Cooperation detection and deontic reasoning in the Wason selection task Cue competition in human categorization: Contingency or the Rescorla-Wagner learning rule? Comment on Shanks Determining whether causal order affects cue selection in human contingency learning: Comments on Shanks and Lopez Determining whether causal order affects cue selection in human contingency learning: Comments on Estimating causal strength: the role of structural knowledge and processing effort Estimating causal strength: The role of structural knowledge and processing effort.
Experimente und kausale Theorien Failures of explaining away and screening off in described versus experienced causal learning scenarios PSYNDEXalert Failures of explaining away and screening off in described versus experienced causal learning scenarios. How categories shape causality How prescriptive norms influence causal inferences. Hybrid causal representations. Implizites und explizites Lernen im Alter Indicators of causal agency in physical interactions: The role of the prior context. Intelligenz und Denken : Perspektiven der Hochbegabungsforschung Introduction to the Special Section on theory and data in categorization: Integrating computational, behavioral, and cognitive neuroscience approaches.
Judgment and decision making as a skill : Learning, development and evolution Judgment and decision making as a skill: Learning, development and evolution. Moral judgment Moral judgment. Neuraths ship: The constitutive relation between normative and descriptive theories of rationality PSYNDEXshort Neurath's ship: The constitutive relation between normative and descriptive theories of rationality. On having very long arms: How the availability of technological means affects moral cognition.
Overshadowing beim kausalen Lernen Perspectives on judgment and decision making as a skill. Rational rats: Causal inference and representation. Rats distinguish between absence of events and lack of evidence in contingency learning PSYNDEXshort Rats distinguish between absence of events and lack of evidence in contingency learning. Testing complex causal hypotheses The role of learning data in causal reasoning about observations and interventions PSYNDEXshort The role of learning data in causal reasoning about observations and interventions.
The role of the primary effect in the assessment of intentionality and morality PSYNDEXshort The side-effect effect in children is robust and not specific to the moral status of action effects The special status of actions in causal reasoning in rats PSYNDEXshort The special status of actions in causal reasoning in rats.
The tight coupling between category and causal learning. Throwing a bomb on a person versus throwing a person on a bomb. Transfer effects between moral dilemmas: A causal model theory.
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Understanding of and reasoning about object—object relationships in long-tailed macaques? Understanding of and reasoning about object-object relationships in long-tailed macaques? Challenges for theories of causal learning When learning order affects sensitivity to base rates: Challenges for theories of causal learning. Causal Bayes nets as psychological theories of causal reasoning: Evidence from psychological research PSYNDEXalert Causal beliefs about depression in different cultural groups—What do cognitive psychological theories of causal learning and reasoning predict?
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Causal client models in selecting effective interventions: A cognitive mapping study. Causal models in judgment and decision making. De rol van verklaringen in de keuze van effectieve interventies. Decision makers conceive of their choices as interventions. Effort denial in self-deception. Only a minority of these musicians, both educators and students, seem to endorse the environmentalist credo with its denial of individual differences in "natural" talent.
Ralf Th. Beobachtbares Verhalten und mentale Prozesse, auch hochgradig spezifische kognitiv-motorische Funktionen, haben ein neuronales Pendant. Beim Menschen gilt dagegen das Prinzip der sog. My presentation starts from two basic assumptions. Second, a considerable portion of inter-individual differences in general cognitive-motor functions are related to innate dispositions. The goal of my talk is to show that the explanation of stable inter-individual differences in skilled musical performance does not require the assumption of innate gifts and talents.
At the core of the expertise perspective is the notion that skilled performance relies on domain-specific processing mechanisms that are acquired through long-term deliberate practice efforts. I will summarise findings from the domain of musical performance to illustrate three major claims:. These changes cannot be explained by differences in musical talent as such. The core of my argument is that the development of expertise is a long-distance race along the parcours of internal and external constraints. Contrary to popular belief, the role of innate factors may decrease the further we move away from "normal" behaviour.
Soft constraints Elman et al. Elman, J. Rethinking innateness. A connectionist perspective on development. Ericsson, K. The role of deliberate practice in the acquisition of expert performance. Freund, A. Successful development and aging: The role of selection, optimization, and compensation.
In: J. Lerner Eds. Plomin, R. Genetics and experience: The interplay between nature and nurture. Fallstudien von jungen Menschen, die blind sind und schwerwiegende Lernschwierigkeiten haben. Die psychologische Literatur des The psychological literature of the 20 th century is coloured sporadically with accounts of people who have a special ability or abilities in the broader context of learning difficulties. Dies ist der konventionelle Typ des Vorspiels, das das Proben mit Musiknoten und den auswendigen Vortrag erfordert. Diskussionen des Expertisebegriffs im Vergleich zu dem des Talents sollen ebenfalls in Betracht gezogen werden siehe zum Beispiel Gembris und Lehmann For a student on a musical instrument, practising on the instrument is vital for progress.
For the last ten years, I have tried to get information about how students in a music academy practise on their instruments. These are students on a high performance level, and they ought to be experts both in their instrumental performance and in their practising behaviour.
But maybe that this relationship is not a straightforward relationship. Is it possible, for instance, to be an expert performer on an instrument even if one is not an expert practitioner? And are there certain practice behaviours that identify an expert practitioner? Questions like these depend, of course, on what we mean with "expertise" in these two domains, the domain of instrumental performance and the domain of instrumental practice.
In this study, students are allocated to mainly three levels of instrumental performance expertise, measured as an instrumental performance grade given by a panel of judges and based on an examination concert. This is the conventional type of performance, requiring rehearsal of notated music and performance from memory. Research in practice behaviour covers a wide range of task-oriented and person-oriented strategies see Hallam My research question is: do students at different levels of performance expertise differ in these practice behaviours?
The empirical results will be discussed in relation to research and theories on expertise in performance and practising. For performance, I have identified three major competing theories on the characteristics of expertise and how expertise evolves. Discussions of expertise versus talent will also be considered see, for instance, Gembris and Lehmann Dreyfus, H.
Mind over machine. New York: Free press. Gembris, H. Kritische Anmerkungen zum Expertise-Konzept. In: H. Gembris; R.
Are gifted adolescents more satisfied with their lives than their non-gifted peers?
Maas Eds. Hallam, S. What do we know about practising? Towards a model synthesising the research literature. Lehmann Eds. Does practise make perfect? Current theory and research on instrumental music practice pp. NMH-publikasjoner Lehmann, A. The reflective practitioner. How professionals think in action. New York: Basic Books. Educating the reflective practitioner. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Daniel Steinwede, R. Rottbeck, O. Busse, C.
Kohlmetz,Thomas F. In einer vorangegangenen Studie Schuppert et al. Die vorliegende neuropsychologische Arbeit wurde besonders im Hinblick auf eine Erweiterung des Amusie-Tests auf expressive Leistungen und Funktionen unternommen. Sowohl beim expressiven als auch beim rezeptiven Teil waren jeweils immer 18 Aufgaben vorgesehen.
Patienten und Kontrollpersonen spielten auf einem 6-tastigen Glockenspiel Melodien und Intervalle nach und klopften die Rhythmen auf einem Holzbrett. Erkennung von dt. Verglichen mit der Kontrollgruppe war die Patientengruppe in den rezeptiven und expressiven musikalischen Funktionen signifikant schlechter. Kohlmetz, Thomas F. Little is known concerning neuronal networks involved in expressive and receptive musical functions.
In a previous study Schuppert et al. The present neuropsychological study was undertaken to extend the investigation on expressive musical functions. Thirty patients suffering from unilateral stroke were tested for expressive and receptive musical functions using a newly developed test battery.
The test for expressive function required active replay of previously twice presented a melodies, b intervals and c rhythms. Patients and controls had to play on a glockenspiel or had to tap short rhythmic trails. The played parts were recorded and rated by two independent experts. The receptive part of the test contained five different tests with each 18 stimuli , four of them designed as a forced choice discrimination paradigm:. Discrimination of pitch: A target tone was followed by a comparison tone, which was either a major or a minor second apart or which remained the same. Patients and controls had to respond "same" or "different".
Recognition of five familiar song melodies: The subjects had to recognise five German nursery melodies with their title, or at least as known or unknown. Patients performed significantly worse in both the expressive and the receptive test, compared to controls. A general impairment in the expressive test was more frequently associated with left hemispheric lesions and with deficits in language production. In the receptive part only the metre-task was not impaired.
We conclude that expressive musical capabilities are to a greater extent linked to left hemisphere- and to language function as reported in the literature. The selective preservation of meter recognition may be due to multiple representations of this perceptive task in either hemisphere. Dementsprechend gibt es keine Frau bzw. Folglich sollte Begabung nicht nur deshalb in wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen einbezogen werden, weil sie in der Alltagssprache und in Alltagsvorstellungen fest verankert ist bzw.
This paper addresses the German term Begabung from the perspective of cultural studies. There is no direct translation for Begabung , its meaning is situated in between the English terms giftedness and talent. As opposed to traditional critical theory, cultural studies offer substantially altered dimensions of cultural critique. On the one hand, this results from taking into account the methodologies of discursive analysis and the analytical philosophy of language , on the other hand, much of cultural theory is derived from popular and everyday culture.
Both threads of thought shall be taken up and further developed in this paper to address the question, whether it is possible and whether it makes sense to separate Begabung from the realm of traditional classical music and to speak of Begabung e. Therefore, the argumentation does not set out with an abstract definition of Begabung , but with analysing the usage of the term in academic and also in everyday circumstances. At first, Begabung can be identified as an essentialist notion. The problematic political implications resulting from this fact usually lead researchers to focus on the effects of socialisation instead of studying innate gifts.
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This constellation can also be observed in another domain of cultural studies, gender studies , where the distinction between biological sex and social gender is one of the basic premises. The notion of gender studies already indicates the restriction on the social elements, and it was only through the work of Judith Butler that it became possible to address the issue of biological sex too. Judith Butler argues that even biological and physical realities ca not be taken for granted; instead, e. This theoretical approach is related to the analytical philosophy of language and to pragmatism, and from this perspective, Wolfgang Detel argues for the theoretical significance of the conception of biological sex and the corresponding terms woman and man which are necessary objects of reference.
A critical usage of essentialist terms is made possible by what Detel calls semantically emptying these terms. It is only by their application in actual cultural contexts that the terms regain their meaning. Therefore, there is no woman or no man as such , and no consequences that could be derived from these facts alone, there are only women or men in actual cultural contexts. This idea can also be applied to the notion and the concept of Begabung. Correspondingly, Begabung should not be addressed by academic research simply because it is part of our everyday language and imagination, or even because a significant number of researchers obviously agree on the fact that it makes sense to examine Begabung.
It can be argued that Begabung is a necessary object of reference, without which it is not possible to speak of individual differences and their possible roots. This is the major advantage of critical research on Begabung instead of expertise research , which has no explanation for the fact that all humans are different in their learning.
Therefore, future applications of the term Begabung in contexts of academic research should not be rated by abstract criteria of validity, but by the degree to which the underlying cultural values are also part of the inquiry. Butler, J. Detel, W. Zum Problem der Referenz auf die Geschlechter. High aptitudes or gifts can be observed more easily and directly in young children because environmental influences and systematic learning have exerted their moderating influence in a limited way only.
However, they still show themselves in older children and even in adults through the facility and speed with which individuals acquire new skills in any given field of human activity. The easier or faster the learning process, the greater the natural abilities. It is these high natural abilities that some laypersons call "talent" or, more appropriately, "natural talent".
As defined in the DMGT, talents progressively emerge from the transformation of these high aptitudes into the well-trained and systematically developed skills characteristic of a particular field of human activity or performance. These fields can be extremely diverse. Figure 1 shows some of the many talent fields relevant to school-aged youth.
A given natural ability can express itself in many different ways, depending on the field of activity adopted by the individual. For example, manual dexterity, as a natural physical ability, can be modeled into the particular skills of a pianist, a painter, or a video-game player. Similarly, intelligence as a natural ability can be modeled into the scientific reasoning of a chemist, the game analysis of a chess player, or the strategic planning of an athlete.
In this model, natural abilities or aptitudes act as the "raw material" or the constituent elements of talents. It follows from this relationship that talent necessarily implies the presence of well above average natural abilities; one cannot be talented without first being gifted. The reverse is not true, however. It is possible for well above average natural abilities to remain simply as gifts, and not to be translated into talents, as is witnessed by the well-known phenomenon of academic underachievement among intellectually gifted children. The process of talent development manifests itself when the child or adolescent engages in systematic learning and practicing ; the higher the level of talent sought, the more intensive these three activities will be.
This process is facilitated or hindered by the action of two types of catalysts; intrapersonal and environmental. The intrapersonal catalysts are subdivided into physical and psychological factors, all of them under the partial influence of the genetic endowment. Among the psychological catalysts, motivation and volition play a crucial role in initiating the process of talent development, guiding it and sustaining it through obstacles, boredom, and occasional failure.
Self-management gives structure and efficiency to the talent development process, and to other daily activities. Hereditary predispositions to behave in certain ways temperament , as well as acquired styles of behavior e. The environment manifests its significant impact in many different ways. The milieu exerts its influence both at a macroscopic level e.
Many different persons , not only parents and teachers but also siblings and peers, may exert positive or negative influence on the process of talent development. Gifted education programs within or outside the school belong to the category of provisions ; they are a more systematic form of intervention to foster or hinder the process of talent development. Finally, significant events the death of a parent, winning a prize or award, suffering a major accident or illness can influence markedly the course of talent development. Chance could be added as a fifth causal factor associated with the environment; but, strictly speaking, it is a characteristic of some of the elements placed in any of the other four categories e.
Chance is also a major causal factor in the determination of the genetic endowment. Any definition of normative concepts must specify how subjects differ from the norm and what it means in terms of the prevalence of the population subsumed under the label. In the DMGT, the threshold for both the giftedness and talent concepts is placed at the 90 th percentile approximately 1.
This generous choice of threshold is counterbalanced by a recognition of levels or degrees of giftedness or talent. These comprise five groups. Giftedness and talent: Reexamining a reexamination of the definitions. Constructs and models pertaining to exceptional human abilities. Heller, F. Passow Eds. Oxford: Pergamon Press. From giftedness to talent: A developmental model and its impact on the language of the field. A proposal for subcategories within the gifted or talented populations. My convictions about the nature of human abilities, gifts and talents.
Die Entwicklung musikalischer Begabung in lernbiologischer und entwicklungspsychologischer Sicht. Ergebnisse einer Langzeitstudie zum musikalischen Lernen von Kleinkindern. Methodisch handelt es sich dabei um eine sowohl qualitative als auch quantitative Verhaltensstudie. Das musikalische setting bestand aus der Bereitstellung einer informellen musikalischen Lernumgebung, in der rhythmische und melodische Einheiten wechselnder tonaler und metrischer Struktur dargeboten wurden. In a long-term study on the development of mental representations in music, three groups of small children age 1 to 5 were observed with respect to their behaviour in a given musical setting, and were compared to control children of the same age from a nursery school.
Methods from quantitative and qualitative research were applied. The musical setting focused on informal musical guidance; here, the children were exposed to many rhythm and tonal patterns of various tonal and metric modalities. With respect to the expected interaction between the different criteria, a highly significant correlation was exhibited only for movement flow of movement; synchronisation and voice production pitch accuracy and rhythmic stability.
In light of these findings, questions of the development and promotion of music aptitude will be raised. Deren Exponiertheit gibt den Ergebnissen allerdings exemplarischen Charakter. Bahle u. Die Mehrzahl der Probanden beantwortete einen Fragebogen, der u. Von stilistisch bedingten Ausnahmen abgesehen haben sie sich zu diesem Zeitpunkt bereits zwei bis drei Jahre mit einem Instrument auseinander gesetzt. Beim Hervorbringen und Umsetzen rockmusikalischer Ideen sind die einzelnen Mitglieder einer Band in sehr unterschiedlicher Weise beteiligt. Der Songwriter fungiert hierbei als Coach, der alle Ideen bewertet und integriert.
So entsteht das rockmusikalische Arrangement vornehmlich im Austausch und in Zusammenarbeit mit dem Bandkollektiv. Andere methodische Zugriffe in Anlehnung an die Fernexperimente von Bahle z. Theoretical background: The musical development of songwriters and the creative process of rock musicians haveuntil now rarely been the focus of research. Weisberg was the first to tackle this topic when he described the acquisition of artistic expertise and its typical path by analysing the song production of the Beatles.
Some of our own research results on young composers in the artistic music domain deal with their motivation and creative processes. This and earlier studies e. Bahle and Simonton make it clear that domain specific skills and deliberate preliminary work carried out in many stages are needed in order to compose music. Aims: The musical development and motivation of young composers of popular music, along with their inspiration and work methods are explored in this study.
The qualitative data was evaluated with the help of winMAX. Results: The songwriters in our survey began composing on average at the age of 15, which is much later than what we know to be average for the classical domain. Identification with the band and its progress, along with a high intrinsic motivation level, are the driving forces behind composing songs.
The individual members of a band are involved in creating and transposing rock music ideas in very different ways. It is rare to find songwriters who only use their bands to perform complete arrangements, as was the case in classical music. Bands whose musical pieces are only created in jam sessions are also rare. The most common situation is where one or two band members supply the creative concepts, and the others help to arrange them.
In this sense, the songwriter functions as a kind of coach who integrates and evaluates the ideas. With individual shapings, the theoretical stages can be seen in the creative process of songwriters, but the process cannot be described as a linear succession of these stages because it often runs disjointedly or in circles. Conclusions: Intrinsic motivation and deliberate practice are important for young composers, regardless of genre. However, various development processes become evident, which can be explained by different domains learnt musical instrument, individual vs.
Rock music arrangements are also created mainly using exchange and co-operation within the band. Empirical access to knowledge of inspiration with the help of self-statements remains problematic as it depends heavily on the level of self-awareness of those surveyed. Other methodical access following the long distance experiments by Bahle e. Bahle, J. Konstanz: Paul Christiani EA Bullerjahn, C. In: M. Fiorilli Eds.
Musical Behavior and Cognition. Warum komponieren sie eigentlich? Lecture given at the September Fahrenberg, J. Simonton, D. In: K. Ericsson Ed. The Road to Excellence. Weisberg, R. Creativity and Knowledge: A Challenge to Theories. In: R. Sternberg, Ed. Handbook of Creativity pp. Das Absolventenprojekt: Konzeption und Ergebnisse einer Pilotstudie. Weitere Fragestellungen beziehen sich u. Theoriebildung anzuregen. Die Interviews wurden nach der Methode der qualitativen Inhaltsanalyse Mayring ausgewertet. Durch die wachsende Konkurrenz um immer weniger Stellen steigen die Erwartungen an das Niveau der musikalischen Leistungen.
Background and issues: Casual observation reveals that instrumentalists and singers have difficulty obtaining engagements on the current employment market after their training. Our alumni project asks how the professional careers of recent graduates instrumentalists and singers proceed once musicians leave the music academies.
The focus of this study is the phase of professional integration on the job market within the first years following graduation. The aim is to find out which factors contribute to a successful transition from college to engagement, and which factors hinder this transition.
Further aspects of the study pertain to the relation between current trends on the job market, training and career, and possible differences between singers and instrumentalists playing different instruments. Methods: To address the above questions data has to be gathered at different levels:. The level of the individual graduate: Using a standardised survey we hope to find out a how many and which musicians find an engagement, b which factors are involved in this process, and c how these people experience and cope with the professional development.
Subjects are recent graduates of five consecutive classes from a medium-sized music academy. The level of the job market: through thematically structured interviews with job experts, we intend to assess which musical and extra-musical demands are imposed on the singers and instrumentalists in their professional lives. The targeted job experts consist of two groups: a agents of public and private placement agencies, and b conductors and other decision-makers in orchestras and public theatres. The level of training: Through interviews with relevant teachers at the music academy we will assess if and how problems of future employment and job search are being addressed during training.
The psycho-social adjustment of gifted children in middle-childhood
Preliminary results from a pilot study: The project is still under way. Two extensive pilot studies have been conducted to date. Those had the goal of trying out the adequacy of the method and helping to formulate the theory and hypotheses. The first pilot study will be reported here.
The interviews underwent qualitative content analysis Mayring The results from the agents substantiated the view that, especially for female singers, integration in the job market is becoming increasingly difficult, due to a continually worsening job situation. The expectations regarding musical quality are increasing because of constantly growing competition for the few open positions.
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However, this is only the case when desired additional musical, physical and psychological properties are present. Agents indicated that these characteristics include for female opera singers among other things charisma, a strong motivation to perform, obsession with the theatre, physical attractiveness and physical and psychological resilience. From this it follows that the talent and expertise concepts might well explain levels of musical performance, but not the success of a musical career or the lack thereof.
Mayring, Ph. Qualitative Inhaltsanalyse. Grundlagen und Techniken. Maria B. Erstreckt sich der Geltungsbereich dieser Theorie auch auf das Instrumentallernen? Kann sie als Beitrag zur Entwicklung von Expertise aufgenommen werden? Alle Interviewten reagierten sehr positiv auf den didaktischen Aspekt der Theorie.
This theory assumes that mistakes play an important, up-to-now underestimated role in learning processes. By making mistakes, one would learn how something is not declarative , and how something is not to be done procedural , which means that one establishes negative knowledge. The latter helps to differentiate between "correct" and "incorrect", and results in a better memory and safer application of the correct. It follows from this that space and time have to be devoted to making mistakes and to dealing with them in learning and teaching processes. Does this theory also apply to the domain of instrumental and vocal learning?
Can it contribute to the development of expertise? The interviewees were willing to reflect on the topic of mistakes in teaching and reacted positively on the didactic aspect of the theory. Some weeks after the interview most of them even said that they had developed new teaching ways of dealing with mistakes, and that their students showed appreciation for this change.
Concerning the theoretical assumption of the basic learning potential of mistakes, however, reservation was expressed by these same experts. For example, a sequence played with the wrong fingering needs to be relearned even if played only once. Movement-related learning obviously immediately leaves a neuronal path; the experience of doing it incorrect is an obstacle rather than a door-opener on the way to the correct.
The act of playing follows this mental imprint rather than precedes it. Specialists of this method believe it is exactly this which outstanding talents and masters of music, be it knowingly or unknowingly, always did Orloff-Tschekorsky Mental training would then be a kind of deliberate practice which carries the characteristic of correcting mistakes on the mental level. The conclusion is drawn that the theory of negative knowledge can only be applied with caution to the domain of instrumental and vocal learning; "low-mistake practice" is more promising.
Minsky, M. Negative Expertise. Orloff-Tschekorsky, T. Oser, F.