The Smithsonian Institution Libraries hold 2 million library volumes. Smithsonian Archives hold , cubic feet of archival material. The Smithsonian Institution has many categories of displays that can be visited at the museums. In , First Lady Helen Herron Taft donated her inauguration gown to the museum to begin the First Ladies' Gown display,  one of the Smithsonian's most popular exhibits. The following is a list of Smithsonian research centers, with their affiliated museum in parentheses:.
The MSC was dedicated in May The primary purpose of the center is to place Latino contributions to the arts, history, science, and national culture across the Smithsonian's museums and research centers. The center is a division of the Smithsonian Institution. The opening of the center was prompted, in part, by the publishing of a report called "Willful Neglect: The Smithsonian and U. According to documents obtained by The Washington Post , when former Latino Center executive director Pilar O'Leary first took the job, the center faced employees who had "serious performance issues".
No performance plans existed for the staff and unfulfilled financial obligations to sponsors existed. The website's quality was poor, and the center did not have a public affairs manager, a programs director, adequate human resources support, or cohesive mission statement. After difficult times in the first few years, the center improved. According to the Smithsonian, the center "support[s] scholarly research, exhibitions, public and educational programs, web-based content and virtual platforms, and collections and archives. The Smithsonian Latino Center's Young Ambassadors Program YAP is a program within the Latino Center that reaches out to Latino high school students with the goal of encouraging them to become leaders in arts, sciences, and the humanities.
Students selected for the program travel to Washington, D. Afterwards, students return to their communities to serve in a paid, one-month internship. Pilar O'Leary launched the program when she served as executive director of the Smithsonian Latino Center. This program encourages students to be proud of their roots and learn more about their cultural heritage to inspire them to educate the public in their own communities about how Latinos are enriching America's cultural fabric.
Smithsonian was the result of Secretary of the Smithsonian S. Dillon Ripley asking the retired editor of Life magazine Edward K. Thompson to produce a magazine "about things in which the Smithsonian Institution is interested, might be interested or ought to be interested. The Smithsonian Institution was established as a trust instrumentality by act of Congress. Institution exhibits are free of charge, though in the Deficit Commission recommended admission fees.
As approved by Congress on August 10, , the legislation that created the Smithsonian Institution called for the creation of a Board of Regents to govern and administer the organization. The nominal head of the Institution is the Chancellor , an office which has traditionally been held by the Chief Justice. In September , the board created the position of Chair of the Board of Regents, a position currently held by David Rubenstein. Other members of the Board of Regents are three members of the U.
House of Representatives appointed by the Speaker of the House ; three members of the Senate, appointed by the President pro tempore of the Senate ; and nine citizen members, nominated by the board and approved by the Congress in a joint resolution signed by the President of the United States.
Regents are compensated on a part-time basis. The Secretary also serves as secretary to the Board of Regents, but is not a voting member of that body. On September 18, , Secretary G.
Wayne Clough announced he would retire in October David Skorton , a physician and president of Cornell University , as the 13th Secretary of the Smithsonian. Skorton took the reins of the institution on July 1, The American Legion and Air Force Association believed the exhibit put forward only one side of the debate over the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki , and that it emphasized the effect on victims without discussing its use within the overall context of the war.
The Smithsonian changed the exhibit, displaying the aircraft only with associated technical data and without discussion of its historic role in the war. In , a National Museum of Natural History exhibit, Subhankar Banerjee 's Seasons of Life and Land , featuring photographs of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge , was censored and moved to the basement by Smithsonian officials because they feared that its subject matter was too politically controversial.
In November , The Washington Post reported internal criticism has been raised regarding the institution's handling of the exhibit on the Arctic. According to documents and e-mails, the exhibit and its associated presentation were edited at high levels to add "scientific uncertainty" regarding the nature and impact of global warming on the Arctic.
Global Change Research Program. The Smithsonian Institution provides access to its image collections for educational, scholarly, and nonprofit uses. Commercial uses are generally restricted unless permission is obtained. Smithsonian images fall into different copyright categories; some are protected by copyright, many are subject to license agreements or other contractual conditions, and some fall into the public domain, such as those prepared by Smithsonian employees as part of their official duties.
Group of museums and research centers administered by the United States government.
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For other uses, see Smithsonian disambiguation. Main article: List of Smithsonian museums. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. September Small , — G. Wayne Clough , —  David J. Skorton , — Lonnie Bunch , —present. See also: Enola Gay exhibition controversy. District of Columbia portal. Smithsonian Institution. Archived from the original on March 7, Retrieved March 8, Archived from the original on June 23, Retrieved June 21, Everything Books. Smithsonian Affiliations.
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Archived from the original on March 16, Newsdesk: Newsroom of the Smithsonian. May 31, Archived from the original on February 8, Retrieved July 26, Smithsonian Dashboard. Archived from the original on February 17, Washington, D. Archived from the original on December 12, Archived from the original on August 24, Retrieved October 4, Fact Sheets, Smithsonian Newsdesk. Archived from the original on September 1, It was close to the total of Harvard University 's endowment at that point, which had accumulated for nearly years by the s and was not the result of a single gift, as Smithson's was.
A Guide to Smithsonian Gardens. Smithsonian Books. Harvard University Press.
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June 28, University of Alabama Press. Oceanographic History: The Pacific and Beyond. University of Washington Press. Journal of the History of Collections. Report on the United States and Mexican boundary survey. The result is fascinating! On the run away from Styx soldiers, siblings Sofia and Leo seek shelter in a hollow oak tree. The tree closes around them and when it opens again, they find themselves in another world. There are no dark streets, just sunlight and green grass. They have come to Saga Falls. Led by the unicorn Moonlight, the children embark on a breathtaking adventure, while a gruesome struggle begins between the black and white pieces on the chessboard.
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Good, understandable and worthwhile fantasy for any young book worm. Sofia and Leo must destroy the book to save Saga Falls. But who can they trust and will they succeed with their mission? Will they find the Princess and stop the Black Runner in time? The Black Horse causes floods, followed by storms and volcanic eruptions. To stop the darkness spreading, Sofia and Leo are tasked with finding a magic armor of light.
Will Sofia and Leo be able to stop the evil or will the worlds go under? The Saga Falls series has taken the Swedish readers by storm with its high paced stories, beautiful settings and accessible language. Sofia and Leo are yet again thrown into a dangerous adventure. The Escape from the Black Castle is a fastpaced adventure among dragons, bats and hunting soldiers in a struggle against the clock, where the battle stands between the black and white towers.
Millan is a lively six-year old, full of fun and strong will. Millan speaks her mind, follows her instincts and get into all sorts of trouble — biting the princess in the ballet class, cutting off one of her braids. She would settle down a lot if only she got a cat, but no one seems to take this seriously! The books about Millan are full of humour, harsh reality and the appealing naivety of a child.
Told at a fast pace with accessible language, the series is perfect for reading aloud or as a first read. She lives in Stockholm and writes books for both adults and children. The series about the wayward Millan are lovely everyday stories filled with adventures and humour. Millan is brave, imaginative and follows her beliefs, often against all norms. She is also thinking about her annoying freckles and whether a redhead can become the popular girl. Maybe she can dye her red hair a more suitable colour? She has four pets and spends almost all her spare time in the stables with her favorite horse.
But she has also started thinking about that thing called love… And how about kissing — how does it work and when will it happen? Teenage angst and joy, all in one perfectly humorous book. In she was nominated for the Nordic Council Prize. And of course there is cute Daniel whom she would love to kiss.
The Night Book is the first book of a series of stand alone middle-grade novels, illustrated in black and white. The other girls in the class start using make-up which makes them look much older and of course besides the embarrassment of her father who cannot even manage to boil sausages without exploding them, there is still Daniel She also questions her feelings for Daniel. The family has got a new member, a sausage dog, and Grandpa loses his memory - will he even remember who Yoko is? And now Yoko's embarrassing mother really goes too far - how do you survive that your mother teaches sexual education to your classmates?
He is also a comedian and regularly performs on radio, TV and stage, as well as a popular columnist and playwright. His adult novel Onda boken has been translated into six languages. He writes for radio, TV and theatre.
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Together the authors have envisioned the hilarious high school comedy inspired by their own school boy days. Zoo 1, illustrated by Pentti Otsamo, was nominated for Finlandia Junior Prize in and won the Torchbearer award for best foreign potential. Author Kaj Korkea-aho also received Finlandspris in Guaranteed to make readers of all ages laugh. The Zoo 1: Viral Geniouses Zoo! Justin becomes a controversial celebrity — until Atlas decides to challenge him.
The Zoo 2: Heart-attack Zoo! There is shy Felicia from Year 9, voluptuous Tessie and cool and smart Sarah-Li, who all seem to want to hang out with Atlas. How is he to know which girl to choose? In his e-mails, Atlas tells his best-friend Elliot what it feels like to be showered with expectations — and sometimes to be so happy no emoji can describe. She has also published adult fiction. Her books have been adapted for TV and the stage. A film based on her successful Puluboi and Pony series is released in This is her first standalone novel for older children.
That is why I tell you first about The Island. The Island is a place to recover. Without the Island I might not exist, and The Island might well rescue you, too — one never knows. The power of stories rebuilds their faith in people. Reassuring but not shying away from difficult topics, The Island tells the story of five preteens building their own utopia to fix each other after disappointments and mistreatment, taking the side of the children and believing in them.
A debut novelist's creative mix of timely totalitarian world of horror, classic fantasy adventure and gripping suspense with elements of cautionary tales and coming of age story. It is dominated by the ruthless, mysterious Dusts. To survive, the best strategy is to keep your head down and obey the rules. Otherwise, the Dusts will drag you to the Second Level — where unimaginable horrors take place and from where a few return.
But the Second Level is also the only way out. With the help of a message hidden in a fairy tale book left to him by his mother, Aaron and his friends manage to escape, but the outside world offers traps and horrors of its own. In the second book, the imprisonment camp Grim does not let Aaron out of its grip. Aaron has fled from the Grim, only to end up living among the fearsome Dusts, as one of them.
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His newly discovered powers rave fear and attract strange characters to him. Aaron struggles to get through the novice Dust training but when a new friend of his is captured by the Dusts, he forced to face once again the terrors of Grim. Her writing is inspired by computer games and classic adventure stories with a hint of fantasy and horror. Russian rights have been sold. Our background is in literature, art and design; and we use all aspects of character representation and branding, from publishing and PR to licensing, merchandising and digital presence.
Delightful picture books with a subtle ecological message for the very young. Vroom Vroom! Zoom Zoom! Mutta Pikku Sisu ei tullut. Se tunsi kamalasti vaivaa ja sitten ei suvaita saapua! I asked a classroom of children about their relationship with nature. Many of them offered the now-typical response: they preferred playing video games; they favored indoor activities—and when they were outside, they played soccer or some other adult-organized sport. I just felt free; it was like my place, and I could do what I wanted, with nobody to stop me. I used to go down there almost every day.
Her voice thickened. It was like they cut down part of me. Recently I began asking friends this question: Does a child have a right to a walk in the woods? Does an adult? To my surprise, several people responded with puzzled ambivalence. I certainly understand that point of view.
In practice, these two views of nature are radically different. T he basic concept of rights made some people uncomfortable. Good question. Another good question. The answer to both questions is yes, if we can agree that the right at issue is fundamental to our humanity, to our being. Stress levels, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, cognitive functioning—and more—are positively affected by time spent in nature. Such research will be immensely helpful as we rethink our approaches to urban design, education, and health care, in particular our societal response to childhood obesity.
In , the National Forum on Children and Nature, an impressive collection of mayors, professors, conservationists, and business leaders, met in Washington DC to explore the disconnection between children and nature. The conversation was enlightening, at times passionate, but as the hours passed several of the attendees began to ask about quantification. Some were looking for a business model to apply to the challenge of introducing children to the natural world. Most saw the obvious need for more research. It has life. Like every successful movement, the civil rights struggle was fueled by a strongly articulated moral principle, one that did not need to be proved again and again.
The outcome of the civil rights movement might have been quite different, or at least delayed, had its leaders waited for more statistical proof to justify their cause, or focused on the metrics of lunch-counter sit-ins, Durley added. Some efforts proved successful, some were counterproductive. But the movement moved.