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The watchet cloth was generally blue. Fourthly, for execution, if there should be necessity in the dispatch of the vanquished. Sixthly, and last of all, for the punishment of offenders : for a captain, or an inferior officer, that only drawes a dagger, though he strike not at all, may appease a sedition, and sometimes rather breake a head than wound a man. This was to discountenance the effect of sudden fury in drunkenness. At Hampton Court-palace, and at Windsor Castle, are immense quantities of these.

But the Spaniard despising that order, doth altogether use liis flaske. They are thus described by Walhuysen,J captain of the town of Dantzig. The musqueteer should also have a little tin tube of about a foot long, big enough to admit a match, and pierced full of little holes, that he may not be discovered by his match when he stands centinel, or goes on any expedition.

Published in , with a portrait of Charles I on horseback, whilst a boy, and also engravings of the exercise of musket and pike. It is black, and so thick as to have resisted the penetration of several bullets, one only having had effect. The figure thus equipped, is represented in Plate lxxvi. As, however, the rondell could only be of service against the sword, the pike, and the halbard, and not against fire-arms, it was soon after this abandoned, as being rather inconvenient than useful.

The French use locks with half bends, and so do, for the most part, the English and the Scots ; the Germans rore or wheel-works; the Hollanders make use of both. He tells us, indeed, that they first derived their name from the species of troops by whom they were used, but I strongly suspect it was the converse of this.

The first is where a moveable hammer is placed beyond the pan, in imitation of the cock to a wheel-lock, and brought down upon it in the same manner. The cock being placed according to the present mode, strikes against it on pulling the trigger; and, it is curious to remark, that this hammer is furrowed in imitation of the wheel in a wheel-lock. These hammers, however, retained their furrows till the commencement of the eighteenth century.

He has an English match-lock gun, dated The tricker-lock, I conceive, to be that furnished with a hair-trigger, as it is now called, in addition to its other trigger, and which was, probably, the tricker. They are all different. Another has the barrel plain, but the stock inlaid with silver and brass; and its length two feet nine inches and a half. One, which has its stock as well as barrel of steel, and both embossed and inlaid with copper gilt, representing trophies with laurel and palm-branches, is in length two feet seven inches and a half.

A double-barreled one, the barrels being placed one above and one under ; has the stock inlaid with ivory ;f the length is two feet ten inches. The butts of these two are like the former, except by having been made octangular. All these are wheel-lock pistols. Some idea of the helmets of this period, may be formed by examining the engraved portraits; those, for example, of Henry, Prince of Nassau, in ; the Earl of Arundel, in ; King Charles I, in ; another of him in , and another of the Earl of Arundel in the same year.

He also took measures for bringing about an uniformity in the fashion of their armour and arms, a circumstance never before attended to, the want of which must have been productive of many inconveniences. He, at the same time, settled the prices for making and repairing the different pieces of a suit of armour, for both horse and foot; the rates to be charged for the several parts of a musket, pistol, or carbine, with those for a pike, and bandaliers.

As this commission and schedule of prices contain many curious particulars respecting the arms and armour of the period, and from which we are enabled to account for distinctive marks of earlier periods occurring with those of the time in existing specimens, they are here given at length.

Know yee therefore that wee, by and with the advice of the lords and others our counsell of warre, and other committees to whom wee referred the considerations of this good worke for the better effectinge and advancing of the same : and reposing assured trust and confidence in the fidelity, experience, and diligence of you the said John Franklyn, William Crouch, John Ashton, Thomas Steevens, Rowland Foster, Nicholas Marshall, William Coxe, Edward Anesley, Henry Rowland, Richard Berrowe, Thomas Addis, John Norcott, William Dawstin, William Watson, John Watson, and William Graves, armourers and gun makers; and John Edwards, Robert Thacker, and Bartholomew Raye, pike makers; and John Gate and William Beauchamp, bandalier makers of our citty of London, have authorised, assigned.

And to the end noe abuse or deceipt may be in the number of armes, armours, gunnes, pikes, or bandaliers borrowed one of another, wee doe hereby give power and authority to you, or the major part of you, to cause to be formed and made, and to you, or to any one, two, three, or more of you, your deputies or assigns, to use two other markes or stamps, to be first allowed by the lords lieutenants, or deputy lieutenants, or such as they shall depute for that purpose, the one to distinguish the county, the other the place or division where the said armes, armours, gunnes, pikes, and bandaliers are charged and be, which markes and stamps, our will and pleasure is, shall remayne in the custodye of you, our said commissioners, armourers, gun makers, pike makers, and bandalier makers, or some of you, your deputies or assignes and shall be entred in the said booke of survey, o 2 94 A CRITICAL INQUIRY INTO ANTI ENT ARMOUR.

The Prices of the several parts and whole Armour of a Cuirassier russetted, viz. They might be armed a cou, and without casaques, for that has a still finer shew, provided the cuirasse be good and strong, the rest does not signify. Several specimens are in my son's armoury. The officer is taken from a book, entitled The Navigator, by Captain Charles Saltonstall, published in , and the soldier mounted, from Herman Hugo de Milit: Equestr: Willoughby, Esq.

The snaphaunce was the Dutch name for the firelocks, but, as we learn from this document, inferior to the English firelock. Both kinds of locks, however, seem to have been retained in use at this period. Grose says the snaphaunce was so called, from the particular kind of troops that used it. His horse shall be either a faire stoned trotting horse, or a lusty strong guelding well ridden, he shall be armed with a morocco saddle, bridle, bitt, pettrell and crooper, with the rest before shewed necessary to his place.

Sir James Turner, p. I do believe the word is corrupted, for I guess it is a German term, and should be donder- bucks, and that is thundering guns, donder signifying thunder, and bucks a gun. These dragoons in their inarches are allowed to be eleven in a rank or file, because when they serve, it is many times on foote, for the maintenance or surprizing of strait wayes, bridges or foords, so that when ten men alight to serve, the eleventh man holdeth their horses: so that to every troope of a hundred, there is a hundred and ten men allowed.

I would also have each dragoonier constantly to earrye at his girdle two swyn feathers, or foot pallisadoes, of four feet length and a half, headed with sharp iron heads of six inches length, and a sharp iron foot, to stick into the ground for their defence, whereas they may come to be forced to make resistance against horse.

To render the musket-rest a defence against cavalry, whilst the musketeer was loading, it was armed with a projecting spike from one of the prongs of the fork on which the piece was laid; or by enclosing a tuck in the shaft of the rest, which, on opening a small valve, sprung out. Bokeler the engineer, speaks of an instrument that might serve for both rest and feather, and such, perhaps, would be very useful and convenient; he would have it at the top as all rests are, like a fork on the one side, whereof he would have an iron, of one foot and a half long, sticking out, sharply pointed; these planted in the van or flanks where you expect the charge, as the Swedish feathers used to be, will sufficiently pallisade and defend musketeers from horse, and upon them they may lean their muskets when they give fire.

All this armour is to be rather of russett, sanguine or blacke colour, than white or milled, for it will keepe the longer from rust. These shall have strong, straight, yet nimble pikes of ash wood, well headed with steel, and armed with plates downward from the head, at least foure foote, and the full size or length of every pike shal be fifteene foote besides the head.

X That is, with a ridge running over them from the front to the rear. I, Plate v. The portraits and military costume of those gentlemen of the county, who attended King Charles I at the siege of Chester, are painted in glass, in a window of Farndon Church. It has a large guard, and a place in which to put the thumb to give more power in cutting, and on it and the pommel are the portraits of the king and the duke, in raised silver. It is one of those large cutting swords which came into more general fashion in the time of Oliver Cromwell.

The exact time in which the bow became disused in war by the English army, perhaps, cannot be fixed. Pere Danielf mentions, that arrows were shot by the English at the Isle of Rhe, in ; and in , the Earl of Essex issued a precept for stirring up all well affected people by benevolence, towards the raising of a company of archers for the service of the king and the parliament. One Neade, in the reign of this king, obtained a commission under the great seal, wherein he and his son were empowered to teach the combined management of the pike and bow.

The archers in it are represented in corslets and morians, and armed with bows and arrows, pikes and swords. In the year , King Charles granted a commission similar to one issued by his father in , for the benefit of the Artillery company. In this, the grounds used for archery, were directed to be reduced to the state in which they were in the beginning of the reign of King James I.

The first is an equestrian instrument, by which a single horseman may be equal in fight to five or six armed with the common arms; which instrument, indeed, agrees also most excellently with the foot service; and, from effects not less terrible than speedy, is called the thundering-staff; but, from its various properties, the box-pistol, box-musket, box-carabyn, or box-dragoon.

See Archaeologia, Vol. The second is a new kind of spear, with which any foot-soldier, besides using it as a pike, may discharge five or six guns: this weapon may be named the projecting spear, or pike arquebus. The third is a sort of machine of conjugated muskets, by the assistance of which one soldier or two are enabled to oppose an hundred guns, which machine, from its effect, is called the thundering chariot, and vulgarly the fiery waggon.

The fourth is a new species of gun of the greater kind, by the assistance of which, in the same time that they have been able to discharge one ball, they may now discharge three, four, or five, and that either in a land or sea engagement. Of this machine there are different figures and sizes; but, from the common property of all, they may be called by the general name of the open cannon, vulgarly the open ordnance.

The fifth and sixth are of the mortar kind, of which one, from its remarkable use in defending walls and ships, and from its wonderful expedition, is called the flat scourer. The other, which is extremely useful, in naval fights, for breaking the masts, yards, and oars, whence it is called the cutter. The seventh is a machine not unlike a species of the antient heliopolis, accommodated to the modern discipline for defending a fortress, and also for attacking one; by the assistance of it the besiegers may enter into the inner part of a city or fortification, or over a ditch, without the use of rolling mounts; and in the defence of a city, the fortification may be so strengthened by the use of this machine, as it shall never be taken or demolished, and it will stand free on the curtain.

This, from its likeness to a cavalier, and because it carries a number of soldiers, and has the power of motion, may be vulgarly called the elephant or cavalier errant. The following articles are improvements in shipping, and, therefore, not having any reference to armour, are omitted. In , the gate of Arundel castle was blown open by a petard. As they were selected to take by storm the strong castle of Marienburgh, the Scots of other regiments formed themselves into volunteers.

These were armed with partizans, each man having two pistols in his belt. Gustavus Adolphus, that king of soldiers, was the first that I ever observed, who found the advantage of mixing small bodies of musquetters among his horse, and had he had such nimble strong fellows as these, he could have proved them above all the rest of his men. When I saw the foot thus interlined among the horse, together with the way of ordering their flying parties, it presently occurred to my mind that here was some of our old Scots come home out of Germany that had the ordering of matters; and if so, I knew we were not a match for them.

Their dress was as antique as the rest; a cap on their heads called by them a bonnet, long hanging sleeves behind, and their doublet, breeches and stockings of a stuff they call plaid, striped across red and yellow, with short cloaks of the same. There were 3 or 4, of these in the Scots army, armed only with swords and targets; and in their belts some of them had a pistol, but no muskets at that time among them. They were armed in black armour from head to foot. This account, however, cannot be correct, as in the Diversarum Gentium Armatura Equestris, published in , their armour ends at the knees.

The spirit of the antient military exercises had not, at this time, become completely extinct in France and Germany. ZXXVl3i A. But the armour of the pistolier, which had been the same as that of the cavaliers, was soon after the establishment of the Protectorate disused, and the cuirass only worn. They were then called cuirassiers.

In Plate lxxviii, the pistolier is seen on foot, but is represented with his back towards the spectator, that the dress and hinder part of the armour may be more fully understood; the front so greatly resembling that in the last Plate. It will be observed, that the garde de reine is no longer used.

This figure has been taken from a duodecimo edition of Franc : Baroni di Verulamio Historia regni Henrici septimi Anglise regis, dated But, as the ballads with engravings, representing the execution of Charles I, are similarly habited, I have had no hesitation in giving to it the date ascribed.

The cuirassier was armed with an open helmet and cuirass, which consisted merely of a breast and back-plate, under which last he had a good buff coat. His offensive arms were a spit-sword with a sharp point, and pistols or petronels. His saddle and bit were made very strong, and the reins of his bridle were strengthened with an iron chain to prevent their being cut.

The figure on the chair in this plate represents an officer of harquebusiers, and is taken from a painting by Terburg, about the year Not only does it exhibit the immense boot of this period, shewn in another position at the bottom of the Plate, but the large linen guard within, originating from the ornamented lace-work of the last reign. The engraved portrait of General Ludlow, exhibits the kind of barred helmet used at this time; and those in Grose's Treatise, Plates v, xi, and xlvii others.

A helmet with neck and ear-pieces, covered with grey silk, and said to have belonged to Oliver Cromwell, is in the possession of the Earl of Pife. A similar one was in the collection of Mr. There is also an elbow-gauntlet for the bridle-arm covered like the helmet. This style of armour appears to be copied from that worn by some of the nations of India. The wearing of armour to the knees had continued to the time of Cromwell, because the cavalry did not, till then, cease to use the lance. Against this weapon, therefore, there was no method of resistance, except that of strong armour.

The figure with the truncheon, in the initial, shews the fashion that immediately succeeded this, and that with the bandileers slung across the body, the musketeer of the earlier period. There is also an elbow gauntlet for the bridle-arm, which is composed of three skins of leather with one of cartoon or pasteboard, and, on the outside, it is made to represent the scales of fish.

The musket-rests seem to have been disused during the Protectorate. The practice seems to have been introduced by naval officers, whose portraits are generally thus painted. Of this, however, I am not quite positive, as it is about twenty years before the firelock is supposed to have been used in England, f One thing, however, seems to give it countenance, and that is, that it is formed to unite the flask and the primer, and to prevent the bullet slipping out of the barrel, as was the case before the introduction of cartridges.

A cylinder which is made to revolve with a handle, and fixed at the chamber of the barrel, is perforated, to enable the soldier to insert a bullet. This he does when holding the musket downwards, which permits the powder to fall into its places; the turning round the handle cuts off the proper quantity and keeps the bullet from falling out, a frequent occurrence, according to Lord Orrery, before the invention of cartridges, and cocks the piece. General Leslie, afterwards Earl of Leven, who had served in the Swedish army, was employed by the parliament against King Charles in the year We may, therefore, with great probability, date the disuse of the rest sometime about the commencement of the civil wars, when the weight and incumbrance of the musket and its apparatus might be found too great for the active service inseparable from campaigns carried on in small detachments.

One Scott, a Scotchman, who had served under Gustavus Adolphus, was the inventor, as his epitaph in Lambeth Church testifies, and they are mentioned by Puffendorf, and others, who have described the wars of Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden. The basket-hilt may have arisen in the time of James I, when the gauntlet began to be disused, and derived from the ornamented shell-guards previously in fashion. I conceive, that the broader the Scotch blade, the more antient it is.

P , are preserved three swords, well authenticated, as having belonged to Cromwell, Fairfax, and Lambert. The first is straight, with a guard of a single bow ending near the blade in a sort of quarter-basket, resembling such as were of general use in the time of Charles II. An idea of the. Those who were entitled to bear coat armour did not fail to exhibit it, but the typhical banner was in more general use. The following contain the costume of warriors at the period.

HARLES II could not favourably regard the republican army, which had subdued the adherents of his father, though he admired its martial appearance; and the best mode of disbanding it occupied the attention of the British cabinet from the moment he landed at Dover, in May, A musketeer, in any sudden occasion, not being well able to do his duty with musket, sword and rest, especially if you give him a Swedish feather to manage with them. This gave origin to the bayonets which were first made at Bayonne, in Spain.

They were called by the French, bayonets a manche, and first introduced into their army, in These were made with plain handles formed to fit tight into the muzzles, and rather enlarging towards the blade, to prevent their entering too far into the piece. Anschlagcn to strike at. Some by unscrewing the heads of their rests, and then screwing the staffe of their rests into the muzzle of the musket, with the arming of the pike at the lower end, by which means they would use the musket and rest together, in the nature of a whole pike: but this proved so tedious and troublesome, that it fell without profit.

A third sorte had half pikes, of about seven or eight foot in length, useing it after the manner of a rest: but all the while the muskettier was charging his musket one of them was enough to trouble a whole file, besides the danger in the recovery. A fourth sorte there was yet better than the former that with a hooke was fastened to the girdle,f while the muskettier was making ready; but this had its defects also, as being both tedious and troublesome.

Many other wayes and conclusions have also been tryed, with successe like the former; which I forbeare to demonstrate, for as their conceits proved uselesse, so the discourse would prove fruitlesse. Lastly myselfe, with another gentleman of our ground Master John Davies of Blackfriers both well effecting the use of the musket, found out a way to use the half pike and musket with so much facilitie and ease, that is far less troublesome than the rest, and yet of greater length than any of the former rests or halfe pikes as being compleat ten foot in length with the arming.

All the former devices, if they could have beene brought to any maturitie, yet would have falne farre short of this, for the triple use thereof, as being a rest, if there be no farther occasion; as being a pallisado if there be occasion to defend the muskettier from the horse; as being a halfe pike to use in trenches; as also when our shotte have poured out a great volly or showre of lead on the adverse muskettiers, they may then nimbly with their half pikes fall in amongst them.

And lastly for the pursuite of an enemy, it being of all others the best weapon. A serviceable half-pike may be had for two shillings and six-pence, which exceeds not much the price of a rest. The bayonet is very useful to dragoons, fusileers and soldiers, that are often commanded out in parties; because that when they have fired their discharges, and want powder and shot, they put the haft of it into the mouth of the barrel of their pieces, and defend themselves therewith as well as with a partizan.

I would have these cartridge-boxes of tin, as the carabines use them, because they are not so apt to break as the wooden ones are, and do not in wet weather, or lying in the tents, relax. It might also do well if the soldiers tyed their links of match about their middle, and under then- coat and doublets, instead of tying them to their ban deleer belt, or collar, for by that means the match would be kept dryer, and fitter for service in the time of action.

He has also a long pistol, of this time, with its barrel curiously fluted, and several short ones, all wheel-locks, but with the trigger-guards beautifully perforated. Plate lxxix, represents the cuirassier as habited according to the costume at the time of the restoration. This cuirass is worn over the buff coat, and with it the large gambado boots and spurs, which were introduced to prevent the effects of pressure in a charge. Underneath is a representation of a perforated steel-cap to put in the hat of a horse soldier; an attempt to connect the helmet and hat in the same head-covering.

Officers, at this time, often wore no other armour than a large gorget, which nearly served the purpose of a breast-plate, a circumstance commemorated in the diminutive ornament of the present day. One of these large steel gorgets ornamented with beautiful scroll-work and foliage in blue, is in the armoury of Llewelyn Meyrick, Esq. But in a pamphlet, printed in , which gives an account of the success of the Marquis of Montrose against the Scots, bowmen are repeatedly mentioned as in the battle.

The grenadiers of the Highland regiments, indeed, as late as the time of William III, when recruiting, wore the old red bonnet, and carried bows and arrows with them. Hume, in his History of the Rebellion, mentions the circumstance of a clergyman going to perform divine service with a bow in his hand, and his arrows put through a silk sash tied round his waist. Specimens of both these are in the armoury of my friend. Sir Walter Scott, Baronet.

The public mind was, at this time, remarkably heated by what was called the Popish Plot; and, as he was found murdered in a ditch near Primrose-Hill, suspicions naturally fell on the catholics. Sir Edmundbury Godfrey was regarded as a martyr for the protestant cause, and his memory reverenced and cherished by the protestants. Hence a number of medals were struck on this occasion, and hence too, with not so innocent a feeling, the origin of these daggers.

The whole was of a dusky orange colour. My son has lately met with a bridle-arm gauntlet in Oxford, exactly answering this description, which he has purchased and added to his collection. This was armour of defence; but our sparks were not altogether so tame to carry their provision no farther, for truly they intended to be assailants upon fair occasion; and had, for that end, recommended also to them a certain pocket weapon, which, for its design and efficacy, had the honour to be called a protestant flail.

It was for street and croud work, and the engine lurking perdue in a coat pocket, might readily sally out to execution; and so by clearing a great hall, or piazza, or so carry an election by a choice way of polling, called knocking down. These were succeeded by the pike, the halbert, and the partisan. The introduction of the bayonet occasioned these, in their turn, to fall into disuse, and rendered defensive armour unnecessary, as, when musket proof, it was too heavy for the convenience of the wearer.

The lance has, however, been revived in the European armies; should it become general,f the cuirass at least, if not more, must again be brought into use, so dependent are defensive on offensive arms. As the saddles, which have been used at different periods, carry with them a great variety, the last Plate of this work has been devoted to this subject. In Plate lxxx, Fig. They are taught, in the thrust, to remedy this inconvenience, by letting it slip forward in the hand: yet, l suspect, the consequent friction must lessen its impetus. The only original antient war-lance I have seen in this country is in iny son's possession.

Edward I and Edward II, from similar sources; 7. The several armouries of Europe seem to have first taken their present form in the sixteenth century. The consequence is, that, although in private families, a few suits of earlier date had been preserved in Italy, that of Maximilian, with its steel lamboys, and that of Henry VII resembling it, are the oldest specimens in Germany and England.

When, however, these collections were formed, the names of warriors, long antecedent, were given to them; and as, at that time, chronology of costume was never attended to, like the paintings of the day, they were readily taken as faithful representations. The survey was accordingly made in the month of October, Head peeces.

Strong harquebuze armor, consisting of backe, brest, placket. Head peeces and taces. Curaseers Armours, with their Furniture, viz. Close white curaseer head peeces. Knee capps. Flemish pouldrons with vambraces. White curasseer armes complete for tilting. Tilting armor for curasseers, consisting of backe, breast, pouldrons, vambraces, taces, and collar. Tucker, of Betchworth Castle, Surrey. The helmet belonging to it is engraved in Grose's Antient Armour, Plate vm. Danish breasts, with cross girdles. Armour of Toyras Provision.

Corsletts and Curates, with their Furniture , viz. Curate breasts, backes, head peeees, taces, coome murrions,f and other old head peeees and capps, gorgets, murrions, white field head peeees. Masking armor complete, reported to be made for King Henry the Seventh. Pace guards, russet white.

Grand guards, russet white. Vambraces, plaine, guilt. Old grave. Mainefaires, russet, white. Vamplates for tilting staves. White short gauntletts. White tilt collers. Flemish gauntletts, short, long. Amunicion swords. Belts for swords. Saddles for great horses. Battle axes. Wood crosses to hang armor upon.

Masking probably implies damaskino. If any of these now remain in the Tower, they are no where exhibited. IT Chanfrons, or champfreins. Pikes, f Great hearse of John of Gaunt. Spanish coller for torture taken in J Two hand swords. Buckelers of iron. Wooden buckelers. Barbes for bestes wanting one shaffroon. Small bickernes. Tramping stakes. Round stake. Welting stakes. Straite sheeres. Fileing tonges.

Old tew iron. Great square anvill Bellows.

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Smiths vices. Armor of King Heniy the Eighth, cap a pe, being rough from the hammer. Male jackets. Sundry compleat Armor , and others , whereof some of them were formerly standing at Greenwich, in the Green Gallerie there , viz. Upon a horse statue of wood, one compleat tilt armor, cap a pe, richly guilt, part engraven, part damasked, made for Prince Henry, with two gauntletts, and one guilt grand guard, the horse furniture being one shaffroone of the same sort, one old leather sadle and bitt.

Upon a like horse, one armour cap a pe, white and guilt, made for King Henry the Eighth, the horse furniture being one shaffroone brest-plate, and buttocke of the same sort, one old saddle and bitt. Upon a like horse one armor cap a pe damasked and guilt, made for King Henry the Seventh, the horse furniture being a shaffroon, crivet for the necke, brest plate and buttocke of the same, saddle, stirrups and bitt.

Upon a like horse one armor cap a pe white engraven, and parcell guilt, made for King Edward the Third. The horse furniture being one shaffroone, crivet for the necke, brest plate and buttocke of the same, an old sadle and bitt. Upon a like horse, one curasseere armor richly guilt and engraven, made for his late Majesty of ever blessed memory Charles the First.

The horse furniture being one shaffroone of the same, and an old sadle. Upon a like horse, one white armor cap a pe, made for King Edward the Fourth. X None of these are now exhibited, but they were remaining within memory. The two feet, however, are not fellows. This suit of Henry the Eighth's time is engraved by Grose, Plate xxv, but without the two crowns on bis sword as exhibited in the Tower.

Upon a like horse, one armor made for King Henry the Sixth, consisting of an head peece, backe, brest, a pair of pouldrons and vambraces, a pair of greaves and a pace guard. The horse furniture being a shaffroone, and an old saddle and a bitt. Upon a like horse, one armor compleat, cap a pe, engraven with the ragged staffe, made for the Earle of Leicester.

The horse furniture being a shaffroone, crivet for the necke, and brest-plate of the same, one sadle, bitt, and reines. Upon a like horse, one armor compleate, cap a pe, white and plaine, made for Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolke. The horse furniture being a shaffroone, brest-plate, and buttocke of the same, one sadle, bitt and bridle. Upon a like horse, one armor compleat, cap a pe, white and plaine, made for William the Conqueror. The horse furniture being a shaffroone, crivet for the necke, with a sadle, bridle, and stirrups. In several trunckes brought from Mr.

Foot armor of Henry the Eighth, richly guilt, consisting of backe, brest, and placket, taces, gorget, a burgonet, with a buffe or chin peece. Armor sent liis now Majestie Charles the Second, by the Great Mogull, consisting of backe, brest, baces, head peece, vizard, and peeces of the greaves. Annesley, where they were then remaining; that the wainscot in the said gallery was then all pulled down and carried away, and, as they were informed, was imployed in wainscotting the house in the Tower where the said Mr.

Michaell Basten, locksmith, at Whitehall; and the anvill, called the little beare, was in the custody of Mr. This report is signed by J. Robinson, Li. John Wood. From this curious survey we learn that the armour, now in the Tower, came from Greenwich and other places; and, as in the statement no mention is made of the Spanish armoury, we may fairly conclude that it did not then exist.

We have seen, indeed, that the targets with pistols in them were in the Tower in the reign of Edward VI, and therefore, could not as said, have belonged to the Armada. The instruments of torture, and the catholic banner, may have been part of the Spanish spoils; but, it is probable, that the remainder were furnished from the stores in the Tower. Indeed, it has been observed, that there was a sale by lottery of a quantity of foreign armour in the 29th of Elizabeth, which was probably that of the Armada and thus sold, to produce a part of the prize money due to the captors.

Hentzer too, visiting the Tower, in , never saw so remarkable an exhibition, as Elizabeth in armour, as being so particular in describing its curiosities, and also every thing concerning her, he otherwise, would certainly not have omitted to mention it. The historians, who record her going to Tilbury to review her troops, never notice so extraordinary a circumstance, as her appearing in armour: nor, had this figure existed previous to the rebellion, would the republican principles of the Commonwealth have permitted it to have continued.

This is exemplified in that beautiful equestrian statue of King Charles the First, in his armour, at Charing Cross; which was pulled down and sold to a brazier on condition of its being melted. Certain it is, she could not have worn it in a sitting posture. The horse armoury, is liable to the same observations : and, even George II, is represented in full armour. The truth is this: on the restoration, it was the policy to attend to every thing that seemed likely to exhibit the kingly character with splendour.

The armour, which had been formerly in the Green gallery, at Greenwich, placed on horseback, and dignified with the names of some of the kings, gave the hint for an exhibition of this sort. The defeat of the Spanish Armada, and the noble and heroic conduct of Elizabeth previous to that occasion, could not fail of being acceptable to a nation of a military character.

To excite sympathy, the lamentable fate of the young King Edward V, was worth attention: and the family of Tudors and Stuarts, were only wanted to connect the previous sentiments with the then reigning family. Accordingly, it was not long after this survey was completed, that such a work was begun. The steel is blue, and the ornamental indentations, in imitation of the slashes in the dresses of that time, gilt. In the hand is placed a martel-de-fer of the time of James I.

A garde-de- bras, belonging to this suit,is affixed to the wall at the end of the room. On the bridle hand, is a long armed gauntlet. The horse had on its chest a fine poitrine, now removed to a figure behind. The figure has a sword in its hand. The front of the steel saddle is embossed, but never belonged to the suit, yet probably of the same period. The suit shewn as that of Henry V. This is composed from parts of three white ones; the upper part is of the time of Charles I, while the legs, which are not fellows, are of that of Henry VII. The fans of the genouilliers are curious.

He has a sword in his hand. The suit in which the head of Edward V is represented, is very beautiful, rich, and finely decorated; and was, probably, made for Henry Prince of Wales, son of James I. Henry VII. This suit undoubtedly belonged to that monarch, being of the period, as well as having the initials, 3d. It is plain, but engraved all over, and has been washed with silver. On the breast is traced the figure of St. George, in a more antient armour, having tuilles over the cuisses; and the dragon. But, what renders this the greatest curiosity in the Tower, is the lamboys or puckered petticoat being of steel, and so contrived as to reach the saddle behind, and then fall on each side.

A trellis with overhead panels covers a walkway from the main house to the guest house. A minimal palette ties the entire composition together and includes steeltroweled stucco, exposed concrete block, and Rheinzink. Photographs: Matthew Millman. The building is located on a acre parcel, situated on the edge of a natural wetlands system. Each of these functions is distinctly articulated in the building massing. Located at the heart of the building are the public spaces such as showrooms, lunchroom, and training auditorium.

As a result, the building is expressed as a horizontal bar, generating a strong horizontal datum line. To maintain this strong horizontal line, while accommodating excess program, finely detailed, projecting cantilevered bays have been developed which hover over the prairie landscape. The structural and architectural detailing has been designed to allow each bay to slide into the building, incorporating reveals between multiple wall layers, and sandwiched between the upper and lower concrete brows.

This allows the program to grow organically, while reflecting the natural contours of the site. In addition, the floor plan has been designed to facilitate natural light penetration. The plan has been layered from a glass edged public circulation path on the east, defined by a translucent core zone, to an open office area on the west toward the wetlands. All private offices and conference rooms are clear or translucent glass to preserve the views, with a second level glass pavilion lunchroom, outdoor wood deck, and terrace with trellis. Serta expressed an interest in creating a work of architecture which would exhibit their unique approach to their business and craft.

Toward that end, the design takes advantage of the variations in the topography of the site, to weave together the building and landscape into a strong holistic composition. The design intent of the building is to float lightly on the landscape, reinforcing the notion of environmental sustainability and echoing the lines of the prairie landscape. Photographs: Andrew Metter. This 2,square-foot residence is located in a densely populated urban neighborhood above Sunset Boulevard, where residents enjoy walking to local entertainment venues.

The residence has views over Hollywood and out to the Pacific Ocean. The design challenge was to cost-effectively add 2 rooms bedroom and library to a tract home and transform it into a contemporary home that maximizes the entertainment space of a small building footprint on a hillside site. Through relatively simple interventions, we were able to effect a complete transformation of the existing house. By removing only four interior walls at the ground floor, relocating a stair, and adding 2 rooms stacked on top of each other; we extended the interiors and created an open living space.

Additionally, natural light and views were enhanced to maximize the apparent volume of space, blurring the relationship between interior and exterior and connecting the front and rear yards. The intentionally asymmetric window boxes are clad with white concrete board to enhance their abstract presence as they provide a diversion by camouflaging the existing residence. The window boxes cantilever over a new front courtyard behind an existing garden wall and create an overhang for the new entry.

An existing stair was relocated from the center of the house to the area of the new two-storey addition, allowing new visual connections among living, dining, kitchen and the library spaces on the ground floor. The stair ascends a half-flight through the stepped-up library to a landing connected to the backyard, and then switches back to arrive at an upper, sky-lit landing at the bedrooms above. The stair becomes a new central element connecting the stepped spatial volumes of the residence to the site, while simultaneously acting as an internal vertical courtyard, that brings natural light and ventilation into the open center of the house.

The vertical movement of the residence culminates at the roof via a submarine-like ladder through a skylight to provide the owner with a secret rooftop deck where views of Hollywood and the Pacific Ocean beyond are afforded. The library is stepped up from the living area and into the hillside and it contains an eye-level, corner window that is at the ground level of the backyard and provides a new visual extension to the rear of the site.

An elegant palette of minimal, black and white materials serves to enhance the illusion of open and expansive space. The library is a room within a room an effect that is enhanced by a material inversion; the living room has an ebony, fired oak floor and a white ceiling, while the stepped up library has a white epoxy resin floor with an ebony oak ceiling. The contrasting palette creates an interlocking condition which yields an apparent expansion of the space. Thomas is a K-8 catholic grade school in a densely populated part of the city on an extremely small site.

The basic strategy is to accomplish maximum effect with resourceful design strategies. The project is extremely cost effective and employed strategies of economy of means by making every constraint on the project into an architectural opportunity. The new playground is stacked over parking and a new driveway is wrapped around the perimeter of the site, simultaneously providing a fire lane, a buffer for school community, and diffusing local traffic congestion by providing a new on-site drop-off.

The driveway moves around the site, connects down to the parking below, and then rises up to a new, on-site student drop-off location in front of the new porch. A new pedestrian entry for students and families occurs along a ramp an over-scaled, required handicap ramp that rises up to the middle of the site and arrives in a large urban porch. This space will become a new nexus for the school, functioning in a variety of different ways, including accommodating an outdoor lunchroom; entry to the school; entry to the library; a second storey balcony accessed from the new art room; and existing classrooms above.

The new building is separated from the existing one to accommodate a phased construction and to allow light to reach the former basement of the existing building. The basement of the existing building was excavated providing new outdoor play areas for K, 1st, 2nd graders that is buffered from the older kids.

Bridges, a stair and a new elevator which upgrades ADA for the existing building connect the existing building with the new building and engage with the covered outdoor space. During weekday school use, a large landscaped forecourt fronts the street and extends the playground, while on the weekends it also accommodates additional parking.

A simple palette of cost effective materials includes galvanized metal mesh guardrails and ceiling panels, corrugated metal siding, cement plaster and exposed concrete. The urban porch provides a new identity for the school and St. Thomas parish within the city and it is linked back to the parish public street via the large ramp. The View House is designed under conditions generated by both the potential and limitations of large suburban developments. Situated on the vast landscape of the Argentine plains, the 3,square-foot house occupies a 22,square-foot parcel.

The design is driven by two conflicting desires: engaging the living experience of the house with the views of the landscape and preserving privacy from neighbors. Planning demands and the unique position of the peripheral lot resulted in a compact massing strategy with a minimal footprint that liberates and preserves the ground. The formal and tectonic complexity of the house results from four basic geometric subtractions at the corners of a primitive mass that create an exterior shape perceived simultaneously as embedded and lofted, cantilevered and slumped.

In the interior, these operations define a continuous space that spirals upwards from the ground level to the roof terrace in a sequence of living areas. The four subtractions have differentiated volumetric impressions, each of which, together with the contiguous aperture, results in an interior landscape of paired surfaces and lighting effects. The strategy for the apertures is derived from the framing of desirable landscape features, the anticipation of neighboring developments and the choreography of internal circulation.

Varying in height, orientation, and depth, each framed opening captures a distinct view, providing alternating relationships between interior and exterior. The rough concrete shell of the house was built using traditional local techniques, and its finish retains the impression of its construction. In contrast, the interior of the house is smooth and polished in nature. Photographs: Gustavo Frittegotto. The buildings are organized as a series of 4-storey courtyard buildings sharing a public gallery space with a 7-storey tower.

The towers flank the primary east-west and north-south connections to campus and serve as thresholds to the gallery spaces with their entries to the residential buildings. Each of these buildings is comprised of 4 floors of 40 student communities sharing a social lounge with the adjoining floor.

Together, the 4 floors of student suites gain a shared identity through the color of their respective courtyard elevations, thereby promoting an individual identity for each building within the life of the academic village. The project is designed to respect the demands of the climate and environment through its orientation, building envelope, mechanical systems, and harnessing of breezes. Devices such as canopies will shade outdoor public spaces, which in turn temper the environment around the buildings. Coupled with material selection and efficiencies of the building, these strategies to reduce heat gain are expected to achieve a silver LEED rating for the complex.

The scope of the project included a complete renovation of the interior of the original house and reconstructing most of the original garage. In addition the landscape was completely made-over, including the removal of the existing pool and the addition of a new lap pool. Upon first impression the original house felt very confined and dark inside, so an important factor in the re-design was to open up the house to let in more light.

Being located in a historic neighborhood, the front facade of the house had to remain unchanged for the most part which left the rear elevation of the house open to change. Floor-to-ceiling windows replaced a fireplace and French doors in the rear-facing family room, operable windows opened up the kitchen to the backyard, and a large three-panel sliding glass door transformed the den into an extension of the pool terrace.

Providing entertainment areas in a private backyard was another important factor for the clients. The installation of three different patio spaces addresses this concern. The back yard patio immediately off of the main house provides a space for lounging by the pool and sunbathing, a side patio off the living room offers a fountain and a place for quiet reflection, while a covered patio behind the garage features an outdoor cooking area, fireplace and projection screen.

This was accomplished through choosing a simple material palette and by uncluttering the spaces within the house. White painted gypsum board walls are combined with several carefully selected materials used repeatedly throughout the house to achieve a clean and balanced space that is not distracting. Ipe wood is used extensively on the interior and the exterior of the house. Stainless steel is the primary metal finish on the interior of the house.

It can be seen in most of the appliances. For stone finishes soapstone and carrera marble were selected. The material palette for the exterior of the house is simple as well. White painted wood lap siding is the main material on the exterior of the house. The grey Kynar metal roof sets the standard for all other metal on exterior of the house. Any exposed metal structure is painted to match, while the Kynar metal is used to wrap the chimney, the master bedroom window protrusion at the back of the house, the two sidewalls at the entry to the house and the garage doors.

Meanwhile, Pennsylvania bluestone is used extensively as the exterior paving material at the patios and for the pool coping. Photographs: Paul Finkel. As our clients were the first they were able to select a premier albeit irregularly-shaped site that overlooks a public park and waterway. The program is accommodated in a compact, two-storey structure that essentially extends to the buildable limits of the property but reserves some space for private outdoor uses. The garage, accessed via an open motor court, can double as a photographic studio.

Guests enter from the street under a covered porch that leads to a doubleheight entry that is illuminated from above. The space compresses just before entering the next double-height volume of the living room. This space is adjoined by the dining space and kitchen. The master bath, dining space and living space are arranged along a centerline that leads through a double-height window wall to a sculpture garden and the park beyond. The guest suite above dining space is organized about this same axis and has its own view to the park and waterway.

The master suite adjoins a walled terrace containing a spa and fireplace. With the sliding panels open these spaces can be used as one. The powder bath is an exquisite space best explained by the images contained herein. Suffice to say that due to its unique plan and dramatic presence the owners have made it a part of the entry experience. The entire house is rendered in hard-troweled, white stucco with sealed concrete floors throughout the ground level.

Photographs: courtesy of Charles Davis Smith. A New York based client commissioned Rangr Studio to design a Caribbean get-away large enough to accommodate his family and groups of friends, and to function as a luxury rental villa. Located on the rural north coast of the Dominican Republic, the design sought to create a contemporary house within the basic construction means and materials locally available. The structures are reinforced concrete, clad with a local coral stone. The windows are made by local carpenters with a dense hardwood, pivot on automobile wheel bearings.

The buildings are designed to protect from views of neighboring lots, heightening the experience of the vast horizon beyond. The interior spaces merge with exterior, and allow cool ocean breezes under shade from the sun, eliminating the need for air conditioning. Photographs: Paul Warchol. Situated at the edge of a sloping site in Northern California, this house captures an expansive view by bridging a swale between two stands of redwood trees.

The simple rectangular form floats across the landscape with a large window wall facing toward the scenic vista. The house engages the land at either end, where decks connect to pathways leading to a separate studio and pool. The house is arranged in an open plan along the east-west axis in order to maximize daylighting and views while minimizing solar gain. Operable windows on both the northern and southern elevations allow for natural cross-ventilation throughout the entire house. The interior is finished with a Douglas Fir ceiling and paneling, sheetrock walls and Ipe flooring.

The exterior, clad in cedar siding with a metal roof, quietly blends with the surrounding landscape. The new Grand Rapids Art Museum occupies one city block in the heart of Grand Rapids; a city well known for its legacy and influence on commerce, craft and modern design. The design stresses both the symbolic need of a museum to be a civic icon within the city, and the humanistic needs for people to have their own experience with art.

It is grand in its presence, and intimate in the experience. The sheltering canopy defines a place for multiple urban activities, as a gathering place for people. The front of the building is formed like fingers extending into the green of the park. Museum lobby, restaurant, education center are projecting pavilions towards the park with pockets of nature between them that slow people down from the hectic pace of urban life.

The presence of nature within allows visitors to reach a state of repose, adjust their eyes and conscience state for the art to come. Layers of screening — louvers, glass and shades soften the light and calm the mind. The changing of time is sensed in the changing light in the galleries. Being one of the very first art museums in the USA designed with the goal for LEED certification, the use of natural light in the building was carefully planned. Most public areas have natural light. Galleries receive light from top lantern skylights as well as large windows, connecting art to surrounding urban life.

The design emphasizes the important balance of both the exterior openness and the interior calmness. Visitors can enjoy the uplifting quality of light in the galleries as well as the outdoors under the canopy. Photographs: Hedrich Blessing. The principal feature of the 1. The 4, sq ft of interior living space and 1, sq ft of covered terrace were crafted to embrace this feature and find a balance between the relative transparency encouraged by the views and the privacy concerns of the owners.

The house is comprised of three distinct horizontal volumes, each with a specific material quality. The shell exteriors are clad in silver metal panel and are mostly opaque to provide privacy from adjacent properties to the north and south. The long open east and west ends of the shells reveal the River and garden views through expansive glazed walls. The exposed return surfaces of the shells are lined with western red cedar to provide a calm transitional space between the interior and exterior.

Within this room, the river, house interior and surrounding landscape come together to tell the story of this site. The upper level shell is offset from the one below to create an exposed roof terrace to the north and a dramatic 17 ft cantilever to the south. The large cantilevered volume creates a covered entry to the garage area.

The third volume clad in charcoal quartzite is a single storey shell that slips under to support the cantilever and extends west into the rear garden. The ground floor is comprised of two primary program groups separated by an east-west glazed circulation space that bisects the house and extends the river views through to the rear garden.

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The primary living spaces are distributed in a linear bar across the width of the site to maximize exposure to river views. The more private spaces including an expansive master suite, two additional bedrooms with en-suite bath and laundry facilities are distributed in a parallel bar on the second floor accessible by a dramatic sculptural stair. The service and ancillary spaces, garage, storage, guest suite and access to the basement level are contained within a single-storey bar that runs east to west to minimize the obstruction of views.

Photographs: Tom Arban. Community Rowing is a non-profit, volunteer-driven club and is the only public-access rowing club on the Charles River. CRI is dedicated to bringing the discipline of rowing to all levels of the socioeconomic spectrum. It provides instruction and equipment for rowers of all skill levels. A central goal of the new boathouse is to construct a sustainable project that conserves energy and natural resources, reduces operating costs and enhances the functionality and comfort of the new facility.

The river, an urban park system, bike paths, pedestrian routes, and local roads converge to create an ideal urban site for a building to house much needed community assets. For years the site was used as a staging site for heavy equipment in support of local infrastructure construction. As part of the site improvements, the damage of the previous use has been mitigated; this design reduces impervious cover, increases on-site infiltration and manages storm water run off. A new storm water management plan reduces water pollution from the existing parking lot and will drain to bioretention swales that recharge the ground water on site.

Inherent natural qualities of the site, along with the restoration of its use and habitat have positioned the boathouse to become an activity center for an underserved urban neighborhood. The design of the CRI boathouse seeks to expand the vocabulary of rowing facilities on the Charles by exploring abstract commonalities between rowing and architecture, and by engaging relevant regional precedents outside the realm of boathouse antecedents, such as tobacco barns and covered bridges.

As a site strategy, the long narrow footprint is divided to engender a public court that establishes both a visual connection to the riverfront, as well as a functional connection to the boathouse: a public invitation to the Charles River and CRI. Driven timber piles and concrete pile caps support an elemental steel moment frame, clad with various configurations of composite assemblies: eighteen-foot tall bi-folding operable vents clad in high-density composite panels with natural wood veneer provide natural light and ventilation to stored boats. This cladding, a product of sustainable forests, is also used as patterned louvers to mask locker room windows and mechanical vents, and provide shading to the south face of the building.

Glass shingles, held in custom fabricated aluminum clips at the sculling pavilion protect, ventilate, and display the smaller boats. The richness of the different agricultural landscape strata and the richness of the topography of the site are the starting points of our conceptual approach. The analysis of the features of the site can see the richness of the dialogue between the topography of the area and the new building and the contrast between the peaceful and contemplative character of the landscape and the dynamic movement of the cars.

Like a vegetal plate that rises above the ground, the concept proposes the development of a sculptural planted roof, a kind of reconstituted topography who engaged a dialogue with the horizontal natural landscape while generating a strong sculptural presence on Route To highlight the horizontal nature and topography of the project, a land form is proposed along Route The land form, planted with reflectors, will identify the project on Route and mark the specific topography, landscape and ecological aspects of the project.

The sculptural and aerial character of the concept can generate a multitude of programmatic arrangements that give the project a perfect flexibility in the process of establishing a school through an architectural competition. This will make it possible and easy to adapt the planning of program functions, to project future expansions while retaining the basic concept: a vegetal and topographical plate in dialogue with the site, the landscape, the ecology and allows to define a separate image on Route Photographs: Marc Cramer.

This 56,square-foot extension includes a room health care unit with all the attached services, a kitchen to serve people, a physiotherapy room, a library, maintenance workshops and an inner courtyard designed with a garden. The project pays particular attention to the connection to the site with its context while ensuring a harmonious integration with the existing building. Francis River, is one of the generating elements of the architectural concept. These stone walls are placed in extension to the stone foundations of the existing heritage buildings.

Imitating the simple gestures of a child immersed in a wooden block game, inventing worlds at different scales, the two volumes of bricks of the project are simply laid on the stone walls. These brick volumes contain the main function of the program: the bedrooms and the health care rooms. Either overhanging or flush mounted with stone walls, these pure volumes generate a dialogue between the river and the existing building.

The integration is also made by contrast in terms of volumes. Inserts of roasted wood create a dynamic rhythm on the longitudinal facades of the brick volumes. Positioned at the centre of the brick volumes and in extension of the existing chapel, the common areas living rooms and dining rooms overlook on an outdoor garden. This garden is raised one floor higher allowing users to enjoy a safe outdoor promenade prosthetic while contemplating the St.

Francis River and the surrounding landscape. All architectural and landscape attributes help to create a quiet place ideal for introspection and in dialogue with the church and its spiritual character. Experts in the manufacture of sanitary pipes and guttering since , the family business handed down through generations sees the organization in constant growth.

The company intends to equip itself with the latest installations to compensate for its lack of space and will be obliged to find new grounds in order to increase productivity and quality of service. With premises the young and dynamic management team predicts an opportunity to maintain competitive pricing while establishing itself as a force in facing the key issues of today. The choice of site, for a business deeply rooted in the region since its inception, was obvious.

The building is situated in an industrial quarter between the Highway to the north and railway to the south, next to fallow farmland and adjacent to a residential zone. The proximity to the highway facilitates the handling of products and increases visibility to the public at large.

Building an industrial site that co-exists with the surrounding area, for a use in which architectural excellence is often replaced by low-cost banality requires a reevaluation of the topographical constraints of the location. It is important to ensure that these innovations generate neither cultural nor visual conflict but rather contrasting dialogues between the site, building and area. The project establishes architecture of the River, defining and invoking its physical qualities and cultural legacy through an integrated approach to architecture, landscape and exhibit environments.

Moving beyond the role of container, visitor experience is organized to flow across an archetypal landscape of rock and water, along a continuously inclined topography of found and constructed elements. Within the exhibition, cultural history themes organized as temporal layers float above its timeless landscape terrain. Responsible stewardship extends the interpretive experience of the project. Exterior terraces are oriented to promote favorable microclimate and enable to extend seasonal use.

The Library is located in the downtown core of Boucherville. Built more than 25 years ago, the municipal library needs to expand and reconfigure its existing facilities. This project consists of a three-storey expansion plus an interior renovation and refit of the existing structure. It includes an atrium, a new entrance hall, a new library promenade, a new loans counter and a complete reorganization of all the library collections.

In contrast to the existing building, whose introverted geometry suggests only the slightest relationship with its immediate social and natural environment, our approach adopts an open, barrier-free design that will convey the very essence of a centre whose essential function is discovery, as well as openness to knowledge and to the world. Inspired by the formal logic of the existing building four similar squares that revolve around a central core , the expansion suggests the shift of one of these squares to emphasize an opening up to the nearby woods.

This establishes a new, open-ended connection between the building and its surrounding environment, redefining the heart of the library and ensuring a comprehensive unity, integrating the existing building with both the new addition and the adjacent woods. The woods are an identifying element visible from the street and the surrounding area, heralding the presence of a cultural institution in an urban landscape. The three floors of the new extension preserve as much as possible the trees adjacent to the building.

Taking advantage of the natural topography of the site and of the proximity of the trees, a large three-storey glass wall allows for diverse visual links between the interior spaces and the woods. Consequently, each clientele children, adolescents, adults and senior citizens benefits from a distinct relationship with the vegetation, the trees and the foliage, which inspire calmness, silence and rejuvenation. In response to the introverted organization and the constrictions of the existing interior space, an open spatial organization is centered on the new lobby.

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With its loans counter and its atrium, it is the veritable heart of the project. Positioned between the old and the new and extended vertically via the atrium, the lobby is a central locus that allows for quick, clear identification of the main sectors of the library. Photographs: Guy Tessier, Christian Perreault. Located in the First Shaughnessey district, a neighbourhood traditionally associated with arts and crafts style mansions; it is an undeniably modern house.

The success of the project lies with the support it received from the City and the First Shaughnessey Advisory Panel, the local design watchdog. Although the subject of an eight-month approval process, it was regarded as an exemplary project from the start by city officials. After final approval was granted, Clinton was invited to sit on the First Shaughnessey Design panel. There is extensive use of daylight in the project, and natural materials are used throughout. Photographs: Martin Tessler. The renewal in essence creates a series of platforms — for appreciating the art of ceramics past and present, for social gathering, for education, and for viewing the heritage context.

It is ultimately an agent for our affair with the culture of the city. The renewal strategy amplifies the original planning principles and builds on the existing structure which was designed to anticipate vertical expansion. The front of the museum is revitalized with a terraced landscape of low plantings and generous platforms.

The original pink granite cladding was stripped and the structure was rewrapped in polished buff Indiana limestone and black granite. Limestone louvers control solar exposure from the west; the exposed ends evoke the carved volutes that grace the neo-classical capitals of the adjacent building. The clarification of the plan order began by removing the stair in the lobby.

Like a chess game this first move set other solutions in motion. It allowed the retail shop to be relocated at the front of the museum to make it more accessible and inviting to the public. The second floor was pushed forward two metres to provide additional space for administrative functions; its flat rooftop was in turn adapted as an outdoor terrace for the third floor pavilion. The underground parking garage was excavated by 1 metre and adapted for ceramic studios, storage and conservation space. The design balances contextual references with a contemporary expression that simultaneously relate to and set it apart from its context.

At the same time, the architectural solution was informed by specific performance goals: to build for longevity as a form of sustainability and to create an active streetbase to participate in revitalizing urban life in downtown Denver. The overall goals inspired a massing strategy in three parts. Retail uses are allocated to the ground level with offices in the middle-zone and residential in the upper storeys to take advantage of views of the Rocky Mountain range and clear blue Colorado skies.

Located adjacent to the heritagedesignated Sugar Building , this storey development establishes alignments, registrations and material and tectonic relationships with its neighbor, while injecting a modernist expression through the form of the cubic top clad in black iron spot brick. The overall design was conceived with the support of the client to mobilize a strategy and vocabulary for future interventions of contemporary design in LODO and to contribute to making a more livable and civil downtown. The Charles R. The stately cube of the Arthur Miller Theatre represents the most public component of the Walgreen Drama Center and provides a new cultural destination at the University of Michigan.

Formally it consists of a concrete block building which houses the theatre and sits on a multi-tone base. It is wrapped in a translucent glass envelope which defines a foot-high space that is visible from the North Campus Quad. The inside of the Arthur Miller Theatre is designed in the form of a courtyard theatre to maximize flexibility for showcasing both professional and student performances.

While the interior of the theatre is deliberately minimal, details such as custom stained white oak leaning rails for seating parterres add tactile and visual warmth. The Penny and Roe Stamps Auditorium is shared by the five faculties on the North Campus, providing a central lecture and music recital space that addresses the North Campus Quad, the principal urban space of this campus. Rigorous room isolation and a mechanical system that meets a demanding background noise criteria value ensure exceptional hearing conditions for all uses.

The design also finds the intersection point between lecture auditorium and recital hall. The highly articulated surfaces of the room and the high ceiling volume address the needs of acoustic music performance while the steeply sloped lecture hall seating is ideal for lectures and multi-media presentations. The learning loft for the teaching and administrative spaces of the Department of Theatre and Drama stretches eastward from the theatre.

A glass corridor connects the studios and provides a window through which theatre students can be seen practicing. A custom stained white oak floor in the Towsley Studio for Musical Theatre provides additional acoustical performance. The building is conceived as a new element that connects the campus of the University, concentrating uses and flows from these parts to the building. It aims to integrate pedestrian through places like the access plaza and the first floor gallery. The concept of terrace garden is presented on the upper floors of the building in which the interior spaces open to gardens and contemplation areas, which integrating the visual mountains and the city, makes this project a great place to stay.

The essence of the proposed interior architecture is based on highlighting the scales of space, particularly in relation to common meeting areas vs. The Central Court area is proposed as a dynamic relationship of physical and visual connections between four levels. This weave is made of teak wood, supported over metal stud brackets and stainless steel frames in the openings of windows as well as in the top rail. At its center is a bamboo garden that suggests a subtle duality, and which is supposed to have a size, as big as the one it could reach in its natural habitat.

The roof uses a similar space strategy, but this time proposing the garden terraces as places to overlook the surroundings. Thus, the top floor becomes a chess- like space made of mass and void, where the inner areas extend to these terraces. Also, the colors of the interior spaces like offices not only are used to identify them, but also are pretended to lead to gardens at the end of the corridors, which enhance internal spaces lighting.

This suit is represented also in Plate lxvii, and the figure wearing it made to hold a wheel-lock pistol in his hand, while the spanner, which is contrived to contain the fine powder for priming and also a turnscrew, is suspended by the original silken cord over his left shoulder. On both are representations of animals of the chace; but the Nuremberg stamp on the former, shews that the Tuscan invention soon found its way into Germany. The dag, dagge or tacke, differed from the pistol merely in the shape of its butt, which somewhat resembled that of the petronel.

One of these has below the sharp part of the blade, a fleur-de-lis, but both have the axe-part of the halbert formed by crescents. This was the effect of infatuation for Diane de Poitiers, who, in allusion to her Christian name, had chosen the crescent for her mark. She was thus complimented by her monarch, who placed it on all the weapons of his troops. Fran, the court guards are represented having H, and the crown on their breasts with a crescent on each side, and another below. This king died in consequence of a mortal wound he received at a tournament which he gave at Paris in the year , in honour of the marriage of his daughter Elizabeth with Philip II, king of Spain.

The lance of his adversary the Due de Montmorency, broke against his helmet, but a splinter being forced through the visor, went through his eye and penetrated the brain. He languished for twelve days after at the Palais des Tournelles, where he died. This event tended principally to bring this hazardous amusement into disrepute, and it altogether subsided at the commencement of the next century. German lansquenets were frequently attached to the English army during this reign.

From the manuscript journal of Edward VI in the British Museum, this young king seems to have been fond of the exercise of archery. See Florio, first and second editions, and Thomas's Italian Dictionary. It hath bene Goddes instrumente, whereby he hath gyven us manye victories agaynste oure enemyes. But nowe we have taken up horynge in townes, insteede of shutynge in the fyeldes. A wonderous thynge, that so excelente a gyft of God shoulde be so lyttle esteemed. I desire you, my Lordes, even as you love honoure, and glorye of God, and intende to remove his indignacion, let there be sent fourth some proclimacion, some sliarpe proclimacion, to the justices of peace, for they do not thyr dutye.

Justices now be no justices; ther be many good actes made for thys matter already. Charge them upon their allegiance, that thys singular benefit of God may be practised; and that it be not turned into bollyng, and glossyng, and boring wythin the townes; for they be negligente in executying these lawes of shutynge. In my tyme, my poore father was as diligent to teach me to slnite, as to learne any other thynge; and so I thinke other inenne dyd thyr children. I had my bowes bought me according to my age and strength, as I encreased in them; so my bowes were made bigger and bigger:[ for men shall never shute well excepte they be brought up in it.

Now as from that to the tip of his middle finger is equal to half his whole height, it must be also equal to the length of his arrow, and the left baud, therefore, being clenched round the bow? It is a goodly arte, a holes ome kynde of exercise, and much commended in I red hym nowe ; but I remember he eommendeth thys kinde of exercise and sayth, that it wrestleth agaynste manye kyndes of diseases. In the reverence of God, let it be continued.

Let a proclamacion go forth, charging the justices of peace, that they see such actes and statutes kept, as were made for thys purpose. Some of these arrows pierced through this, and into another board placed behind it, although the wood was extremely solid and firm. An ancient bow, according to Neade, would carry four hundred yards, and Pere Daniel says the same. Sexti primo. Demy eulveryns of brasse S acres of brasse Fawcons of brasse Fowlers of iron Single serpentines of iron Basis of iron Hagbushes of iron Powder Demy culveryne shqtte Sucre shotte oone last.

II, p. Shott of yrone for great curtowes - Gret chambers of yron serving no piece 8 Saletts with vysars and bevers Saletts with bevers. In the Malle Chamber. In the Crosse-Bowe Chamber. Crosse-bowes to shoot stone - oone Rack to bend a crosse-bowe - oone Quyver for pricke arrows for crosse-bowes - - oone In Hurst Castell. Curtail cannon of brasse - oone Curtail cannon-shot of six ynches and a quarter - 35 West Cowes Castle. Curtoll cannon of brasse furnyshed - oone East Tilbury Bulwark. Curtail sacres of yron mounted upon carriage with shodde wheles. In Wark Castle. Halls of a porte-pece, dismounted - oone At JVeivhaven.

Arrowes with wild-fier. At Barwick. Arrowes for fire-workes. Hagbuttes of crokej of yron - - - - 11 Hagbuttes well stocked - - - 20 At Pontefracte Castle. Archers stakes, eight bundles. At Hampton Court. Mases of steel - - - - - 59 Maces of steel receyved of William Damsell - 26 Sallets for archers on horseback. Sallets with grates.

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Old sallets with vizards. In the custody of Hans Hunter , Armourer at Westminster. A mase of dameskine work. One white mase. Plaits, or plaited cords. Mallet, in the Traveaux de Mars, describes the following different sorts of swords, of which he gives representations from the Cabinet of Arms, formerly at Chantilly, in France. The braquemart, or short sword, the French rencontre sword, the stoccado, or long sword, the espadon, or two-handed sword, the Swiss, or basket-hilted sword; a Spanish sword, or toledo,J properly called a rapiere, a tuck enclosed in a walking-stick, a poiniard, dagger, sabre, and cymete".

To these Grose adds the shable, a broad sword with only one edge. She is intended for Judith, and is given here to shew, that all those pretended portraits of the Maid of Orleans are taken from similar representations. The original is on the binding of a copy of the Instituteonum ad jus universum Pontificum a Io.

Paulo Lancelotto-Basileee, mdlxvi, in my possession. In the Tower. Brigandines complete, having sleeves covered with crimson. Brigandines covered with linen cloth with long taces. Of those in the Tower, is engraved in Plate xxvi, Fig. The inventory proceeds thus: - In the Tower.

J gonnes - - 35 Targetts playne without gonnes - - 7 Targett with xx little gonnes - - oone Terget w. Some of these, with one barrel each, are still shewn in the Spanish armoury in the Tower; but from this inventory we learn, that they are falsely attributed to the troops of the Armada. Ebooks and Manuals

They are in form a portion of a hollow sphere, and about twenty inches diameter; and, as in the first named lot, covered with steel. We further learn, from the inventory, that the word goone, or gun, was applied to pistol-barrels, for it is of this kind, and with a match-lock, that the targets are furnished in the Tower.

Indeed, as cannons are still sometimes termed guns, we may conclude that it was a general name for the barrels of all fire-arms that had not locks to distinguish them. The inventory then has : Item, two hole barbes of stele for horses, graven and enelede blue. Item, ten javelins with brode heddes, parteley guilt, with long brassel staves, garnished with vellet and tassels. Sir Walter Scotfs collection, t These were staves with large cylindrical heads surrounded by spikes, and having a spear point at the end. These gads are borne by the Armourer's Company in their arms; and, in heraldry, are also represented as small thin square pieces of iron, curved; being for the fingers of gauntlets.

These were in the nature of bills. Item, one longe whitef pece with a fier locke. Item, one longe pece graven and guilte with a stocke of redde woode set with white bone, with a fier locke in a case of lether. Item, two chamber peces guilt and graven, with a fier locke in a stocke of yellow. Item, one guilte chamber pece pare ell guilt, with a redde stocke, with a fier locke in a case of purple vellvet.

Item, one lytle short pece for a horseman of damaskine work, the stocke of woode and bone, set with a chamber. Item, one dagge with two peeces in one stock. J Item, two backe swordes in a ease of lether, and two letle daggers garnished with silver, parcell guilte and emaled, with knyves and bodkyns. Item, one home for gonne-powder, garnished with silver. Item, iii grete flashes covered with vellet, and three lytle touche boxes.

Item, ii longe small cofers for gonnes. Item, a white tacke with fier locke graven, and all the stocke white bone, a great flaske varnished, and paynted, a touche box of iron graven and gilded. Item, ii tackes after the fashion of a dagger, with fier-lockes vernished, with redde stockes, shethes covered with blacke vellet, garnished with silver, and guilt, with purses, flaskes, and touch boxes of black vellet garnyshed with iron guilte.

J A pistol of this kind is in the possession of my son, hut of the time of Charles I. The touch boxes were for the priming powder. One of these, of this time, much resembling the handle of a large knife, furnished with two spanners and a gun- screw, is in the armoury of Llewelyn Meyrick, Esq. We have an account of the battle of Musselborough, in Scotland, fought in the first year of Edward VI, by William Patin, an eye-witness. They also mention, that swords were constructed with a tube along the back, in which was enclosed quicksilver to produce the same effect as the apple.

It consists of a breast-plate with skirts made of overlapping plates called tasses, a back-plate and a gorget, and with it is worn what is called a combed morian, i. This had its place supplied in the time of James I, by the pot or steel hat, which differs from the morion in being flatter in the crown, having a wider rim, and that rim inclining downwards. The man who has the black-bill is in a coat of plate, and wears a morion. A Bavarian dag of this period is in the armoury of my son. It is very short scarcely exceeding two feet in length.

The barrel is partially engraved, and has on it the Nuremburgh stamp; the lock has the same, and also another, consisting of a heart pierced with an arrow. The wheel has four furrows. In the same collection is a pistol of this time, with its stock like the dag, inlaid with ivory, but its wheel with five furrows, and capped. They are covered with a grating, and have several thin iron bars to drop down over the face, and round the neck.

Being fastened with hinges, these pieces will bend up and secure under an oval plate at top of the casque held down upon them by means of a spring. One is represented at the bottom of Plate lxviii. The husbandmen, when they till the ground, leave their bucklers and swords, or sometimes their bow in the corner of the field, so that, in this land, every body bears arms. One of these, from Vienna, is in my son's armoury. Haques crooked, were those whose stocks were more bent tt A conical skull-cap, with a rim round it, borrowed from the Spanish Moors.

And if any of the inhabitants shall be deficient for three months in any of the articles directed to be found, they shall forfeit for every article according to the proportion before mentioned, to be applied and levied as there directed. This act not to invalidate any covenant between a landlord and his tenant for finding of horses, armour, or weapons. All presentments and prosecutions to be within one year after the commission of the offence. No person to be charged both for lands and goods. Provided any horses shall die, or be killed, or armour be lost or expended in defence of the realm, the owner shall not be prosecuted for the deficiency within one year after such loss.

The servants of such persons as are bound to find a haquebut, may exercise themselves in shooting at such marks as are limited and appointed by the 33d of Henry VIII, so that they do not use such haquebut in any highway. See Plate lxviii. We further learn the proportion of these several kinds of troops. It may not be unworthy of remark, that it appears from some parts of this statute, the rulers of this reign were not very solicitous to introduce the general use of fire-arms into the country, but considered a long-bow as equal to a haquebut.

The armour of the men at arms is not noticed in this act, as they still continued to be formed of the nobility and knights of the country. About the time, however, of Queen Mary, the appellation of men at arms, hitherto given to the heavy cavalry, seems to have been changed to that of spears or spearmen, and launces or lancers. It belonged to a Count Gironi, of that time, and was, till lately, in the possession of one of his descendants. It is one of those rare suits called splints, having not only splints at the elbows, but the breast and back-plates made flexible in the same manner ; to lighten the weight of the armour, it is without sollerets, but the stirrups, which are beautifully chased and gilt, have attached to them steel feet-caps.

To this suit, also, is a flexible cod-piece, for the convenience of sitting on the saddle. It is represented in Plate Lxix. That the point of the lance might not penetrate, the outer edge of each lamina as placed upwards, but, by this position, they were more easily assailed by the martel de fer, and such instruments whose points struck downwards. Lord Wentworth, in a letter to Queen Mary, once or twice makes mention of a species of fire-arms, called a currier, while writing respecting the siege of Calais. Very little notice, however, has been taken of it by military writers.

F the commencement of this reign rather than the date of the sculpture, is the monumental effigy of Thomas Wyndhain, Esq. He is represented in the costume of a man at arms, but with his sollerets approaching to the pointed shape; has a long sword at his left hip, and a dagger at his right. It is remarkable for having chain-mail on the insteps of the sollerets, and, in that respect, corresponds with another in the Tower of London, made to represent the slashed dresses of the day, but not actually the one belonging to the earl.

The chain-mail has, however, apparently been moved from some other suit, as, on examination, this appears to have ended at the ankles, and been worn with footed stirrups. The armour of Robert Dudley and that which covered bis horse have not only the ragged staff on them, but the initials R. There is a representation of Clifford, Earl of Cornwall, in the armour which he wore at a tournament in presence of the queen, which exhibits him with large skirts of cloth appearing from under his breast-plate, and reaching nearly to his knees, folding over each other.

He has also wide sleeves over his pauldrons, gathered at the shoulders and nearly touching his elbows. There rode the trumpeters blowing their trumpets, with scarfs of white and black sarcenet. Also the two kings of arms and the heralds, Somerset, Lancaster, Richmond, York, Rouge Dragon, and more of them having scarfs of white and black sarcenet about their necks.

And the sevenight after were the like justings at court. Many staves were broken. And by chance of the breaking of a staff, a piece flew up where the judges sat. This hit iny Lord of Pembroke. We have first the dinner. The servants each carry three dishes placed on one another, and held together by a napkin passed over them; there is also music and a guard of halbardiers, and glaive men in attendance.

Next we have the horses of the knights fully caparisoned, their necks being fully enveloped by overlapping plates. They are held by their pages, while they themselves, in their ordinary clothes, are seen entering an apartment, round which, on a small elevation, are placed several suits of armour, the legs of which lie on the floor below, and the helmets with their crests are arranged on a shelf above. The several ladies also appear, whose office it was to present these to the respective knights.

Another represents a just by two knights across a barrier placed diagonally: others are waiting to encounter, and lances to supply the place of such as may be broken, are put in great numbers against a gallery. We have next a tournament in which four knights are engaged with lances and two with swords, their lances having been broken. About a dozen more knights are ready to combat, one of whom is receiving a lance from the gallery in which they are kept.

Among the persons there, may be discerned the fool. All the knights are attended by their squires and pages, wear swords, and are fully armed. A tournament on foot is next represented. It takes place within double lists, and across a barrier, being between eight knights, two of whom use swords, and the rest lances. Harquebusiers and lansquenets, with drums and fifes, are in attendance, the former firing their pieces for amusement. A tall man, dressed like a sylvan deity, appears in the outer list with a fifer by him ; and two tents are pitched within the inner one.

Another plate displays the knights disarmed marching each with a lady to martial music, and by torch light round the hall of the palace to the ball room. In this the knights are fully armed from head to foot but, in other similar works of this period, they are represented as combatting in the tournament invariably without any armour on their legs and thighs. In the 13th year of Elizabeth, A. Paramore pleaded his right to defend himself by duel. This was accepted, and Paramore brought his champion named George Thorne, a strong square built man, before the justice of the civil pleas at Westminster, The plaintiffs produced Henry Nailer a wool carder, not equally noble, but sufficiently skilful.

Thome as a symbol of challenge to the duel threw on the ground a gauntlet, which Nailer instantly took up confirming the agreement. Both sides promised and made oath that, on the following Monday after the morrow of the Trinity, they would fight the duel in Tothill fields. The plaintiffs, however, when last called upon were not to appear, so that by not prosecuting their cause they should lose it. On the aforesaid day of battle, a quadrangular arena was made on Tothill fields near Westminster, containing twenty rods in length and the same in breadth, with double lists to include the champions and exclude the crowd gathered round.

At its eastern side was erected a stage with a tribunal more elevated to form a court of civil pleas; where appeared assembled the judges and ministers of the same. The opposite side was appropriated to seats for the spectators in the manner of a theatre.

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Behind the stage or tribunal two tents were pitched, one for Nailer the other for Thorne. On the morning appointed for the fight, Nailer put on a doublet and slops of satin completely of a martial colour, with a head-piece of shaggy flax as it was called, adorned with a wreath and feathers of a blood colour, and boldly marched from London preceeded by drums and trumpets sounding. There were borne before him the gauntlet which Thorne had thrown down placed on the point of a sword, and by one of the royal guards the truncheon or baton, with which the duel was to be fought, an ell in length and armed with a horn at its extremity and a shield of the toughest hide.

In this manner he entered Tothill fields, and was conducted, by Sir Jerome Bowes, knight, to his tent. Thome had been previously placed in his tent by Sir Henry Cheney, knight. About the tenth hour, the whole court of civil pleas moved from Westminster hall to the stage and martial tribunal already prepared, according to the usual and stated manner. The lord chief justice and his coadjutors being seated before the tribunal, and the serjeants at law standing in their places, and all clad in their scarlet, and more solemn habits, the crier after three exclamations for attention called for the plaintiffs.

But these not appearing, the sureties of Henry Nailer were summoned in like manner, and ordered to produce the same Henry the champion of the plaintiffs. Then that Nailer entered the arena from the left of the tribunal bare headed, and bare legged from the knee downwards, and the sleeves of his doublet unfastened from his arms. But he was led by the hand of Sir Jerome Bowes who also bore his truncheon round the circuit of the arena, until he arrived opposite to the justices.

His shield in the mean time being got ready by some one who stood behind, he raised it from his side upwards to the front, and exhibited himself ready to commence the fight. He was then ordered by the court to stand on the right. The sureties of George Thorne having in like manner been called, and it being pointed out to them that they should produce him himself; Sir Henry Cheney led forth from the right corner of the arena with similar ceremony the same George, making a circuit towards the tribunal, when being there exhibited the court ordered him to stand on the left.

The crier proclaimed silence, and that no one, not already admitted, could enter the arena, as the champions had come together standing within the lists. This being done, the chief justice repeating the proceedings in the cause from the commencement, pronounced the plaintiffs to have failed, and therefore adjudged the land to Paramore, dismissing the champions and sureties, and commanding Nailer to restore the gauntlet, which had been the pledge of battle, to Thorne. One demy lance anno 1 ' w th a battell axe. One old peny platt cotte. The monumental effigy of Sir H.

Bradburne, at this period, represents him with his cuishes opened on account of the wide-puffed breeches, but with a chain- mail apron under them; and that of Sir Thomas Cockayne, in Ashbourne Church, Derbyshire, who died in , shews that these upper parts of the cuishes were held to their place by a wide strap that passed over the posteriors.

Of the backs, breasts, and narrow-rimmed morians, worn at this time, by the Genoese infantry, a great variety are in the collection of my son. They are all covered with engravings, and, by their form, shew that the projection of the tapul was, at this time, removed to the bottom of the breast-plate. A constant apprehension of an invasion from Spain, during the first part of the reign of Queen Elizabeth, induced that queen to be very attentive to her internal forces, and was the cause of the following commission, and the regulations therein contained, enacted solely by her own authority, with the advice of her privy council.

And that the saide householders be charged to bringe all the saide persons by name, with their armour and weapons at suche several tymes and places, as shalbe thereto lymited. And so after the returne to the commissioners of the said writinge, conteyning theire names, the said commissioners shall call for the persons, and proceed to the musters of them, and register the names of such as shall appear, with notes of their armour and weapons; and when some shall not have armour or weapons mete there, it shall be noted to what kinde of service for the warres everie of the saide persons shall seme mete, wherein is meant, not to omytte to note what number of them maie serve for laborers or pioneers, and who are also carpenters, smythes, or such like artificers, so as there may be some use had of their habilities for service of their countrie, as cause shall require, though theie shall not have armor.

And as for the servants of the saide judges and judiciall officers, with all their furnyture of armour and weapons to be added to the musters of the layetie, according to their several dwellinge places. After other regulations to this effect, the instructions proceed to hold out encouragements for the increase and improvement of horses, reciting a similar statute of the 27th of Henry VIII to that purpose; and they are subscribed by the council, W.

Burghley, R. Leycester, F. Knollys, E. Lyncoln, W. Mildmay, T. Smith and T. Sussex, on the last day of February, 15th of Elizabeth, During this reign, there were in the French cavalry light troops, called argoulets and carabins. Their offensive arms were a sword on the thigh, a mace at the left side of the saddle-bow, and on the right an arquebuse two feet and a half long, in a case of boiled leather.

They were certainly derived from Spain, and might have been originally Moorish. Their manner of fighting was to form a little squadron, deeper than wide, to discharge their pieces rank after rank, forming immediately and successively in the rear of the rest, and thus preparing for a second discharge. A very curious painting of Federigo Orieono, dated , in the possession ofH.

Broadwood, Esq. This same vest terminates in slops, or wide breeches, and is striped with broad gold lace. The warrior has, besides a scarf put over his right shoulder, under which appears his sword-belt. There is another belt below his vest, probably, that which fastened the back to the breast-plate. The helmet is also introduced. This interesting figure has been copied for Plate lxx. It is embossed with foliage, See. XX, A. There is a MS. Of the pike, we have the following account from the French of M.

The examples of the vertue these people have shewed to be in them for their feates of arms afoote, have caused since the voyage of King Charles VIII other nations to imitate them, specially the Germains and Spanyards, who are mounted unto the reputation that we do hould them of at this day, by imitating the orders that the said Switzers do keepe, and the manner of armes they do carry. The Italians afterward have given themselves unto it, and we lastly: but we are so farre off, that we shall never be like unto them for order, except we do make the use of these weapons to be of more estimation amongst us, then it hath bin hitherto, so mutch there is also, that they can learne us no other point; we must therefore take paines to get this order, or if it be possible, to find or frame a more sure, by the means whereof we might defend ourselves, and excell other nations.

And to do this, we must arm our soldiers well, to the intent that they may be lesse in daunger of blowes, and the harder to be overthrowne: principally those that should serve in the first fronts of the battailes ; and also all others, if it were possible, every man according unto the weapon that he doth carry.

The other harnesse for the body must be a shirt or jerkin, with sleeves and gloves of male, and a head peece with the face uncovered. The weapons must be these : a sword of meane length, neither wholly after the manner of the Frenchmen, nor altogether like unto the Alinaings : for the wearing of it too lowe doth greatly trouble a souldier.

The pike, a halberd, and amongst many halberds, some pertuisans are also called weapons. The target may not be called a weapon, notwithstanding it is a very good peece. The inconsiderable execution done by pieces of small calibre, probably caused the introduction of the musket, or mousquet, which originated in Spain during this reign. It was, however, so long and heavy, as to render necessary a kind of fork, to place it on when fired, which was called a rest. On the top was a kind of fork to receive the musket, and at the bottom a sharp iron ferule, for the convenience of sticking it into the ground.

J On a inarch, when the musket was shouldered, the rest was carried in the right hand, and subsequently hung upon it by means of a string, or loop, tied under its head. He tells us, that the best arquebuses were made at Milan. X One such is in the armoury of my son. This was in England, as well as the musket, a match-lock piece; for, notwithstanding the invention of the wheel- lock, it was too expensive to be used by the co mm on soldiery.

Edmund York, an officer who had served in the Low Countries, and was employed by Queen Elizabeth to regulate the militia of London, at the time when the kingdom was threatened with a Spanish invasion, says : t I remember when I was first brought up in Piemont in the countie of Brisacks regiment of old bandes, we had our particular calibre of harquebuse to our regiment, both for that one bullet should serve all the harquebuses of our regiment, as for that our colonel should not be deceived of his arms; of which word calibre come first that unapt term we use to call a harquebuse a calliver, which is the height of the bullet and not of the piece.

Before the battle of Moungunter, the princes of the religion caused several thousand harquebuses to be made, all of one calibre, which was called Harquebuse de calibre de Monsieur le Prince; so I think some man not understanding French, brought hither the name of the height of the bullet of the piece, which word calibre is yet continued with our good cannoniers.

By touch-box, was meant the small flask to hold the fine powder for priming. They were called patrons, and, perhaps, as they held charges for pistols, gave origin to the bandileers, which came into fashion during this reign, as they are at any rate as old as the time of Elizabeth. Probably it differed in nothing from the English dag, except its butt being much broader to rest against the chest of the person who fired it.

This piece is mentioned in the relation of the siege of Rouen, by Henry IV, in Did they invent and give name to the bandoliers also. There are, also, two beautiful wheel-lock carabines, one of which has the barrel richly chased and inlaid with gold, with the portrait of the owner on the stock. The other has on it the date, , and, in the butt, a magazine for bullets. These are both three feet long. There are also several brace of pistols, with the original pieces of pyrites in their cocks, of different sizes, from one foot seven inches and a half to merely ten inches and a half.

To these may be added, dags, petronels, with two beautifully engraved German swords and a dagger, each of which have attached to it a small wheel-lock pistol. Ordinaunce , Artillery and Munitions in the Castle. Fawconetts ij whereof one not good J One little pottgonne of brasse. Demy bomberdes two, whereof one chambered of the self the other hath none. Basses doble and single xij lackinge. Halfe haggs xxix not serviceable. Bowes of ewe none. Arrowes sheefes in decay. Morispicks xxx not good. Blackbilles none. Sorgarshot of lead lxx. Fawconshott of lead c. Bass shot of lead v c. In the Citye.

Fawcons of brasse iij all dismounted. One small pottgonne of brasse. Fawconetts of brasse iiij dismounted. Fawcons of iron ij dismounted alsoe to serve the warden in the field. Basses two ' Hagbutts uppon crocke xiij whereof xij serviceable, f Harquebuzes xxx decayed and past service. Bowes of ewe xij.

Bowes of elme lxx not serviceable. Sheafes of arrowes xviij 0 in decay. Blackbills ccc. Moryspyks ccxx. Northern staves ccl. HacksJ and picks lij worne and decayed with workes. Shovells and spades x dozen. Cartwaye for xxx horse draughts. Hemp rope two coille small.

Sogarshot of iron 1. Fawconshott of iron cl. Fawconshott of iron 1. X Axes, or hatchets. A four-sided maule. In the Citidell. S agars two Fawcons fower Doble basses iij. Single basses viij. Murtherers ij j Harquebuzes ix not serviceable. Half haggs xiiij decayed and past service.