpus of international folk songs, five Lithuanian "Volkslieder - Dainos" occupy a noteworthy position.

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In the progression of time the German writers were no longer content with solely gathering the Lithuanian "Volkslieder," but they began to observe its structure, content and its literary value. This led them to the realization that there existed an inexhaustible and attractive field of Lithuanian national literature.

The literary content of the Lithuanian folk song received adequate attention from Reinder von der Meulen 21 and Victor Jungfer. Ulmenried - Naujeck moved away from the attitudes of generalizations and engaged in a more intensive literary analysis of Lithuanian literature. The uniqueness of the Lithuanian national culture, which reflected so well in its literature, now became a recognized and well established part of printed actuality. The influence of Lithuania and the Lithuanian cultural elements continued to be detectable in the pages of German lyrical writings of the twentieth century.

Tielo's pseud, of Curt A. Tielo's poems such as "Litauen," "Tilsit," "Mein Memelstrom," "Die Heimkehr" and "Am Rombin" endure as a perpetual monument to remind the reader of the poet's affection for his beloved land resting serenely upon the silvery sands of the Baltic Sea. Regrettably it was the First World War which served as a cardinal factor in bringing the German writers, at the moment in uniform, nearer to Lithuania, consequently causing a renaissance of the Lithuanian national culture, present in its folk songs, among the German speaking people.

The Lithuanian folk fairy-tales and "Volksgeschichten" attained some favor during the twentieth century, in competition with the popularity of the Lithuanian folk song. In the city of Berlin Carl Capeller continued the trend by publishing the Litauische Marchen und Geschichten and in the same year emerged Maximilian Boehm's and I. Diederichs Verlag in Jena.

The presence of the Lithuanian cultural feature in the scope of the German drama is not so pronounced and numerous as in the German publications regarding "litauische Volks-literatur. Thus Goethe, quite unintentionally, extended the first authoritative acceptance and recognition of the Lithuanian cultural profile as worthy of dramatic treatment.

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The Lithuanian tribal people stand as a symbol of the Old-Pagan-World in the stage of destruction at the hands of the approaching new Era of Christianity. Both of these dramas were viewed by Albert Soergel as the "schwer-miitige Idyllen aus dem litauischen Volksleben," which show the richness of thought and uniqueness of form. They do not comply to a single style but fluctuate between lyricism and drama; between naturalism and romanticism. The play itself did not leave any noticeable imprint in the pages of literary history, but it is more than probable that subconsciously or even consciously it influenced the development of Hermann Sudermann as a ''Heimatdichter.

Furthermore it is not suprising that in the dramatic works of Rolf Lauckner , who stood so near Sudermann's literary path, the Lithuanian element constituted a commanding part. The action of his dramas Predigt in Litauen , Der letzte Preusse , Herkus Monte und der Ritter Hirzhals , Gedichte und Melodramen , not only took place in the Lithuanian or Lithuanian-Minor areas, but the dramatist also placed effectively Lithuanian characters among his "dramatis personae.

The German prose of the eighteenth, nineteenth, and twentieth centuries exhibits also a notable interest in Lithuania and its people. The prose works enclosing the Lithuanian national character increase substantially as compared to the number of dramatic productions on the subject and their sequential publications.

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Christiane Benedikte Naubert with her novel Heinrich von Plauen und seine Neffen and Ludwig von Baczko with the two volume narrative Vitold Grossfurst von Lithauen created a salient and panoramic portraiture of the Lithuanian Grand Duke Vytautas Vitold and the iridescent profile of his people. A truly loyal and undeviating representative of the era of German romanticism, Ernest Theodor Amadeus Hoffmann , born in Konigsberg and an associate of Adalbert Chamisso in Berlin, was so impressed by the Lithuanian "Kurische Nehrug" that he delineated the beauty of this delicate, silver-pale land in his "Novelle" Das Majorat.

A list of German prose publications, exceeding two hundred in number, attracting the reader's attention during the latter part of the nineteenth and the present century, involve directly the Lithuanian element, namely in the form of an historical event, the Lithuanian populated area, the Lithuanian nation, or its unique national culture.

Equally, journals such as Altpreussische Rundschau , 36 Wachtjeuer, Kunstbliitter sum Krieg , Grenzland 37 and Ostdeutsche Monatshefte 38 in one or another respect dedicated numerous pages to the Lithuanian people and their cultural colorfulness. Also to this period belongs Hermann Sudermann with his well publicized Litauische Geschichten and his autobiographical work Das Bilderbuch meiner Jugend containing Lithuanian national aspects. In the twentieth century German lyrical poetry Agnes Miegel contributed greatly to the life of the Lithuanian national culture in the German literature.

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  5. Her poetic works such as "Lied des Gedimin" and "Memel" flow from the historical past to the reminiscences of the modern day. Furthermore her poetic ability penetrated, with great success, the genre of prose. Career: Writer from an early age with promising works composed during his gymnasium days; worked in publishing for Christoph Friedrich Nicolai, Berlin, ; associated with a group of intellectuals and writers called the Jena Romantics, which included Friedrich Schlegel, August Wilhelm Schlegel, and Friedrich Schelling, ; commuted between Hamburg, Berlin, and Dresdon, seeking various employment, ; extensive traveling to Prague and England, ; literary historian and editor, Dresden Theater; stage director, Prussian Theater, Berlin.

    Died: 28 April Editor, Hinterlassene Schriften by Heinrich von Kleist.

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    Editor, with F. Ludwig Tieck. Fickert in Germanic Notes , , pp. Sullivan, Though guests come only rarely, Eckbert regularly welcomes Philipp Walther, a Franconian, and one day, feeling a certain affinity of spirit, he cannot resist the temptation of persuading his wife, Bertha, to relate to her guest the story of her youth. It is a strange tale. The daughter of impoverished parents, Bertha fled from home and ran deep into the dark forest. At last she came upon a decrepit old woman dressed in black who took her into her hut and told her that she must earn her keep by doing chores.

    Lonely but having found companionship in a dog whose name escapes her, Bertha settled down for four years. As she ruefully remarks, human beings gain their wits only to forfeit their innocence: turning 14, Bertha set out on her journeys again and, despite being insistently told that only morality leads to happiness, she took with her a lot of the precious jewels that the old woman had been mysteriously bringing back to the hut. Bertha then wandered on uneasily until she met Eckbert, whom she married.

    Eckbert loses no time praising his wife, but when Walther replies, he lets slip the name of the dog. Plainly Walther knows more about the story than ever seemed likely. Bertha and her husband grow suspicious, and when, though without really intending, Eckbert shoots Walther with his crossbow, he feels relieved until discovering that his wife has died, too. After meeting an old knight who uncannily reminds him of Walther, Eckbert rides out into the wild forest. There he meets the hag who had taken in Bertha all those years ago, and she tells him dreadful truths.

    Walther and the old knight were nothing other than transmogrifications of herself. As for Bertha, whom he had married, she was his sister. The abandoned illegitimate daughter of a king, Bertha had been brought up by shepherds, and, had she but served out her years of trial virtuously, evil would have been purged.

    Dim recollections of something about the start of all this stir in Eckbert. They only add to his anguish: driven out of his wits, he falls to the ground and dies. Contrasting the homely with the uncanny and orderly domestic life with the wilderness, where strange and powerful forces threaten humanity's precarious dominion over nature, "Blond Eckbert" exploits the recently rediscovered literary resources of the German fairy tale to develop profoundly disquieting themes through a beguiling blend of dream and nightmare with rational consciousness.

    Reason is shown as weak and insecure when threatened by the primal forces of nature. Journeying through forests and mountains takes on a symbolic significance as humanity's often vain quest for an escape from intractable dilemmas, and the male and female roles invite interpretation not only about the nature of sexual differences but also about the two sides of an individual's personality.

    Similar comments apply to "The Runenberg," although the fact that the main character is not a knight but a much more lowly individual and the emphasis on the effects of poverty make it easier for most people to identify with this story. The inclusion of several poems in the story adds to its romantic dimension. Young Christian—the choice of name can hardly be insignificant—is impelled by inexplicable inner discontent to leave the village where his father works as a gardener.

    He longs to go to a mountainous region. Realism gives way to something more like a fairy tale when he idly tugs at a root; as it comes out of the ground, he hears a mysterious groan. Soon after, he meets a stranger, who as darkness falls, leads Young Christian toward the inaccessible and mysterious Runenberg. There he see a woman—tall, commanding, powerfully built—with an otherworldly aura; as she strips naked, he becomes conscious that his whole personality is transformed.

    Approaching him as he stands at a window, the woman hands him a jewel-encrusted tablet as a keepsake. Waking after sleep, Christian comes down from the mountain to an idyllic village, where he is charmed by the harvest festival that is being celebrated with simple religious rites. It is not long before he marries a local girl and settles down to enjoy modest prosperity.

    But the thought of seeing his parents again and telling them that he too is now enjoying working as a gardener tempts him to venture out from the village. Though deeply disquieted, he is delighted to meet his father coming to meet him, and the pair return to the village. Five years later a stranger calls, stays for a while, and on departing leaves behind a large sum of money, saying that Christian can have it if he does not return within a year.

    As he waits greed consumes him, and he becomes obsessed with riches concealed in the mountains. He deserts his family and home, where penury ensues. Returning much later, he reveals that he is still in the thrall of the beautiful woman in the Runenberg. The full text of this article hosted at iucr. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Learn more. If you have previously obtained access with your personal account, Please log in. If you previously purchased this article, Log in to Readcube. Log out of Readcube. Click on an option below to access.

    Log out of ReadCube. Mediaeval German Studies. Lexicon of the Mediaeval German Hunt. By David Dalby. Walter de Gruytcr: Berlin.

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    DM Deutsche Syntax. By Hans Glinz. C: Deutsche Sprachwissenschaft. Der althochdeutsche Isidor. Altdeutsche Textbibliothek Nr. Max Niemeyer Verlag: Tubingen, Cregorius bei Hartmann von Aue und Thomas Mann. Interpretation von Alois Wolf. Oldenbourg Verlag: Munich. The German Tradition in Literature —