According to Searle conscience is a natural entity, at the same time introducing an irreducible subjective dimension in the world. Neuroeconomy or cognitive economy It studies the influence of the neurosciences on the laws of economy and on the economic policy. There is experimental evidence about the predominance of irrational behaviors in the most part of the economic choices.
The discoveries of the behavioral and cognitive economy have been analyzed investigating the cerebral activities for years. This new specialized branch, named neuroeconomy, has confirmed the validity of the psychological discoveries and shed light upon the prevalence of the automatic processes in the decisional activity. These automatic processes are unconscious and they belong to the affective and emotional world.
On one hand these data contradict the assumptions about the awareness and intentionality of the traditional economic action and on the other hand they explain the tendency to. This book by Colin Camerer, considered as one of the major innovators in the economic field, gives a strong contribution to the comprehension of the micro-mechanisms that are the bases of our economic and social choices and therefore, in the last instance, to the comprehension of the way human beings behave.
Neuroaesthetics The above mentioned discipline studies the influence of the neuroscientific discoveries on the artistic, literary and musical phenomenon. Chiara Cappelletto quotes some of the works mentioned in the footnote as belonging to the musical neuroaesthetics, but this inclusion is in my opinion very reductive. In reality, as Oliviero says in the his above mentioned book the first lesson of neurosciences the neurological and neuroscientific approach to music is a global one and it cannot be reduced to the one and only problem of perception and aesthetic qualification, even if this issue is very important.
It is sufficient to think about the ailments that music can cure musicotherapy or create the so-called musical epilepsy. Moreover, music had an enormous impact on the intelligence concept, to the point of being unanimously classified as a general kind of intelligence, side by side with the emotional, social and traditional logical-deductive categories of intelligence.
Neurolaw It is work in progress. At the moment the available monographs are few and there are only some dozens of essays. In comparison with the progress made by other above mentioned social or spiritual sciences it is a discipline still at the outset. The authors are prudent and they prefer to deal with the development of the juridical problems in general and especially with penal responsibility, imputability and penal trial with a particular reference to the system of evidence and its gathering and to the reliability of the magistrate or the jury member , but the potential developments of the neuroscientific impact are enormous, as I will try to clarify in the following chapters.
First of all it is possible, , as it is for the neuroaethics, to indicate a doubleness or a plurality of meanings see the following paragraph. At first sight neurolaw is a sector of the neurosciences that essentially studies the way in which the brain shapes and makes use of the basic juridical concepts as right, duty, justice and responsibility.
This aspect seems a major one to me, for both its operating areas and the related underlying interests. Under this aspect neurolaw is not different from the ethic neurosciences which study the detection, the formation and the development of the moral sense and its related concepts. Even if the most direct impact is at the moment on the. Penal Public Law and on the Penal Trial Law, the full law system is challenged and it might be transformed in the future. One example is the recent and until now one and only case in which the Appeal Court of Assizes in Trieste decided to reduce the sentence to an accused person because of some cerebral lesions ascertained by means of a fMRI.
In anticipating only some of the issues that will be dealt with in the fourth chapter, we should think about the uncertainty of the 18 years limit fixed for the attainment of the legal age and of the so-called ability to act, when the neuroscientific results show that the full development of the brain takes place only between the ages of 25 and 30 years.
In addition there are the issues linked to ownership and copyright, the ones related to Public Law, Constitutional Law, Administrative Law and Ecclesiastical Law. An example in the field of constitutional law is the manipulation of the political message and the limits to the TV use, being it a service of economic general interest, but not so fully economic under certain aspects. Another example in the field of administrative law is school education and its task of forming individual freedom and not only to provide a lot of information to the students. The last example is in the field of ecclesiastical law: the issue of religious freedom and of the neural consequences of the indoctrination.
In my opinion it is possible to include also the causes of the growing success of the so-called ADR Alternative Dispute Resolution in the studies on neurolaw, considering it not only as a way to deflate the number of the cases. Maybe in Italy it is the other way around, taking into account the slowness and the inefficiency of the justice.
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Of course the emotional intelligence and the social ability of the intermediary in an ADR is decisive for a reasonable settlement of a dispute. Anticipating the contents of the following chapters, the approach of the present chapter is mainly philosophical and technical. The aim is to try to. At the moment a great caution is necessary because — apart from one and only application made on the evidence in the penal trial — it is a de jure condendo issue. This is why I feel I can conclude this short illustration saying that neurolaw might be a further branch of the postmodern philosophy; but maybe, in a not so far future, it might become a new general theory of law, in a different way from other previous attempts, as it would be formulated on scientific bases and not on theological or ethic foundations, or on other ones originating from mere rational speculations.
Neuroethics This word seems to have more than one meaning and indeed it can be used to indicate both the cognitive sciences that deal with ethics and the field of application of the neurosciences with its ethic boundaries e. Under the first profile, numerous handbooks expressing different views have already been published.
The ethic neurosciences deal with many problems as the formation of a moral sense in people, both children and adults, the issue of free will, that is the neurologic basis for the moral cognition. From this aspect neuroethics can be considered as a specific category of neurophilosophy. Nothing new under the sun, as a philosopher said, since moral philosophy has always been a branch of philosophy and history of philosophy.
It is the approach which is slightly different as one will see in the paragraph 1 of this chapter. The second meaning of the word is about more practical problems as: the limitation to the treatments with psychotropic drugs, taken on a voluntary or induced basis, the limits to the surgical operations and to implantations and transplants, the brainwashing techniques and the religious and political manipulation systems. Both the meanings of the word are contiguous to juridical themes, even to the most traditional ones: within the first meaning the development of the neuroethic discoveries has indeed repercussions on the juridical concepts of mental capacity and this influence will increase even more in the future,.
As far as the second meaning is concerned it is necessary to remember that the Constitution forbids to subject anybody to whatever kind of treatment which is not expressly authorized. But in the field of neuroethics the borders are widening because the ailments caused by the manipulation do not involve only the consumption of psychotrope substances, but also the simple exposure to TV, audio and internet messages. As a consequence the juridical interest is a wide-sprectrum one, because it ranges over the fields of the rethinking the role of both primary and secondary school considered as a general interest service, and not only as an economic service , of the web and TV control and, more in general, of the multimedia means of communication.
It is a too arduous subject to be just only lightly touched. It is not only about the summa division between evolutionists and creationists, or rather between chaos and an intelligent plan; it is an issue that deeply deals with the very same mystery of our existence on which everybody can say everything and its contrary. I shall confine myself to quote some essays dealing with some of these problems with a neuro scientific perspective too. It seems important for a jurist to follow the debate especially in relation to the everlasting law matter of choosing a theological theoretical and dogmatic approach or an experiential even pragmatic and resolute one.
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A short reference to the influence that the neurosciences had and are still having on the natural sciences cannot be neglected before arriving at the end of this introductory chapter. The neuropsychiatry was practically born after the discovery of the neuroleptic medicines that revolutionized the therapeutical treatment of almost all the psychiatric ailments and even challenged the previous definitions given to the above mentioned illnesses.
The neuroleptic medicines belonged to a first and to a second generation, while we have at the moment the third generation ones. It is perfectly clear that these discoveries and developments in the medical field have a great direct or indirect influence on the penal and civil trials and on the very same redefinition of the ability to act and of the mental capacity. The neuroscientific discoveries put the psychoanalysis in a very difficult position. The psychoanalysts have therefore tried to throw a bridge in order to cooperate not only with psychiatrists but also with the neurologists, and the truth is that, in the serious psychiatric disorders, the association of a standard pharmacological treatment and various forms of psychotherapy is a common practice and it seems to get very good results.
The importance of the neuroanalysis in reference to law is manifest, especially in order to treat the drug-addictions so often linked to the juvenile delinquency or to other forms of deviance, with the aim of rehabilitating as many drug addicts as possible. The neuropsychology studies the alterations of the cognitive functions caused in human beings by lesions or dysfunctions of the central nervous system that can be acquired, congenital or genetically produced.
The neuropsychology field of research includes the in-depth study of: the nervous central system anatomy and physiology, the cognitive models of information elaboration, the neuro- psychological deficiencies, the behavioral tools necessary to the evaluation clinic observation, psychometric tests and the rehabilitation methodologies for the neuropsychological deficiencies. The research methods in use are the clinical studies, including the correlation, on patients with cerebral damages caused by illnesses, accidents or surgical operations; for ethic reasons it is indeed impossible to apply the experimental methodology to the study of these mental perturbations.
Within the clinical medicine the neuropsychology allows to establish the presence and the seriousness of the cognitive deficiencies e. This complaint appears largely dismissible by accusing their category of corporatism, without considering that many psychological treatments work within a professedly dualistic range and under the protection of standards absolutely improbable in the present difficult situation of the western social- political systems. It is not something accidental if a great scientist, Eric Kandle, Nobel Prize for the neurosciences and coauthor of one of the most important treatise on them, has invited, with great calmness, the experts to refound psychology and the very same psychiatry and psychoanalysis on biological and neurological bases.
It is obvious that also the reference to the so-called biological and neurological bases has changed with the coming of the holistic approach. The dualistic approach typical of the old medicine made a distinction between the organic mental pathologies and the functional ones. This approach was replaced by the holistic one, in which the cerebral plasticity is in a certain way specular to the fixity of the genetic destiny.
The former has a continuous adaptative dynamism, while the latter always needs an external intervention to change with the related ethic problems. It is therefore not at all surprising that disciplines like psychotherapy, musicotherapy and other ones, apparently unrelated to the medical research field, can achieve surprising results, and even decisive ones, in the treatments of the mental perturbations or of the brain tout court. The real problem seems not to be anymore the respect of human identity, seeing that, from what has been discovered, it is not one and only, but it changes with both time and age.
The issue is instead about respecting a general limit, as we do for the animals: dignity, a value that can be wounded and violated by an authoritarian or unilateral behavior. From this point of view, however, also the neurosciences, as science in general, are neutral: everything depends on how they are used both at the individual power level and all the more so at the collective power level, a power exercised on the whole community. For example, if the scientific discoveries succeed in demonstrating that the need for religion corresponds to a well determined state of conscience and is located in a specific cerebral area, it would be possible to start a cosmic existential pessimism off.
Clicca qui per scaricare le norme redazionali. Potranno accedere alla borsa: studenti universitari, laureati, dottorandi e ricercatori delle discipline coinvolte nella Summer School filosofia, sociologia, antropologia, scienze giuridiche, scienze religiose, storia moderna e contemporanea, discipline scientifiche e tecnologiche. Nel dettaglio, i candidati selezionati potranno usufruire di un contributo, il cui importo massimo viene perentoriamente definito secondo il seguente schema:. Gli interessati devono inviare una richiesta di erogazione, comprendente i propri dati e contatti, esclusivamente via e-mail agli indirizzi sottoindicati allegando:.
Tali domande dovranno pervenire tassativamente entro e non oltre il 20 agosto I candidati sono pregati di indicare anche la sessione di riferimento per la loro comunicazione si veda il punto 5. Milad Doueihi. I candidati interessati a partecipare alla Summer School con una propria relazione sono pregati di rivolgersi alla sezione 5 per un elenco delle sessioni della scuola e dei temi di riferimento.
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Non verranno prese in considerazione domande inviate via telefax o per via postale. Qui di seguito le sessioni che comporranno la scuola, e che servono anche da orientamento per i candidati interessati a presentare una relazione:. Temi e problemi della dimensione digitale. Esperienze di robotica educativa. V sessione : Gioco e creazione nello spazio virtuale. Lezione dialogata in francese per studenti dei Licei Cuneesi del Progetto Esabac.
Suoni e visioni. Strumenti nuovi e temi ricorrenti. Incontro cinematografico e musicale a cura di Pier Mario Mignone e Dino Bosco, con la partecipazione di Elena Chiaramello alla fisarmonica. Clicca qui per scaricare la presentazione della Summer School e la call in versione pdf. Click here for the English Version. Le scienze umane nel mondo contemporaneo. Lezione dialogata in francese per studenti dei Licei cuneesi del progetto Esabac — Cuneo.
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Scarica il programma quasi definitivo in pdf. Borsa di studio. Tali domande dovranno pervenire tassativamente entro e non oltre il 31 luglio Call for Papers. Saranno accettati contributi, provenienti da ogni disciplina scientifica, che declinino il tema delle scienze umane secondo le articolazioni del programma e le problematiche affrontate nelle singole sessioni.