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Basic Energetics: Intermolecular Interactions 3. Preliminaries 3. Electrostatic Interaction 3. Induction Interaction 3. Finishing the Painter Game 3. The total Interaction 3. Model Potentials 3. Refinements 3.

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The Virial Theorem 4. Describing Liquids: Phenomenological Behavior 4. Phase Behavior 4. Equations of State 4. Corresponding States 5. Statistical Thermodynamics 5. Perfect Gases 5. The Semi-Classical Approximation 5. A Few General Aspects 5. Internal Contributions 5. Real Gases 6. Describing Liquids: Structure and Energetics 6.

The Structure of Solids 6. The Meaning of Structure for Liquids 6. The Experimental Determination of g r 6. The Structure of Liquids 6. Energetics 6. The Potential of Mean Force 7. The Vital Role of the Correlation Function 7. Integral Equations 7. Hard-Sphere Results 7. Perturbation Theory 7. Molecular Fluids 7.

Matric part 1 Chemistry, Liquid State - Ch 5 - 9th Class Chemistry

Final Remarks 8. Preliminaries 8. Cell Models 8. All comments are subject to moderation. Search Wiley Online Library. If you would like to reuse any content , in print or online, from ChemistryViews. A product of and Wiley-VCH. In tribology , liquids are studied for their properties as lubricants. Lubricants such as oil are chosen for viscosity and flow characteristics that are suitable throughout the operating temperature range of the component.

Oils are often used in engines, gear boxes , metalworking , and hydraulic systems for their good lubrication properties. Many liquids are used as solvents , to dissolve other liquids or solids. Solutions are found in a wide variety of applications, including paints , sealants , and adhesives.

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Naphtha and acetone are used frequently in industry to clean oil, grease, and tar from parts and machinery. Body fluids are water based solutions. Surfactants are commonly found in soaps and detergents. Solvents like alcohol are often used as antimicrobials. They are found in cosmetics, inks , and liquid dye lasers. They are used in the food industry, in processes such as the extraction of vegetable oil.

Liquids tend to have better thermal conductivity than gases, and the ability to flow makes a liquid suitable for removing excess heat from mechanical components. The heat can be removed by channeling the liquid through a heat exchanger , such as a radiator , or the heat can be removed with the liquid during evaporation.


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During perspiration , sweat removes heat from the human body by evaporating. In the heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning industry HVAC , liquids such as water are used to transfer heat from one area to another. Similarly, liquids are often used in cooking for their better heat-transfer properties. In addition to better conductivity, because warmer fluids expand and rise while cooler areas contract and sink, liquids with low kinematic viscosity tend to transfer heat through convection at a fairly constant temperature, making a liquid suitable for blanching , boiling , or frying.

This phenomenon was also exploited to produce lava lamps. Even higher rates of heat transfer can be achieved by condensing a gas into a liquid. At the liquid's boiling point, all of the heat energy is used to cause the phase change from a liquid to a gas, without an accompanying increase in temperature, and is stored as chemical potential energy. When the gas condenses back into a liquid this excess heat-energy is released at a constant temperature. This phenomenon is used in processes such as steaming. Since liquids often have different boiling points, mixtures or solutions of liquids or gases can typically be separated by distillation , using heat, cold, vacuum , pressure, or other means.

Read Liquid State Physical Chemistry: Fundamentals, Modeling, And Applications

Distillation can be found in everything from the production of alcoholic beverages , to oil refineries , to the cryogenic distillation of gases such as argon , oxygen , nitrogen , neon , or xenon by liquefaction cooling them below their individual boiling points. Liquid is the primary component of hydraulic systems, which take advantage of Pascal's law to provide fluid power.

Devices such as pumps and waterwheels have been used to change liquid motion into mechanical work since ancient times. Oils are forced through hydraulic pumps , which transmit this force to hydraulic cylinders.


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  • Hydraulics can be found in many applications, such as automotive brakes and transmissions , heavy equipment , and airplane control systems. Various hydraulic presses are used extensively in repair and manufacturing, for lifting, pressing, clamping and forming. Liquids are sometimes used in measuring devices. A thermometer often uses the thermal expansion of liquids, such as mercury , combined with their ability to flow to indicate temperature. A manometer uses the weight of the liquid to indicate air pressure.

    Quantities of liquids are measured in units of volume. The volume of a quantity of liquid is fixed by its temperature and pressure. Liquids generally expand when heated, and contract when cooled. On the other hand, liquids have little compressibility. Water, for example, will compress by only However, the negligible compressibility does lead to other phenomena. The banging of pipes, called water hammer , occurs when a valve is suddenly closed, creating a huge pressure-spike at the valve that travels backward through the system at just under the speed of sound.

    Another phenomenon caused by liquid's incompressibility is cavitation. Because liquids have little elasticity they can literally be pulled apart in areas of high turbulence or dramatic change in direction, such as the trailing edge of a boat propeller or a sharp corner in a pipe. A liquid in an area of low pressure vacuum vaporizes and forms bubbles, which then collapse as they enter high pressure areas.

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    This causes liquid to fill the cavities left by the bubbles with tremendous localized force, eroding any adjacent solid surface. In a gravitational field , liquids exert pressure on the sides of a container as well as on anything within the liquid itself. This pressure is transmitted in all directions and increases with depth. Static liquids in uniform gravitational fields also exhibit the phenomenon of buoyancy , where objects immersed in the liquid experience a net force due to the pressure variation with depth.

    The magnitude of the force is equal to the weight of the liquid displaced by the object, and the direction of the force depends on the average density of the immersed object. If the density is smaller than that of the liquid, the buoyant force points upward and the object floats, whereas if the density is larger , the buoyant force points downward and the object sinks. This is known as Archimedes' principle. Unless the volume of a liquid exactly matches the volume of its container, one or more surfaces are observed. The presence of a surface introduces new phenomena which are not present in a bulk liquid.

    Liquid-State Physical Chemistry: Fundamentals, Modeling, and Applications

    This is because a molecule at a surface possesses bonds with other liquid molecules only on the inner side of the surface, which implies a net force pulling surface molecules inward. Equivalently, this force can be described in terms of energy: there is a fixed amount of energy associated with forming a surface of a given area.

    Liquids with strong intermolecular forces tend to have large surface tensions. A practical implication of surface tension is that liquids tend to minimize their surface area, forming spherical drops and bubbles unless other constraints are present. Surface tension is responsible for a range of other phenomena as well, including surface waves , capillary action , wetting , and ripples. In liquids under nanoscale confinement , surface effects can play a dominating role since — compared with a macroscopic sample of liquid — a much greater fraction of molecules are located near a surface.

    The surface tension of a liquid directly affects its wettability. The surface tensions of common liquids occupy a relatively narrow range of values, which contrasts strongly with the enormous variation seen in other mechanical properties, such as viscosity. An important physical property characterizing the flow of liquids is viscosity. Intuitively, viscosity describes the resistance of a liquid to flow. More technically, viscosity measures the resistance of a liquid to deformation at a given rate, such as when it is being sheared at finite velocity.

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    As a result, it exhibits viscous resistance to flow. In order to maintain flow, an external force must be applied, such as a pressure difference between the ends of the pipe. The viscosity of liquids decreases with increasing temperature. One way to achieve such control is by blending two or more liquids of differing viscosities in precise ratios.

    This capability is important since machinery often operate over a range of temperatures see also viscosity index. The viscous behavior of a liquid can be either Newtonian or non-Newtonian. Examples of Newtonian liquids include water, glycerin , motor oil , honey , or mercury. A non-Newtonian liquid is one where the viscosity is not independent of these factors and either thickens increases in viscosity or thins decreases in viscosity under shear.