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Lured by Austria-Hungary's promises of territorial gains from Bulgaria in return for concessions in the western Balkans , Milan IV declared war on Bulgaria on 14 November Military strategy relied largely on surprise, as Bulgaria had moved most of its troops near the border with the Ottoman Empire, in the southeast. As it happened, the Ottomans did not intervene and the Serbian army's advance was stopped after the Battle of Slivnitsa. The main body of the Bulgarian army traveled from the Ottoman border in the southeast to the Serbian border in the northwest to defend the capital, Sofia.

After the defensive battles at Slivnitsa and Vidin , Bulgaria began an offensive that took the city of Pirot. At this point the Austro-Hungarian Empire stepped in, threatening to join the war on Serbia's side if Bulgarian troops did not retreat. Fighting lasted for only 14 days, from 14—28 November. A peace treaty was signed in Bucharest on 19 February No territorial changes were made to either country, but Bulgarian unification was recognized by the Great Powers. Instability in the Balkan region in the early s quickly became a precondition for a new war.

Serbia's aspirations towards Bosnia and Herzegovina were thwarted by the Austrian annexation of the province in October , so the Serbs focused their attention onto their historic cradle, Kosovo, and to the south for expansion. Greek officers, revolting in August , had secured the appointment of a progressive government under Eleftherios Venizelos , which they hoped would resolve the Cretan issue in Greece's favor and reverse their defeat of by the Ottomans.

Bulgaria, which had secured Ottoman recognition of its independence in April and enjoyed the friendship of Russia, also looked to districts of Ottoman Thrace and Macedonia for expansion. In March an Albanian insurrection broke out in Kosovo. In August Montenegro followed Bulgaria's precedent by becoming a kingdom. In Italy launched an invasion of Tripolitania , which was quickly followed by the occupation of the Dodecanese Islands. The Italians' decisive military victories over the Ottoman Empire greatly influenced the Balkan states to prepare for war against Turkey.

Thus, in the spring of consultations among the various Christian Balkan nations resulted in a network of military alliances that became known as the Balkan League. The Great Powers, most notably France and Austria-Hungary, reacted to this diplomatic sensation by trying to dissuade the League from going to war, but failed. In late September both the League and the Ottoman Empire mobilized their armies.

Montenegro was the first to declare war, on 25 September O. The other three states, after issuing an impossible ultimatum to the Porte on 13 October, declared war on Turkey on 17 October. The Balkan League relied on , troops, , of whom were Bulgarians. Bulgaria, often dubbed "the Prussia of the Balkans", [8] was militarily the most powerful of the four states, with a large, well-trained and well-equipped army. Mikhail Savov. The Bulgarians also possessed a small navy of six torpedo boats, which were restricted to operations along the country's Black Sea coast.

Bulgaria's war aims were focused on Thrace and Macedonia. For the latter, Bulgaria had a secret agreement with Serbia to divide it between them, signed on 13 March during the negotiations that led to the establishment of the Balkan League. However, it was not a secret that Bulgaria's target was the fulfillment of the never-materialized Treaty of San Stefano , signed after the Russo-Turkish War, — They deployed their main force in Thrace, forming three armies.

The First Army , under Gen. Vasil Kutinchev with three infantry divisions, was deployed to the south of Yambol , with direction of operations along the Tundzha River. The Second Army , under Gen. Nikola Ivanov with two infantry divisions and one infantry brigade, was deployed west of the First and was assigned to capture the strong fortress of Adrianople now Edirne.

According to the plans, the Third Army , under Gen. Radko Dimitriev , was deployed east of and behind the First and was covered by the cavalry division hiding it from the Turkish view. The Third Army had three infantry divisions and was assigned to cross the Stranja mountain and to take the fortress of Lozengrad Kirk Kilisse. The 2nd and 7th divisions were assigned independent roles, operating in western Thrace and eastern Macedonia, respectively. The first great battles were at the Adrianople — Kirk Kilisse defensive line, where the Bulgarian 1st and 3rd Armies together , men defeated the Ottoman East Army , men near Gechkenli, Seliolu and Petra.

The fortress of Adrianople was besieged and Kirk Kilisse was taken without resistance under the pressure of the Bulgarian Third Army. The initial Bulgarian attack by First and Third Army defeated the Turkish forces, numbering some ,, and reached the Sea of Marmara. However, the Turks, with the aid of fresh reinforcements from the Asian provinces, established their third and strongest defensive position at the Chataldja Line, across the peninsula where Constantinople is located.

The offensive at Chataldja failed, too. On 11 March the final Bulgarian assault on Adrianople began. Under the command of Gen. Georgi Vazov the Bulgarians, reinforced with two Serb divisions, conquered the "untakeable" city. The First Balkan War, which lasted from October May , strengthened Bulgaria's position as a regional military power, significantly reduced Ottoman influence over the Balkans and resulted in the formation of an independent Albanian state.

Serbia refused to cede a part of the territories in Macedonia, which it occupied and promised to give to Bulgaria according to a secret agreement. Serbia, on its side, was not satisfied with the independence of Albania and sought a secret alliance with Greece.

Armed skirmishes between Serbian and Bulgarian troops occurred. On 16 June , just a few months after the end of the first war, the Bulgarian government ordered an attack on Serbian and Greek positions in Macedonia, without declaring war. Almost all of Bulgaria's ,man standing army was positioned against these two countries, on two fronts—western and southern—while the borders with Romania and the Ottoman Empire were left almost unguarded.

Montenegro sent a 12,strong force to assist the Serbs. Exhausted from the previous war, which took the highest toll on Bulgaria, the Bulgarian army soon turned to the defensive. Romania attacked from the north and northeast and the Ottoman Empire also intervened in Thrace. Allied numerical superiority was almost After a month and two days of fighting, the war ended as a moral disaster for Bulgaria, and at the same time its economy was ruined and its military demoralized.

The Kingdom of Bulgaria participated in World War I on the side of the Central Powers between 15 October , when the country declared war on Serbia , and 29 September , when the Armistice of Thessalonica was signed. In the aftermath of the Balkan Wars , Bulgarian opinion turned against Russia and the western powers, whom the Bulgarians felt had done nothing to help them. The government of Vasil Radoslavov aligned the country with Germany and Austria-Hungary , even though this meant also becoming an ally of the Ottomans, Bulgaria's traditional enemy.

However, Bulgaria now had no claims against the Ottomans, whereas Serbia, Greece and Romania allies of Britain and France were all in possession of lands perceived in Bulgaria as its own. In Germany promised to restore the boundaries according to the Treaty of San Stefano and Bulgaria, which had the largest army in the Balkans, declared war on Serbia in October of that year. In the First World War Bulgaria decisively asserted its military capabilities.

The second Battle of Doiran , with Gen. Vladimir Vazov as commander, inflicted a heavy blow on the numerically superior British army , which suffered 12, casualties against 2, from the opposite side. One year later, during the third battle of Doiran , the United Kingdom, supported by Greece, once again suffered a humiliating defeat, losing 3, men against just about on the Bulgarian side.

The reputation of the French army also suffered badly. The Battle of the Red Wall was marked by the total defeat of the French forces, with 5, out of 6, men killed. The Frenchmen who survived were captured by Bulgarian soldiers. Despite the outstanding victories, Germany was near defeat, which meant that Bulgaria would be left without its most powerful ally. The Russian Revolution of February had a great effect in Bulgaria, spreading antiwar and anti-monarchist sentiment among the troops and in the cities.

In June Radoslavov's government resigned. In Bulgaria officially left the war with the Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine. The Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine proved to be a severe blow to Bulgaria's military. According to the treaty, the country had no right to organize a conscription -based military. The professional army was to be no more than 20, men, including internal forces and border guards.

Equipping the army with tanks, submarines, bombers and heavy artillery was strictly prohibited, although Bulgaria managed to get around some of these prohibitions. Nevertheless, on the eve of World War II the Bulgarian army was still well-trained and well-equipped. Bulgaria was determined to observe it until the end of the war but it hoped for bloodless territorial gains, especially in the lands with a significant Bulgarian population occupied by neighboring countries after the Second Balkan War and World War I.

However, it was clear that the central geopolitical position of Bulgaria in the Balkans would inevitably lead to strong external pressure by both World War II factions. Turkey had a non-aggression pact with Bulgaria. Southern Dobruja had been part of Romania since This recovery of territory reinforced hopes for resolving other territorial problems without direct involvement in the war.

The country joined the Axis Powers in , when German troops preparing to invade Yugoslavia and Greece reached the Bulgarian borders and demanded permission to pass through its territory. After a short period of inaction, the army launched an operation against Yugoslavia and Greece. The goal of reaching the shores of the Aegean sea and completely occupying the region of Macedonia was successful.

Even though Bulgaria did not send any troops to support the German invasion of the Soviet Union , its navy was involved in a number of skirmishes with the Soviet Black Sea Fleet , which attacked Bulgarian shipping. Besides this, Bulgarian armed forces garrisoned in the Balkans battled various resistance groups.

The Bulgarian government declared a token war on the United Kingdom and the United States near the end of , an act that resulted in the bombing of Sofia and other Bulgarian cities by Allied aircraft. Some communist activists managed to begin a guerrilla movement, headed by the underground Bulgarian Communist Party. On 23 August Romania quit the Axis Powers, declared war on Germany and allowed Soviet forces to cross its territory to reach Bulgaria. On 26 August the Fatherland Front made the decision to incite an armed rebellion against the government, which led to the appointment of a new government on 2 September.

Support for the government was withheld by the Fatherland Front, since it was composed of pro-Nazi elements, in a desperate attempt to hold on to power. On 5 September the Soviet Union declared war and invaded Bulgaria. As the Red Army invaded Bulgaria in [13] and installed a communist government, the armed forces were rapidly forced to reorganise following the Soviet model, and were renamed the Bulgarian People's Army Bulgarska Narodna Armiya, BNA. Moscow quickly supplied Bulgaria with T tanks, SU guns, Il-2 attack planes and other new combat machinery.

As the country was a Soviet satellite, it was a part of the Eastern Bloc and entered the Warsaw Pact as one of its founders.

Bulgarian Armed Forces

By this time the army had expanded to over , men with hundreds of thousands of more reserve troops. Military service was obligatory. A special defensive line , known as the Krali Marko defensive line , was constructed along the entire border with Turkey. The army was involved in a number of border skirmishes from to , repulsing several Greek attacks, and took part in the suppression of the Prague Spring events.

In the meantime, during the rule of Todor Zhivkov , a significant military-industrial complex was established, capable of producing armored vehicles, self-propelled artillery, small arms and ammunition, as well as aircraft engines and spare parts. Some military and medical aid was also supplied to North Korea and North Vietnam in the s and s.

During the s the Air Force was at the apogee of its power, possessing at least modern combat aircraft in its inventory. Training in the Bulgarian People's Army was exhaustive even by Soviet standards; however, it was never seen as a major force within the Warsaw Pact.

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There were, however, a number of services which, while falling outside of Ministry of Defense jurisdiction in peacetime, were considered part of the armed forces. These were foremost the Labor Troops construction forces , the People's Militia the police forces of the country, which fell under Ministry of the Interior jurisdiction, but the ministry was itself a militarized structure and, more importantly, its Interior Troops, the Border Troops—which in different periods fell under either Ministry of Defense or Ministry of the Interior control—Civil Defense Service, the Signals Troops government communications and the Transport Troops mostly railway infrastructure maintenance , which were two separate services under the Postal and Communications Committee a ministry , etc.

‘A good deal for both sides’

The combined strength of the Bulgarian People's Army and all those services reached well over , troops. With the collapse of the Warsaw Pact and the end of the Cold War , Bulgaria could no longer support a vast military. A rapid reduction in personnel and active equipment was to be carried out in parallel with a general re-alignment of strategic interests.

In , Bulgaria had a total of more than 2, tanks, 2, armored vehicles, 2, large caliber artillery systems, [15] fighter and bomber aircraft, trainer aircraft, more than 40 combat and 40 transport helicopters, [16] 4 submarines, 6 fast missile craft, 2 frigates, 5 corvettes, 6 torpedo boats, 9 patrol craft, 30 minesweepers and 21 transport vessels. Inadequate payments, fuel and spare part shortages and the disbandment of many capable units led to an overall drop in combat readiness, morale and discipline.

After partially recovering from the s crisis, the Bulgarian military became a part of the collective defensive system of NATO. As a member, Bulgaria sent a total of soldiers to Iraq — as a participant in the Iraq War , and currently maintains a strong force in Afghanistan as part of ISAF. Bulgaria is to have 27, standing troops by , consisting of 14, troops in the land forces, 6, in the air force, 3, in the navy and 2, in the joint command.

Until recently the supreme military institution was the General Staff and the most senior military officer was known as the Chief of the General Staff. After the latest military reform has been implemented the General Staff became a department within the Ministry of Defence and for that matter its name had to be changed to match the new situation. For that reason the former GS became the Defence Staff and the supreme military commander became the Chief of Defence. In addition to the aforementioned positions, there are general rank positions in the National Intelligence Service and the National Close Protection Service the bodyguard service to high-ranking officials and visiting dignitaries.

These two services are considered part of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Bulgaria, but are directly subordinated to the President of Bulgaria and fall out of the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Defense. Before that the security aspects of the armed forces were handled by a unified organisation under the General Staff - the "Military Service of Security and Military Police". After the formation of SANS the service was split, with the military counter-intelligence personnel entering the newly formed structure and the military police personnel staying under Ministry of Defense subordination.

While technically civilian servants not part of the armed forces, the military counter-intelligence personnel of the State Agency of National Security retain their military ranks. The Defence Staff, formerly called the General Staff of the Bulgarian Army, is the supreme professional institution for military expertise and command and supervision of the armed forces under the Ministry of Defence umbrella. It includes:. In the Ministry of Defence completed a thorough study of the defence policy and issued a White Book , or a White Paper on Defence , calling for a major overhaul of the structure of Defence Forces.

The brigade formations are 7, including the two mechanised brigades and the special forces brigade of the army, the two air bases of the air force, the naval base and the logistical brigade of the JOC. Currently deployed units are as follows:. The 68th Special Forces Brigade left the Land Forces on February 1, , [23] de facto becoming the country's fourth combat service.

Bulgaria's total military personnel as of is 37,, of which 30, The Land Forces are the largest branch, with at least 18, men serving there. Unlike many former Soviet bloc militaries, discipline and morale problems are not common. After the fall of Communism and Bulgaria's transition to a market economy , wages fell severely. For almost a decade social benefits were virtually non-existent, and some of them have been restored but recently.

Nikolai Tsonev , defence minister under the — cabinet, undertook steps to provide the members of the military and their families with certain privileges in terms of healthcare and education, and to improve living conditions. Military education in Bulgaria is provided in military universities and academies. Due to cuts in spending and manpower some universities have been disbanded and their campuses were included as faculties of other, larger educational entities. The largest institutions of military education in Bulgaria are:. Asia Times , 10 November How Dangerous is the Iraq War?

Frank Greve. McClatchy Newspapers , 09 November Will 'Armloads' of U. Cash Buy Tribal Loyalty? Sam Dagher. The Christian Science Monitor , 08 November In Iraq Amit R. Washington Post , 07 November Blake Morrison and Peter Eisler. Army Times , 07 November Britain's Failure in Iraq David Wearing. Le Monde Diplomatique , November Greg Mitchell. Common Dreams, 05 November The Telegraph , UK, 05 November The Times , UK, 05 November Demos, 05 November Agence France Presse, 04 November The Associated Press , 04 November The New York Times , 03 November In Iraq, a Lull or Hopeful Trend?

Joshua Partlow and Naseer Nouri. Washington Post , 02 November Broder and David Johnston. The New York Times , 31 October The Christian Science Monitor , 31 October GAO: U. McClatchy Newspapers , 30 October The Guardian , 29 October The Associated Press , 26 October Inter Press Service , 26 October Iraq: a Far Horizon Paul Rogers. Open Democracy, 25 October Washington Post , 25 October Inter Press Service , 24 October The New York Times , 23 October Sharp Drop Seen in U.

Deaths in Iraq Steven R. The Associated Press , 23 October The American Prospect , 22 October Washington Post , 22 October The Times , UK, 21 October USA Today , 18 October Criminal Probe into U. Embassy in Iraq Construction Warren P. Strobel and Jonathan S. McClatchy Newspapers , 18 October Krepinevich and Dakota L. Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments, 17 October The New York Times , 17 October Washington Post , 16 October The New York Times , 14 October The New York Times , 13 October The New York Times , 11 October Who Will be Punished for Haditha?

Robert B. Posted on 10 October Center for Strategic and International Studies, 09 October Council on Foreign Relations, 09 October Washington Post , 09 October Has the U. Ceded Southern Iraq? Los Angeles Times , 06 October The Guardian , 05 October Los Angeles Times , 05 October Youssef and Renee Schoof. McClatchy Newspapers , 04 October Washington Post , 03 October Los Angeles Times , 03 October Washington Post , 02 October Global Guerrillas, 02 October Trends in Iraq Michael O'Hanlon. Washington Times , 01 October Washington Post , 01 October The Boston Globe , 28 September Sectarian Numbers in Iraq Joshua Birk.

Informed Comment, 28 September Washington Post , 26 September Washington Post , 24 September San Diego Union-Tribune , 23 September Washington Post , 19 September Review of Anticorruption Efforts in Iraq U. Embassy Working Draft Report, Baghdad, Posted on the Federation of American Scientists website on 19 September Washington Post , 18 September Measuring Stability and Security in Iraq U.

Department of Defense, 18 September Congressional Research Service, 17 September Washington Post , 17 September Hearing on Iraq Amb. Posted on the Commonwealth Institute website. Report to Congress on the Situation in Iraq Gen. Report to Congress, September James L. Center for Strategic and International Studies, 06 September Washington Post , 06 September Los Angeles Times , 01 September McClatchy Newspapers , 07 September The New York Times , 02 September Behind the Anbar Myth Pepe Escobar.

Asia Times , 14 September Washington Post , 13 September Mission Shift In Iraq? Elaine M. National Journal Group , 12 September Posted on the Defense and the National Interest website. Inter Press Service , 12 September Iraq Security Statistics Greg Bruno. Council on Foreign Relations, 12 September Douglas Macgregor. United Press International , 12 September Posted on the Center for Defense Information website. Los Angeles Times , 11 September Washington Post , 11 September Youssef and Leila Fadel.

McClatchy Newspapers , 10 September Center for Strategic and International Studies, 10 September The New York Times , 10 September The Independent , 10 September McClatchy Newspapers , 09 September What Does America Owe Iraq? Korb and Brian Katulis. Center for American Progress, 07 September Who Disbanded the Iraqi Army? Fred Kaplan. Paul Bremer III. The New York Times , 06 September Bowen, Jr. National Security Network. The Associated Press , 04 September See link below.

Cloud and Steven Lee Myers. The New York Times , 04 September Washington Post, 04 September The Los Angeles Times , 04 September The New York Times , 03 September The Independent , 03 September Christian Miller. Los Angeles Times , 03 September Washington Post , 03 September McClatchy Newspapers , 02 September Washington Post , 31 August McClatchy Newspapers , 29 August Washington Post , 27 August See report below.

Study conducted under contract with the Department of Defense, 18 June Challenging the Generals Fred Kaplan. The New York Times , 24 August Los Angeles Times , 24 August Raw Story, 23 August Air Force, 01 August Posted on 23 August The American Prospect , 22 August Slate , 22 August Iraq's 'Alamo' Simmers Alexandra Zavis. Los Angeles Times , 22 August At Iraq's Front Line, U. Reuters , 22 August Posted on the Information Clearing House website.

The Associated Press , 20 August The Scotsman , 20 August The New York Times , 19 August The Associated Press , 16 August The Associated Press , 15 August Washington Post , 15 August Inter Press Service , 14 August Center for Strategic and International Studies, 14 August Evan Thomas and John Barry. Newsweek , August issue. Posted on 14 August The New York Times , 14 August Escalation in Iraq by the Numbers Tom Engelhardt.

TomDispatch, 13 August Christina Davidson. Washington Post , 12 August The Associated Press , 11 August Washington Post , 10 August The Baghdad Fabulist Charles Krauthammer. The Guardian , 10 August The Guardian , 09 August Posted on 08 August News and World Report , 08 August Agence France Presse , 08 August See RAND report below.

RAND, 08 August Washington Post , 08 August Washington Post , 07 August Brad Knickerbocker. The Christian Science Monitor , 07 August Center for Strategic and International Studies, 06 August The Guardian , 06 August Walter Pincus. Washington Post , 06 August Washington Post , 04 August The Guardian , 03 August Defense Chief: U.

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McClatchy Newspapers , 02 August The New York Times , 02 August McClatchy Newspapers , 01 August TomDispatch, 01 August The Christian Science Monitor , 01 August Foreign Policy Forum, 01 August RAND, August Los Angeles Times , 31 July The U. Global Policy Forum, 27 July Slate , 25 July The New York Times , 24 July The Third Gulf War ?? Kenneth W. International Relations and Security Network, 23 July PR Week, 23 July How To Beat Iraq's Insurgents?

Ask the British Stephen Webbe. The Christian Science Monitor , 23 July Washington Post , 20 July Inside the Pentagon , 19 July Counting Troops in Iraq Col. Daniel Smith, U. Army Ret. Foreign Policy in Focus, 17 July Policy Options in Iraq Michael Rubin. Posted on the American Enterprise Institute website. Testimony on the Interim Report Steven Simon. Risky U.

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Alliances in Iraq Sam Dagher. The Christian Science Monitor , 17 July Ready for Surge II? William M. Washington Post , 16 July Sean Rayment. The Telegraph , UK, 16 July McClatchy Newspapers , 15 July Harvard's Humanitarian Hawks Tom Hayden. The Nation , 14 July The Associated Press , 14 July Cloud and John F. The New York Times , 12 July Washington Post , 12 July The Associated Press , 11 July Washington Post , 11 July Quietly, U. The Christian Science Monitor , 09 July Showcase and Chimera in the Desert John F.

The New York Times , 08 July The New York Times , 06 July The Associated Press , 05 July Washington Post , 05 July Middle East Online , Summer Posted on the Global Policy Forum website. Kagan and Kimberly Kagan. The Weekly Standard , 09 July Posted on the American Enterprise Institute website on 02 July The Independent , 01 July Evidence from al Anbar Carter Malkasian.

Joint Force Quarterly , July What Tenet Knew Thomas Powers. Washington Post , 27 June New York Times, 26 June Christian Science Monitor , 26 June Anthony H. Center for Strategic and International Studies, 25 June Strategic Reset: Reclaiming Control of U. Korb, Peter Juul. Center for American Progress, 25 June Reuters , 24 June Los Angeles Times , 21 June Still Losing? Center for Strategic and International Studies, 20 June ABC News , 20 June A Culture of Atrocity: U.

Strategy on Sunnis Questioned Joshua Partlow. Washington Post , 18 June New York Times , 17 June McClatchy Newspapers , 17 June Inside The Pentagon , 14 June Attack on Shrine Threatens U. The Associated Press , 12 June Close and Deadly Contact Tina Susman. Los Angeles Times , 12 June Asia Times , 12 June Washington Post , 11 June Truthout, 11 June Burns and Alissa J. The New York Times , 11 June The Christian Science Monitor , 11 June Washington Post , 10 June McClatchy Newspapers , 08 June Eyeing Bigger U.

Role in Iraq Thalif Deen. Asia Times , 09 June Washington Post , 08 June Opening Statement for Confirmation Hearing Ltg.

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Douglas Lute. Toll Tops 3, in Iraq Hamid Ahmed. The Associated Press , 07 June TruthDig, 06 June The Associated Press , 06 June Informed Comment , 05 June Cloud and Damien Cave. The New York Times , 04 June The Weekly Standard , 11 June issue. Posted on 04 June The New York Times , 03 June Hard Bargaining Stephen Biddle.

The Boston Globe , 03 June Washington Post , 03 June America's Iraq Strategy Boosts U. Combat Losses Gordon Lubold. The Christian Science Monitor , 01 June Opportunity Missed Richard May. Armed Forces Journal , June Z Magazine , June Slate , 31 May Time for 'Plan B-H' in Iraq? David Ignatius. Washington Post , 31 May Agence France-Presse , 31 May Dan Froomkin. The Associated Press , 30 May TomDispatch, 29 May Los Angeles Times , 29 May Larry C. Atlantic Free Press , 24 May TomDispatch, 24 May Washington Post , 24 May Slate , 23 May The Associated Press , 23 May Washington Post , 23 May Hearst Newspapers , 22 May Posted on the San Francisco Chronicle website.

Asia Times , 23 May Secret U. The Independent , 21 May Washington Post , 21 May Washington Post , 20 May Salon , 18 May Washington Post , 18 May Burning Bridges Nermeen Al-Mufti. Al-Ahram Weekly Online , May Accepting Realities in Iraq Gareth Stansfield. Chatham House and University of Exeter, 17 May Washington Post , 17 May The New York Times , 17 May Hoehn et al.

RAND, 17 May The New York Times , 16 May Slate , 16 May Brookings Institution, 15 May Washington Post , 15 May The New York Times , 13 May McClatchy Newspapers , 13 May Iraq's Cloudy Horizon Paul Rogers.

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Open Democracy, 10 May Inter Press Service , 09 May Tom Dispatch, 09 May The Associated Press , 08 May Washington Post , 08 May Kevin Drum. Washington Monthly , 08 May The New York Times , 07 May The Christian Science Monitor , 07 May The New York Times , 06 May Brigade Heading to Baghdad Chris Kraul. Los Angeles Times , 06 May Mounir Elkhamri. Military Review , January-February Posted on 04 May Can U.

Sustain Anbar Success? The Christian Science Monitor , 04 May Center for Economic and Policy Research, May Washington Post , 03 May Los Angeles Times , 03 May Washington Post , 02 May The Guardian , 02 May Informed Comment, 01 May A Failure in Generalship Lt. Paul Yingling. Armed Forces Journal , May Posted on 27 April Blow to Bush as Top U.

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The Guardian , 27 April Tehran Times , 27 April Posted on the Centre for Research on Globalization website. Inter Press Service , 27 April National Journal , 23 April Posted on the Center for Defense Information website on 26 April McClatchy Newspapers , 26 April The Christian Science Monitor , 26 April Stanley Foundation, April Army, April Some Implications of Increasing U. The Guardian , 22 April National Journal , 20 April Congress Daily , 20 April Policy Nancy A. McClatchy Newspapers , 19 April Stars and Stripes , 19 April The Associated Press , 19 April Iraq's Long Night Paul Rogers.

Open Democracy, 19 April Time for Plan G in Iraq? Phillip Carter. Slate , 18 April McClatchy Newspapers , 17 April TomDispatch, 17 April Washington Post , 16 April The Associated Press , 15 April Center for Strategic and International Studies, 13 April Is Baghdad Safer? Yes and No Sam Dagher. The Christian Science Monitor , 13 April McClatchy Newspapers , 11 April The Independent , 11 April Washington Post , 11 April Jeff Stein. Congressional Quarterly , 09 April Force Alissa J.

Rubin and Edward Wong. The New York Times , 09 April Iraqi's Book Cites U. Blunders Charles J. The Associated Press , 09 April The Telegraph , 07 April Iraq and Counterinsurgency William Tucker. The American Spectator , 04 April The Associated Press , 31 March Defense News , 26 March Posted on the Center for Defense Information website on 30 March Washington Post , 28 March See memo below. Memo to Col. Michael Meese, 26 March Posted on the Washington Post website.

The New York Times , 28 March GAO Faults U. Washington Post , 23 March See testimony below. United Press International, 22 March The Christian Science Monitor , 22 March Enduring U. Center for a New American Security, 20 March Davis et al. RAND, 20 March Washington Post , 19 March International Herald Tribune , 18 March New York Times , 18 March The Associated Press , 15 March Center for Strategic and International Studies, 14 March The Associated Press , 09 March Buildup in Iraq Needed Into '08, U.

General Says David S. Cloud and Michael R. The New York Times , 08 March Washington Post , 05 March The Qaedization of Iraq David Boles. Informed Comment, 04 March Elizabeth Williamson. Washington Post , 02 March Analysts, U. United Press International , 02 March Shock Troops Greg Grant. Government Executive Magazine , 01 March The Guardian , 01 March Washington Post , 01 March Troops in Iraq Drew Brown.

McClatchy Newspapers , 28 February Billions Over Baghdad John B. The New York Times , 27 February The Associated Press , 27 February The Christian Science Monitor , 27 February Asia Times , 27 February Washington Post , 26 February Strategic Studies Institute, 23 February The Independent , 23 February Washington Pos t, 23 February The New York Times , 23 February Open Democracy, 22 February Reuters , 21 February Washington Post , 21 February USA Today , 15 February The Associated Press , 13 February Asia Times , 13 February TomDispatch, 12 February Foreign Policy Forum, 11 February McClatchy Newspapers , 09 February Washington Post , 08 February The New York Times , 08 February Air Force Times , 08 February The New York Times , 07 February Oppel, Jr.

The New York Times , 06 February Washington Post , 05 February Iraqis Fault Pace of U. The New York Times , 05 February Agence France Presse , 04 February Inter Press Service , 02 February Washington Post , 02 February The Associated Press , 01 February Los Angeles Times , 01 February