Still, one might ask: where is the originality of Stivaletta? In my opinion, Simona Stivaletta can own traditions past in the very process of honoring them, unconsciously. It is in works like these that familiar territory gets re-envisioned. Or, as Bollas would have it, forever, yet originally, transubstantiated.
Anthony Molino frontmatter. It knows its way among all words, all tones, all attitudes. And it is superbly trained. The intellect of its owner is apparent in nothing so much as his literary skill. Spenditi meno, dunque, e vedi risparmio il fiato della mia povera frase per non farla correr troppo vedi di non [assegnarmi la parte dello sciocco Words without thoughts never to Heaven go 3. E non bastano le parole per raggiungere il cielo The pun in 5. Upon what ground? First Clown. Why, here in Denmark. Per quale ragione?
In quale regione? Qui in Danimarca Montale shows fine judgment in his translation of 5. Morire, dormire. Morire, dormire; dormire, sognar forse. Although Italian hen- decasyllabic verse is usually a close equivalent of English blank verse, D'epiro. Toward the end of the soliloquy, however, Montale loses some of the voltage Shakespeare packs into his verse. Notes 1. The translation was originally published as Amleto, principe di Danimarca, tradotto per le scene italiane da Eugenio Montale Milan: Cederna, All citations from Hamlet are from G.
Harrison, ed. She is a literary translator from English into Italian and a prize-winning writer of short novels and poems. She has published many papers and two books on literary translation. Her research interests include literary translation, translation history and gender and translation. The author of Dux, the Italian version, was Margherita Sarfatti, writer and journalist, colleague of Benito Mussolini at the newspaper Avanti and his lover.
What makes this a case of special interest is that at the time of the English translation, in , there was no published Italian original. Apparently Sarfatti wrote it in , but the book was first published in English transla- tion and only later in Italian. The analysis of the two texts operated through the manual comparison of the English and Italian versions points out their differ- ences. Changes and differences get evidence of the different project that presided over the publication of the two books. Particularly I want to argue that changes have been dictated mostly by the dif- ferent needs of propaganda in the two countries.
Furthermore, that they are due to what the writers believed to be the different tastes and also expectations of the English and Italian readers. The title is the first thing that catches the eye of the reader and it also offers the first indication of the differences that it is possible to find in the English and Italian version of the book.
In its reassuring banality, it immediately pres- ents the reader with the main topic of the book. Its singularity and so the reason to prefer this particular biography is pointed out by the name of the protagonist only, Benito Mussolini. The Italian title is quite different.
It is a Latin word, Dux. In line with the emphatic and concise style of the time, the only one word title of the Italian sounds quite aggressive. The Latin word links Mussolini directly to the Roman Empire and to the glory of Rome whose restoration fascist propaganda boasted about Falasca Zamponi , The very first impression communicated by the titles seems to be confirmed by the opening photographs included inside the texts.
The English book opens in the frontispiece with a smiling photograph of Mussolini with some papers in his hands. The 11 photographs of the English version are taken from the public and private life of the dictator to present the image of a dynamic Prime Minister who rides an horse or caresses his favorite lioness, whose singularity has been balanced by the photographs of his children.
The last photograph of the English text reproduces the greeting to George V visiting Rome. On the contrary the 32 photo- graphs of the Italian text are mostly taken from his public life. Ad- ditional illustrations include pictures of him as a volunteer soldier in the First World War and many images of public ceremonies and of him in uniform or at work as Prime Minister.
The photographs of his children and of the greeting to George V are not present. There is only one smiling picture in the Italian text whose unicity reinforces the Italian myth of the never smiling dictator Sarfatti , The title together with the photographs offer a different image of the Duce, a smiling reassuring one for the English public and an intimidating, aggressive one for the Italian public. As the choice of the title and images are usually based on what the editor or the publish house believes to be the tastes and expectations of the readership Spirk , , it could be argued that two different projects presided over the creation of the English and Italian text and the different projects obeyed to the different needs of the propaganda at home and abroad.
On 30 May , Giacomo Matteotti, a member of the opposition in Parliament, denounced the violence of the fascist paramilitary squads and the results of the elec- tions as illegal. On 10 June Matteotti was kidnapped and murdered by a group of fascists who were members of the Ceka, the political police. Mussolini soon asserted his non-involvement in the murder, but from the beginning public opinion accused him of being its insti- gator. Attacked by public opinion and by members of the opposition, Mussolini faced the most difficult time of his political career.
In the meantime, an aggressive press campaign against Italian fascism was going on in England and the agreements that were to be signed between the Italian government and the American company Sinclair Oil had no little part in it. The English government considered the agree- ments, signed on the 29 April , as an attack on English interests Canali , 66 since the British Petroleum, the Italian branch of the English Apoc, had been cut off from the Italian market.
In April , Matteotti travelled to London and met many members of the Labour party. According to Mauro Canali , 63 — 81; - , Matteotti came to England to get evidence of the corrupt dealings between the Italian government and Sinclair Oil. In fact the periodical English Life published a posthumous article , 73 in which Matteotti declared he had evidence of the corruption that was going on and could name names. The assassination had a great impact on public opinion and cast a shadow over fascism and its leader.
In Italy Mussolini could control the press, but nothing could be done to prevent the British press from speaking against fascism. The publication of a carefully written biography could reassure the public opinion and give sup- Calvani. The text analysis First of all, the Life of Benito Mussolini and Dux are two different books and this is not simply due to the translation process.
It could be argued from the very first fast comparison of the two tables of contents: the English translation has got 42 chapters while the Italian one has got 48 chapters. The existence of a different previous Ital- ian original for the English translation has been confirmed by the leaflet enclosed to the Italian version.
The Italian publisher says that due to the extraordinary success of the biography of Mussolini in England the author decided to publish it in Italy as well. Missing the original text sent to the translator by the author, I considered as first hypothesis the possibility that the original had been written by the author, Margherita Sarfatti, directly in English. This would have been an answer to the question of why rewrit- ing what should have been ready for publication.
Morgan of the United Press. Was it possible that Sarfatti wrote Dux in English and sent it to Whyte to give it literary form? The answer seems to be no, it is revealed by the letters that Prezzolini wrote to Sarfatti in order to arrange the publication. He contacted Margherita Sarfatti who had written articles for him in the past. In particular, in the letter of 7 July , he says he will talk with the publisher about it, but he adds that he fears the publisher could stake claims on her not perfect English knowledge. Furthermore he explains that the publisher could have his transla- tor, probably also a popular writer, who will help in the spreading Calvani.
She eventually agreed with him if in the letter 13 may Prezzolini presses Sarfatti to finish the book. As it seems, she sent the chapters to him as soon as they were ready, but Prezzolini says that in this way they could not press the translator to finish his work, while on the contrary they wanted it to be soon finished in order to publish the book in Autumn and sell the foreign rights to other countries. So, if she had already written the book in Italian, other reasons must have convinced the author of the convenience of rewriting the book for the Italian public.
To have a clear idea and a complete account of the changes and differences, I did a manual analysis of the whole English and Italian texts, but due to length limit in this paper I will present the analysis of representative selected extracts. Furthermore there is a whole chapter, in Italian only, dedicated to the idealization of fascism and transformation of its violence into a sort 1 See Sarfatti , , The ridiculous plaid down the arrogance.
It is also interesting to notice the presence of many different passages concerning the alleged powerful fascination that the Ital- ian dictator seems to exert over women of all ages and nationalities since he was a child, slightly exaggerated in the English version. So the Italian text can clearly claim the innocence of Mussolini even Calvani.
But the differences do not consist only in cuts or addings in the English or Italian version, they include real manipulations occurred in translation in order to make the original conform with the tastes and expectations of its new readership. The very same episode has been narrated in the fourth chapter in Italian but it is slightly different.
Mussolini is described as leader as usual, but the boys run away at the shouts of the farmer. The wounded boy has not been shot in Italian, but he fell down of the tree breaking his leg. The farmer has got a shotgun but he does not use it and Mussolini rescues his friend defying the farmer. To conclude the different chapters, the differences in the very narration, the different construction of that narration together with the differences in the pictures and in the presentation of the books testify the different strategies used by the English and the Italian writer in order to adapt their text to the different social and political background of England and Italy.
Both versions have been written and published for propaganda, but the very same end seems to be achieved in a slightly different way allegedly according to the different public and its assumed expectations. References Canali, M. De Grazia, V. Falasca Zamponi, S. Costabissara: Angelo Colla. Translated by Frederic Whyte. Stokes Company, New York. Sarfatti, M. Spirk, J. Whyte, F. She also leads the podcasting faculty program at her college and is coordinator of the First Year Seminar. Brief History of Translation Studies Theories of translation have rapidly developed in the 20th and 21st centuries with the increasing demands for translation in the fast changing world of information and communications.
Many renowned theorists in translation studies including Jakobson, Steiner, Fedorov, and Cary as well as Seleskovitch and Lederer from the Parisian school and other relevant representatives such as Vermeer, Toury, Even-Zohar, Venuti, Lambert, and Derrida, proposed different approaches to the theory of translation. While Jakobson, Steiner, and Fedorov insisted on the necessity of creating a scientific theory of translation, Cary claimed that this discipline Guarnieri. The contribution of the theorist Even-Zohar is interesting especially for his take on recipro- cal influences between national systems, and for the relationship between translated literature and literature in general.
According to the Israeli theorist, literature is governed by a conglomerate of elements that change and transform while in connection with one another. In his Polysystem Theory, translated literature is not an isolated item, but it is part of a system. According to Even-Zohar, any foreign literature which is brought in from another country is able to influence the native literature at various degrees. In the s, thanks to Susan Bassnett, Translation Studies became a field that analyzed questions related to translation techniques and systematic approaches to translation were first imple- mented.
The translated work would no longer be seen secondary in regards to the original, but instead would be studied as an autono- mous piece of narrative. Venuti, thus, remarks the difference between an approach that brings the foreign text closer to the target culture, adapting it to its own literary and cultural paradigms; and a system that aims, instead, at a literal translation which leaves the reader free to discover the foreign elements of the original text. According to Lefevere, translators have an important, yet undervalued, role of mediators since they are responsible for the success of another work.
Even recent post- colonial theories have shown interest in the theory of translation.
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According to this definition, the translation becomes inevitably a process of transculturation. In recent years computer applications of translation studies have greatly increased. Based on this recent interest in automatic translations and of Corpus-based Translation Studies, linguists, mathematicians, and engineers have opened their fields to the study of the disciplines of computational linguistics, translation technology, and theory of information from which new and original approaches to translation studies are now emerging.
Thus the American translator is not merely a professional who seeks a faithful rendition of a text. In the United States, the translations of the works of Italo Calvino were published quite swiftly, and apart from Weaver, the Guarnieri. The only two works translated respectively ten and eight years after the Italian editions were Il Sentiero dei nidi di ragno and Il castello dei destini incrociati. Trilogia was published in a single volume in collecting all of the three short stories under the title, Our Ancestors. The first is that Americans lacked interest for the historical context of Neo-realist narrative.
For the translation of Cosmicomiche, he received a translation award in Unlike Colquhoun, Weaver established a personal rapport with Calvino, which probably helped to speed up the translation process. Weaver frequently spoke to Calvino on the phone to con- firm even minor corrections and revisions. Weaver reports that he often thought that Calvino wanted to translate his work himself. It was hard, Weaver recalls, to talk to him; he was an extremely reserved person, who did not love gossip and unnecessary confidence. Even though they knew each other for over twenty years, they still used the formal pronoun Lei.
Another curious episode was the case of Sotto il Sole Giaguaro which came out first in the English translation done by Weaver and then in Italian. In Italy the entire work was published only in while in the United States the entire col- Guarnieri. Inside this work one can find an essay that was translated by Weaver in , with the title The Pen in the First Person La penna in prima persona.
Weaver also translated the preface of the Sentieri dei nidi di ragno published in Italian in We know that Calvino himself was a translator and an advo- cate of translation research. When the novel gets to the most interesting part, the Reader decides to go back to the bookstore where he bought it to complain. He meets Ludmilla the female reader with whom he would begin the search for the integral novel, ultimately to find out that all of the existing copies are flawed.
These stories leave the reader suspended in determining the endings and give voice to the notion of multiplicity of stories that generate from a single source. In light of this view, then, a translator is not free from external pressures, from memories of what is read or absorbed. To avoid such inconveniences Calvino endorses the creation of a language composed of precise and concrete linguistic features that would increase its translatability.
His vision, though, also establishes that this language maintains the secrete es- sence of the text, an intrinsic truth as defined by Eco. This language dualism, typical in Calvino which characterizes most of his literary style, reveals constant struggle between the crystal nature of his vocabulary and the exuberance and imaginary, chaotic nature of his imagination.
Speaking of his collaboration with Calvino, Weaver, also re- Guarnieri. In another way, he was not easy to translate. Although he was not a scientist, both of his parents were, and he liked to read scientific works. This is particularly true of Calvino. The short story presents different cultural levels, Italian, Japanese, and Anglophone, while these contexts are to be transmitted to the reader in the most accurate way possible.
The simple plot of the narration becomes, however, rather complex with the persistent erotic-visual implications that distinguish the story. The plot begins by intro- ducing the protagonist of the story, a student who is attempting to improve his attention span under the guidance of Mr. To accomplish this, he tries to concentrate his attention on a single Guarnieri. Subsequently, when the student bends over a small pond in order to smell a water nymphaea, he casually comes in contact with the bosom of the daughter, Makiko, and wife of Mr.
Okeda, Mrs. Miyagi, who were kneeling down to pick up flowers. On his way back home, the protagonist asks Makiko out on a date, and she accepts. However, that night, something unexpected hap- pens. While the student plays hide and seek with the daughter, he enters a room where Miss Miyagi was placing flowers into a vase and picking up the leaves that had fell on the floor. Driven by the woman, the two find themselves making love while the daughter who had finally reached in the room looking for her date and Mr.
Okeda secretly watch them in true voyeuristic fashion. The language of the novel in question is sensual and precise, just like Calvino desired. Calvino underlines the importance of using a language which reveals its richness, full- ness and concreteness in order to become a modern language which is highly communicative and ultimately easy translatable. Weaver, before this translation, probably read the Italian version several times to grasp the tone and the atmosphere in order to faithfully reproduce it.
The style of which is written in an average Italian, Guarnieri. In an interview regarding her English translations, she admits that the degree of difficulty of a translation depends on the linguistic style of each author. In addition, this story facilitates the work of the translator since the syntax is made up of short sen- tences which render the work of the translator almost transparent.
Yet in this story, the colons remain unaltered. From the comments released by Weaver, it becomes clear that his main preoccupation was to preserve the original structure of the Italian text. We will see how in the short story On the Carpet A clear example is this short paragraph with the original Italian and the English version translated by Weaver: Le foglie del ginkgo cadevano come una pioggia minuta dai rami e punteggiavano di giallo il prato.
Io passeggiavo col signor Okeda sul sentiero di pietre lisce. Il signor Okeda disse che era possibile. Le premesse da cui partivo, e che il signor Okeda trovava ben fondate, erano le seguenti. Se una notte Here is the English version: The ginkgo leaves fell like fine rain from the boughs and dotted the lawn with yellow. I was walking with Mr. Okeda on the path of smooth stones.
I said I would like to distinguish the sensation of each single ginkgo leaf from the sensation of all the others, but I was wondering if it would be possible. Okeda said it was possible. The premises from which I set out, and which Mr. Okeda considered well founded, were the following. It is important to underline that in Italian, these verbs in the past manifest actions that are limited in time.
The imperfect is used to describe a habitual action like the falling of the leaves each year in the fall. The verbs As I was walking camminavo and I was wondering mi domandavo demonstrate undefined lengths of time in English present perfect , while in Italian the imperfect provides an entirely different meaning. The Japanese-themed short story offers different reflexive forms. One of the difficulties in the translation of these verbs is understanding which type of reflexive it is, sometimes one must distinguish between the impersonal form and the passive structure.
In addition, there can be ambiguity in certain verb functions: for example, the verb cambiarsi means two different things: changing clothes but also transforming Nermin Abd El-Hamid Hamdy 1. These examples determine that there is no precise correspon- dence with Italian; if we think of the present indicative in English, it has different connotations.
Therefore, it is best to translate them using their actual use in English without trying to find an equivalency Guarnieri. Another translation that can create problems is the word terreno which can be translated with land, country, field, plot or site, and that Weaver, in this case, translated with ground. Weaver in translating this short story, documents how he approached the final version of his translation and shows all of the challenges, big or small that he encountered.
Translating Seduction The strong visual-erotic footprint of this story, is marked by an important verb, guardare, which in the narration acquires different visual nuances and is translated in many different forms, from look to gaze to seeing. The variety of these verbs is also found in the English language: to follow, to see, gaze, to look, to examine, to stare, to contemplate, to spy, to watch, to appear, to observe, to describe.
There are other examples of the translation of the verb guardare in this story which are significant to discuss. However, if one choses to use the verb to watch this corresponds to the verb guardare, osservare, while if one selects the verb to gaze, this would mean to remain in contemplation and to stare at someone. In the English translation one loses the visual aspect that characterizes instead the Italian sentence. In another passage of the story, the visual aspect is however preserved in the English translation: screditare agli occhi dei docenti; rendered with discrediting in the eyes of the University professors.
This shows, once again, that translations do not always follow rigid rules and that every word has to be weighted and translated on a case by case basis. Miyagi appear to be more precise in the English version. Guardava fissamente, ma non sua moglie e me, ma sua figlia che ci guardava. Okeda had been there. He was staring hard, not at his wife and me but at his daughter watching us.
The peculiarity of the English translation resides in the fact that Weaver interpreted the word spasimo like a precise act, without leaving the Anglophone reader any other possibility; while in Italian the meaning of this word offers several other implications. One must also notice that in English, Mrs. Miyagi gains the title of Madame, since, as Weaver explained, it is a term usually attributed to foreign people.
If he used Mrs. Miyagi, her sensual appeal would weaken. Other verbs that more or less pertain to the sight in the story On the Carpet… convey erotic tones. Although the character of Mrs. Miyagi ap- pears in a captivating role, in reality, according to Frasson-Marin, this is no other than a hoax used to diminish her role. The description of the narrating voice of the story seems to be the sacrificial victim, forced to engage in involuntary sexual acts. In addition, the woman always attracts the man with the art of seduction rather than her intelligence, culture or dialogue.
Moreover, according to the French critic, when the women exercise these qualities, these are strongly criticized and diminished by Calvino. A related approach proposed by Frasson-Marin, is the topic of gender in translation which deserves attention. The determination of gender in Weaver is a recurrent problem in his translations, however, he opted for solutions that obscured female characters.
In this case, the American translator makes a particular ideological choice and he is now at the same level of the author, and becomes a co-writer of the original text. During the s, a new approach for translation studies surfaced, mostly in North America and in France, which focused on analyzing gender in translation. Several sociologists explored this innovative field, commonly known as Sex and Language since it is known that in constructing gender identity, language has a defining role. Thus, it becomes important to recognize the different approach that a writer and the translator has in relation to gender difference since it can create problems in the translation of the text.
In Italian there is no gender neutral and all words have a spe- cific gender attribution; in English this distinction does not exist; and there are no few words that point to the gender of nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and articles. In another instance, Weaver managed with difficulties the challenge posed by the feminine gender in the story of Marcovaldo.
For example, to translate the word for female rabbit coniglia he chooses to eliminate the word and only use the generic terms of male e female. This can also be seen in the collection of short stories entitled Gli idilli difficili, where un impiegato and una impiegata clerk become a man and a woman in the translation. Features of the Technical Translation To understand the process of translation, it is important to showcase a few examples that indicate the challenges faced by translators, but also to disclose the ones tackled by William Weaver.
Among the selected ones, there is the issue of the morphosyntactic Guarnieri. In the following paragraph taken from On the Carpet, we notice how the Italian syntax follows a predictable pattern: a subject, a verb and object. However, the order can change if one wishes to emphasize a certain word or element. In fact, the whole first page of the short story written by Calvino creates an atmosphere of delayed sensuality, one that recalls the movements of classical ballet. We find the same verb at the end of the story, but this time Weaver, translates it with twirling, a verb that in English has differ- ent meanings such as twisting, curling, bending, winding.
In English, Weaver was able to recreate the same effect with the use of the following words: losing, pleasant, sensations, distinct, others, confusing, comes, blades, grass, perse- vere, purpose, perhaps, edges, times, silence, served, as, conjectures, series, stages, lesson, tiniest, sheaf, diffused, impressions. All of these words appear in the English text according to a clear strategy on the part of the translator to convey the sensuality and eroticism chosen by Calvino for this story.
Weaver shows his mastership in being able Guarnieri. This is, in part, due to the verbal richness of the English language. Another relevant aspect to underline in the translation of the vocabulary is the so-called lexical equivalence according to Bruno Osimo 83 ; something very important to preserve in order to achieve textual accuracy. In this story, there are words that are translated in a rather generic way, something that goes under the name of under- translation.
For example, the word scrutare, which in Italian means to look at intently is translated with to examine.
To translate it with the verb scrutinize would have seemed more appropriate since to inves- tigate as a synonym is closer to the original meaning. We also have an example of an over-translation with turbare translated with upset which indicates a type of disruption that conveys sadness. In Italian, the verb instead offers more interpretative solutions: it does not only imply sadness but it can be a synonym of confusion, trouble, disorder, agitation and anxiety. One can be worried but not necessarily sad. Obviously an error that Weaver does not commit is to confuse the so called false-friends; words that formally appear similar to Ital- ian, but instead mean something different.
Another word is biblioteca, which is translated with library, since libreria in Italian is the bookstore. Pavimento should not be translated with pavement but with floor since pavement means sidewalk and concrete. Furthermore, the word gentile could be translated with genteel, but kind is its correct equivalent. The American translator instead chooses its Latin equivalent which creates an awkward outcome — an erudite word which generates a different atmosphere.
What is needed in a good translation is not just the equiva- lence, but finding words can be associated with a word in a particular context. Both times when Guarnieri. The first one refers to hard labor unskilled , always remunerated, while the second term usually refers more to a profession, an activity where personal ability is at stake. The phrase tavolo da lavoro is translated with you are at your desk, omitting completely the verb linked to work. The word lavoro can be found in Palomar and Marcovaldo.
In the first one, the expression per un lavoro delicato is translated with a delicate job; while in the Marcovaldo this word is often translated with work. In many dictionaries the word is translated with flower-bed. A close reading of the story in Marcovaldo, we notice how the translation differs, given the fact that aiuola usually refers to a piece of land in which one can grow flowers, vegetables, or seeds. It appears an exaggeration to choose bed of dirt, while path seems a clear example of an under-translation. These numerous translation examples are presented to dem- onstrate in concrete terms what it means to be a skillful translator.
Nonetheless this also shows how Weaver used his creativity and artistic talent for his translations. Weaver demonstrates that his practice is a combination of creativity, training and inspiration. A translation cannot be considered only like a second-hand copy of the original, born out of a mechanical process, but instead it should be considered as a creative act and as a work of re-interpretation. From dialect, ways of sayings which in Italian are plenty, every novel has had its own main dif- ficulties.
Palomar, The Cosmicomics, and in The Castle, it was the syntactical aspect. Every word is intentional and calibrated. The translator has to grasp his whole essence in order to return it to the public in its full integrity. Many translators of Calvino chose to make the integrity and essence of his poetics a priority respecting both form and content. Colquhoun Boston: Beacon Press, Of the Fiabe italiane we have three different translations, the one by Louis Brigante Italian Fables.
The book, Ultimo viene il corvo was translated by Archibald Colquhoun and Peggy Wright, with the title, One afternoon and other stories London: Collins, The story, La speculazione edilizia, was translated with the title, Plunge into real estate by S. Carne-Ross in by Pocket Books. New York: Vintage International, , and the collection of essays, Prima che tu dica pronto Numbers in the dark and other stories. London: Jonathan Cape, NY: HBJ, Invece temo non sia altro che un bol en plastique, una scodella come esempio di prodotto in serie.
Ho ripiegato su un gioco dassonanze salvando solo il ritmo del verso. Ho capito bene il pistone e il cilindro? Penso che sarai in vacanza e non so quando vedrai questa lettera. Ti ringrazio per tutto quello che potrai dirmi e ti auguro un buon agosto, tuo Italo Calvino. He then collaborated with Quadri and Solmi in translating Queneau. Works Cited Anselmi, G.
M, Fenocchio, G. Tempi e immagini della letteratura, vol. Bruno Mondadori. Milano, Bondi, M. Fortunati V. La cultura italiana e le letterature straniere Guarnieri. Third Volume. Ravenna: Longo editore, Bowker, L. Computer-Aided Translation Technology. A Practical Introduction.
University of Ottawa Press, Ottawa. Calvino, I. Barenghi, M. Milano: Mondadori, I Meridiani, Print Calvino. Milano: Mondadori, II. Torino: Einaudi, New York: Harcourt Brace, Una pietra sopra. The Uses of Literature. Patrick Creagh. Harcourt Brace, Marcovaldo, or The Seasons in the City. Derrida, J. Derek Attridge. London: Routledge, Eco, U. Dire quasi la stessa cosa. Milano: Bompiani, Even-Zohar, I.
Federici, F. Amsterdam: Rodopi: Frasson-Marin, A. Geneva-Paris: Editions Slatkine: Glissant, E. Poetica del diverso. Roma: Meltemi. Guarnieri, G. Summer- Fall Holmes, J. Papers on Literary Translation and Translation Studies. Amsterdam: Rodopi, Monaco, R. Newmark, P. A Textbook of Translation. NY: Prentice Hall, Nida, E. The Theory and Practice of Translation. Leiden: Brill, Osimo, B. Manuale del traduttore. Milano: Hoepli, May 15, Thorne B. Rowley, Mass: Newbury House, Tymoczko, M. Translation and Power. They used the daylight hours to execute a breeches buoy rescue, a rescue method that involved sewing a pair of pants onto a life ring, which was then attached to a system of ropes and pulleys.
The life ring was shot onto the ship with a cannon-type gun, after which the crew was able to attach it to the ship and allow men to swing down the long ropes, one at a time, to the beach. It took about two hours to get the crew off the boat. Once that was done, another problem arose. Lina sic Russo, a nearby resident. Nonna Russo kept her stove busy, brewing pots of fresh coffee and cooking dishes of hot food to warm the crew while they dried off. Her ability to communicate with the sailors in their own language helped calm them.
Even her little granddaughter gave a hand by playing with the crew and showing them how a television worked. Constant foot traffic in and out of the house spread a messy combination of slush, beach sand, and oil all over the place. Area civil defense officials called her house their temporary home base. As the storm subsided, the activity swelled with the arrival of newspaper reporters, photographers, police and fire personnel, Red Cross aides, and others—about.
Coast Guard officers present Lena Russo with a plaque to thank her for helping rescue the Etrusco crew. Several days after the rescue, the Coast Guard presented a plaque to her, honoring her efforts and extreme generosity. Lina sic Russo…through whose thoughtful kindness food and shelter were provided coastguardsmen during the rescue of the SS Etrusco at Scituate, Mass. Months later, Nonna Russo reported that she continued to regularly hear from some crew members.
Organized to loan expensive medical and nursing equipment to needy people, the group still operates today in honor of those who gave help to others in a time of great need. Those like Nonna Russo. Decades after the Etrusco ran aground, Scituate historians David Ball and Tom Hall managed to locate some of the surviving crew members in Italy and corresponded with two of them for several years.
Hall even traveled to Italy to meet and interview one of them: Giovanni Belfiore. Ironically, this group returned years later to help her when another huge blizzard hit the area in Upon learning of her plight, officials with Scituate Etrusco Associates gave her assistance. An award ceremony where Coast Guard officials and Etrusco crew members honor Nonna Russo for her rescue efforts. He had even kept a decades-old newspaper clipping containing a photo of Nonna Russo pouring a cup of coffee for him since it best represented what he remembered about his time spent taking refuge in her home.
To commemorate the extraordinary help provided by Nonna Russo and other Scituate residents during the res-.
A current shot of Scituate Lighthouse, which provided a beacon of light to help the Etrusco crew determine their location during the storm. A greatly renovated version of Mrs. It sits fifty yards from the boulder-filled ocean waters where the Etrusco ran aground. Kevin M. Walsh is a trial lawyer, as well as a freelance writer and photographer specializing in travel and history topics.
Contact him at kwalsh alumni. This year, the Ben V. On April 15, just one day prior to their actual th Anniversary, they hosted a dinner dance gala that had four hundred in attendance. The yearlong festivities continued with a picnic in July, a corn roast in August, a pasta dinner in October, a memorial Mass and luncheon in November, and a Christmas party in December. The wreath was carried into church for the Columbus Day Mass, and afterward it was marched to Arrigo Park where it was placed at the Statue of Columbus.
The players—many of whom are related to lodge members— were awarded a certificate of Honorary Membership in the lodge and were presented with lodge centennial pins. In return, the players presented the lodge with a team-autographed Little League World Series baseball and signed poster. From the Order Sons of Italy in America, thank you Maine-Endwell for representing our country in Williamsport and giving us such a great group of players to root for! Have you or your lodge done something remarkable that makes a difference to your community or promotes our heritage and Italian studies?
The inaugural recipient was Lori Sousa, who has been active in the lodge as a young adult and who became a full member upon returning. Peace Corps Ukraine. For Sousa, the scholarship was an opportunity to finally learn and share the language of her ancestors. Read more about her journey at www. Lori Sousa center with instructor Nunzia right and classmate Margareth left holds up her certificate.
Messa Memorium Scholarship Fund.
The Contribution of History and Philosophy of Science
The scholarships will be awarded to children and grandchildren of Pennsylvania Sons of Italy members; one to a high school student who will attend college in Fall ,. To find out more about these scholarships and how to apply, email Marylouise DeNicola at mdenicol gmail.
In addition to the concert, the State Lodge presented Mrs. He brings her flowers and lays them on her grave to let her know that she is, and will always be, in the front of his mind.
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When he initially made these trips two years ago, Joe stood at her grave, picturing the wife he had lost, reflecting on all the qualities that made her the love of his life. There was just something about her that attracted babies. He asked a worker, who gave him a map of the cemetery and pointed him in the direction of a little area called Holy Innocents that was reserved for the burials of infants and young children.
When Joe got there, he noticed that even though the area was marked on the map, there was no visible indicator in the actual area itself. He stared at the flimsy plastic grave markers, some without the names of the very young ones they memorialized, others covered by dirt and overgrown grass. As he looked upon the neglected area, he thought of his wife, of her love for young life. He saw her blue eyes. He saw her light hair. Her father, Savario Lucci, had died when she was just two days old. After he died, her widowed mother remarried and left Jane to be raised by her Calabrese grandparents.
Both of his grandparents had been born in Italy—Giuseppe in Naples, Campania; Giuseppina in Lucca, Tuscany—and immigrated to Philadelphia, where they met. Giuseppe worked as a barber, Giuseppina as a seamstress. Upon sharing their family histories whose halves seemed to fit perfectly together, Joe and Jane started seeing more of each other. A year after their serendipitous encounter, Joe enlisted in the Navy, finally old enough to join the war effort.
He also gained experience in aerial photography, which. All the while he was overseas, he spent time writing Jane one letter after another. They never lost touch. Just ten months after Joe returned from the Pacific, he and Jane married. They embarked on their new life in Philadelphia, where Joe took a job as a cartographer, mapping different countries and requiring frequent travel to Central America.
Army Corps of Engineers. In , after forty years in the workforce, he and Jane retired to Ocean City, where they resided until she passed away on September 22, , just three days before their sixty-sixth anniversary. She was eighty-five. Sons of Italy lodges. God Bless them, they are wonderful people. He found that many parents of the young ones buried in that area were poor couples or single mothers in abusive situations who had difficulty affording permanent graves.
This, Joe decided, was going to change. With the help of Deacon Lydick, he contacted the Catholic Diocese of Wilmington asking what it would take to provide permanent graves as well as a monument that identified the Holy Innocents area. Joe launched a fundraising campaign that would last for more than a year. The lodge raised funds, and as word spread to surrounding lodges, many of them initiated their own drives as well. Below the engraving were the names of those buried.
In front of the monument lay thirty-one granite plaques, one for each infant and young child. Bishop William F. Contact him at mfisher osia. As we reflect on the past, we can ask ourselves why we joined the Order Sons of Italy in America. The answer is probably in the center of a story of family and friends. I am sure it will bring a smile to your face and the remembrance of those people that preceded us.
I encourage all to share those experiences with people who are like-minded and have the desire to preserve our culture and heritage. Just imagine your story of commitment might encourage them to join us. The restructure of the National Office is proving to be a significant step in improving the services of our programs and projects. Our staff has been phenomenal in addressing the earthquake relief technology and NELA projects. The increase in email communications emanating from the National Office has opened the lines of communication dramatically.
Now, as issues occur, we are able to keep. We want our membership to be informed and cognizant of the progress we are making. We will be presenting up-to-date information on the development of our new web site and ancillary automated systems. I am looking forward to seeing everyone from the Supreme Council. We will be communicating the latest progress on the initiatives we started in August We have made substantial progress in bringing OSIA into the 21st century. Based on the progress already achieved, it is my opinion that there is a renewed energy by all to make OSIA stronger and a more vital ItalianAmerican organization.
There still remains a lot to be done. Congratulazioni, Michael! Michael was randomly selected from all the at-large members ALM who joined, gifted, or renewed their Sons of Italy membership in October. To find out more about your own roots, visit www. The 29 th Annual National Education and Awards Gala promises to be, as always, a spectacular night.
I would like to bring to your attention a few positive changes we will be making that will open it up into a fun celebration for all who attend. In addition to honoring distinguished Italian Americans and awarding scholarships to a group of gifted students, we will be incorporating a Silent Auction and a Venetian Hour accompanied by music and dancing. The Silent Auction will include many enticing items to bid on, ones that generous donors have provided.
The Venetian Hour will have a wonderful display of Italian pastries and sweets with coffee and liqueurs. Roosevelt held his first inaugural ball and The Beatles once booked the entire seventh floor. For the fifteenth consecutive year, actor Joe Mantegna will be the emcee. This is a night to embrace our heritage and support SIF charity. It should fill each and every one of us with pride to see the broad list of SIF contributions that spans sixty-seven years and includes causes ranging from supporting medical research and our military heroes to funding earthquake relief and cultural preservation.
This night—and especially the charity that comes out of it—is certainly something that has our ancestors smiling down on us. Please join us for another memorable night that will surely go by too fast. Reserve your rooms now, as space is limited. An evening you will not want to miss! I would also like to share two letters. Though Rep. Ryan is, himself, half-Italian, it is important that he—and every public. As you will read below, we sent him a very respectful letter requesting an apology, and he responded with one. For the CSJ, it was not about blaming someone for their misstep.
Rather, it was about encouraging them to do the right thing. Representative Ryan did the right thing. Thank you for your continued support as we stand up for Columbus Day and for Italian Americans. The Honorable Tim Ryan U. House of Representatives — Ohio Washington, D. Nonetheless, it is important for you to recognize and acknowledge that this word originated out of a prejudice against Italian immigrants particularly day laborers, who were referred to as day-goers and was used as a means to disparage the very hard-working people who helped build our country.
I hope that you do the right thing and offer a public apology, not only to show that you meant no offense but to also bring awareness to the painful, regrettable history embedded in this word. Kevin A. I appreciate your taking the time to share your views with me and I am grateful for the opportunity to respond. I sincerely apologize for my remarks. I am a proud Italian American, raised by an Italian mother and Italian grandparents. Growing up our Italian neighbors and my family made homemade wine, which was - and still commonly is - affectionately referred to by that name.
Rest assured I meant no offense by my comments and have the deepest pride and respect for my Italian heritage. The Italian culture and values have significantly shaped who I am, and I would never intentionally demean or degrade the very culture that has been so integral to my life. I know from the stories of my grandparents and great-grandparents the real struggles and discrimination that Italian Americans faced when they first immigrated to America.
It pains me to think I may have somehow hurt my fellow Italians by my remark. Please accept my deepest apology and know that I will always try to best reflect the values of our heritage. Thank you again for your correspondence. Daniel J. The Perfect Gift Looking for a unique gift for family or friends? We will contact your gift recipient telling him or her of your gift. Fill out the form below and return to us ASAP. On behalf of Italian America and all of its readers, grazie mille for supporting our heritage, Tony!
Repeat advertisers also receive a discount. For more information, contact Pat Rosso at or pieassociates3 gmail. Email: nationaloffice osia. NE, Washington, DC Periodicals postage paid at Washington, D. All rights reserved. Reproduction by any method without permission of the editor is prohibited.
Statements of fact and opinion are the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily imply an opinion on the part of the officers, employees, or members of OSIA. Mention of a product or service in advertisements or text does not mean that it has been tested, approved or endorsed by OSIA, the Commission for Social Justice, or the Sons of Italy Foundation.
Italian America accepts query letters and letters to the editor. Please do not send unsolicited manuscripts. Italian America assumes no responsibility for unsolicited materials. Paul, Minn. Printing by Printing Solutions Inc. Also see www. Her story reminded me of one time in particular while I was driving on an early frigid February morning in upstate New York. I had dropped off a bus rental check in Elmira and was returning to Ithaca, where I was a sophomore at Cornell.
At the start of the trip, the clutch began slipping, and I knew right away that I was in trouble. I felt the shifter give way but I had enough speed to coast down a side road that had a mere handful of houses on it. I spotted a house a hundred yards away with smoke rising from its chimney, so I walked to it and knocked on the door. A man answered the door who looked rugged, with unshorn hair and calloused hands, wearing stonewash jeans and a flannel shirt—the type who worked hard for a living.
I asked if I could use the phone to call my grandparents, who lived in Ithaca. Of course, he said. I walked in and saw another man sitting at the kitchen table who looked every bit as rugged. Two open beer cans sat on the kitchen table. I dialed my grandparents and, sure enough, my grandfather said he was on his way. What they offered me instead was a lesson. They understood that helping me cost them very little—an inconvenience at most—while for me, it meant a great deal.
Because had they turned me away, I would have been cast into the cold with nowhere to go. Every time I help someone who is stranded just as I was, I think of those simple words. I think of the lesson those men taught me. Long ago, she developed a close friendship with Tomie dePaola and regaled him with her life stories.
When he released her first tale—the eponymous Strega Nona—in , it was awarded a Caldecott Honor. Intrinsically motivated learning in natural and artificial systems. Neural Networks, 41, Frontiers in Psychology, 5 , e Barto, A. Caligiore, D. Cartoni, E. Modular and hierarchical brain organization to understand assimilation, accommodation and their relation to autism in reaching tasks: a developmental robotics hypothesis. Adaptive Behavior. Chersi, F. Ciancio, A. Fiore, V. Mannella, F. The interplay of Pavlovian and instrumental processes in devaluation experiments: a computational embodied neuroscience model tested with a simulated rat.
In Tosh, C. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Mirolli, M. The roles of the amygdala in the affective regulation of body, brain and behaviour. Connection Science, 22 3 , Pezzulo, G. From actions to goals and vice-versa: theoretical analysis and models of the ideomotor principle and TOTE. Polizzi di Sorrentino, E. Santucci, V. Schembri, M. In EpiRob , pp. Seepanomwan, K. Taffoni, F. Thill, S. Introduction Autism Spectrum Disorder henceforth ASD or simply autism is increasingly considered a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder responsible for social impairments AA.
Here we focus in particular on the support and development of social competence in children. The attention on design for children with autism should be directed to make the child feel emotionally comfortable within the environment, to value the presence of others, and to develop basic communication and reciprocal interaction skills before embarking in supporting the acquisition of complex linguistic skills.
The development of new technologies has also contributed to improve emotion recognition in ASD individuals enhancing their social skills Pioggia et al. Interactive products are opening up new learning and playing opportunities for children with autism. A key element of these products is the need to be able to motivate the child to use them. Activities that children feel passionate about will be much better at motivating their learning processes Papert, as reported in Kestenbaum Although autistic children can be highly sensitive, or insensitive, to stimuli, they truly enjoy sensory rewards, such as sounds, music, vibration, and deep.
Main purposes. It is an interactive transitional object directed to enhance social interaction and communication between a child with autism and an adult. The features can be remotely controlled to adjust the. The feedback can thus be either directly caused by the child's action, or it can be controlled remotely by an adult.
Children with autism can interact with the prototype in the ways they prefer e. The positive sensorial feedback focuses on the interpersonal communication and on the achievement of their goals during the interaction. Towards an Experimental Protocol to Evaluate the Wearable Utility This section presents a preliminary hypothesis on a possible experimental protocol usable to evaluate the utility of the proposed wearable. The preliminary ideas proposed here will be refined together with specialists, such as therapists and students who work with autism, as well as together with autistic children's parents.
The basic protocol to investigate these aspects could be as follows. The experiments could have a between-subjects design, with two groups of children with autism in the same range of ASD and age. The experimental sessions would take place as the normal therapeutic sessions already involving the participants and would be based on the same tasks for both groups. This would allow the use of the device in already experienced therapeutic sessions and environment. The recordings by the pillow would be paral-. The device can be used both to support social interactions and to improve social and basic communication skills through its prolonged use.
Future work will further develop the device properties and possibilities of interaction with external devices e. It will also investigate, with structured experiments, the actual impact of the use of the device on the autistic child's social capabilities and on their long term improvement. References AA.
Special issue on neuroscience: The autism enigma. Nature, , Early autism detection: are we ready for routine screening? Pediatrics, 1 , e—7. Adaptive Behavior, 22 5 , — Chevallier, C. The social motivation theory of autism. Trends in Cognitive Sciences. Neural dynamics of autistic behaviors: cognitive, emotional, and timing substrates.
Psychological Review, 3 , — Representation of internal models of action in the autistic brain. Nature Neuroscience, 12 8 , —2. Designing for diversity: developing complex adaptive tangible products. Tangible and Embedded Interaction, The challenges of IDC. Communications of the ACM, 48 1 , Collaborative technologies for children with autism.
ACM Press. An android for enhancing social skills and emotion recognition in people with autism. Encyclopedia of Psychotherapy. Encyclopedia of Psychotherapy pp. Sebastiana Boscarino Dip. In questo Locke e gli altri non si discostavano dalla posizione di Cartesio, che aveva escluso categoricamente l'esistenza di un mondo mentale per gli animali. Da secoli i biologi si sono occupati invece della sfera mentale degli animali, a partire da Darwin stesso, ma soprattutto con l'avvento dell'etologia, Lorenz e Tinbergen, ma soprattutto per gli aspetti cognitivi meno impegnativi, come le reazioni percettive ed emotive, o il risolvere semplici problemi.
Sulla stessa linea Cabanac , che ha approfondito sperimentalmente certe reazioni emotive primordiali, come febbre e tachicardia, riscontrabili in rettili, mammiferi e uccelli, ma non negli anfibi. Ricerche quindi deviate su aspetti della coscienza molto lontani dal nucleo indicato da Locke, la storia personale, a cui la psicologia moderna ha dedicato un meccanismo ben preciso, la memoria episodica Tulving, Gli animali la posseggono? Su entrambi i punti arriva ben presto la smentita di Clayton e Dickinson , dopo studi sulle ghiandaie californiane, graziosi uccellini, che vivono in foreste sempre verdi dell'America, nutrendosi di due cibi: pinoli o bruchi.
Si pensa invece che dal primo lavoro di Clayton e Dickinson ad oggi, si siano accumulate interessanti nuove evidenze, che anzitutto permettono di smentire Suddendorf e Corballis, gli animali viaggiano abbondantemente nel tempo, all'indietro ma pure in avanti. I loro preferiti sono i maialini dello Yucatan, che si sono dimostrati bravissimi a tenere distinti il what un tipo di oggetto , where il posto e il which il contesto in un ambito sperimentale.
Oltre a queste esperienze dirette, altrettanto interessanti sono i progressi rispetto alle basi neurologiche della memoria episodica. Allen e Fortin hanno ripercorso, nella storia evolutiva, il sorgere nei cervelli delle strutture neurali alla base della memoria episodica, che sono anzitutto l'ippocampo, e poi la regione para ippocampale, e le connessioni di entrambe con la corteccia prefrontale. Allen T. Cabanac, M. Chalmers, D. Denton, D. Griffin D. Kouwenberg A. Mendl M. Current evidence and implications for welfare, Applied Animal Behaviour Science Suddendorf T.
The mental time travel debate: reply to Clayton et al. B Tulving E. Van Schaik C. Intendo giuochi da scacchiera, giuochi di carte, giuochi di palla, gare sportive, e via discorrendo. Come ho detto: non pensare, ma osserva! Ora passa ai giuochi di carte: qui trovi molte corrispondenze con quelli della prima classe, ma molti tratti comuni sono scomparsi, altri ne sono subentrati.
Confronta il giuoco degli scacchi con quello della tria. Pensa allora ai solitari. Veder somiglianze emergere e sparire […]. Murphy Eppure, i fecondi risultati di queste ricerche sono stati scarsamente considerati nel dibattito filosofico sulla definizione di arte. Tuttavia, Dean adotta una versione della teoria dei prototipi piuttosto datata ed inoltre limitata, se consideriamo le alternative oggi disponibili nel campo delle scienze cognitive cfr.
Adajian, T. Trinchero Ricerche filosofiche, Einaudi, Torino, A giugno esistono milioni. Si stima che circa Sono stati effettuati numerosi studi relativi all'utilizzo di Facebook Ellison, Steinfield, Lampe , Caci et al. Young ha sviluppato l'Internet Addiction Test IAT dimostrando che gli Internet-dipendenti mostrano una maggiore trascuratezza nei confronti delle loro famiglie, del loro lavoro, degli studi, delle relazioni interpersonali, oltre che della cura di se stessi Young I soggetti sperimentali hanno partecipato su base volontaria.
Media DS Internet 1,81 0,36 1,85 0,40 2,08 0,99 1,56 0,02 2,44 1,34 1,74 0,34 1,89 0, Tale ri-. Test T di Wilcoxon Internet vs. Facebook F1 F2. Bibliografia Andreassen, C. Development of a facebook addiction scale 1, 2. Psychological reports, 2. Backstrom, L. Four degrees of separation. Boyd, D. Social network sites: Definition, history, and scholarship.
Journal of Computer- Mediated Communication, 13 1. Caci, B. Facebook as a small world: a topological hypothesis. Social Network Analysis and Mining, 2. Sistemi Intelligenti, 3. The big five personality factors as predictors of facebook usage. Facebook: topology to personality and back — an actor-based simulation.
In European Perspectives on Cognitive Science. New Bulgarian University Press. Cardaci, M. In Fenomenologia della scoperta, a cura di Maldonato, M,. Bruno Mondadori. Reti sociali, informazioni individuali. Ellison, N. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 12 4. Ferraro, G. D'Amico, A. Garcia, D. Personality and Individual Differences, Kuss, D. Excessive online social networking: Can adolescents become addicted to facebook. Education and Health, 29 4. Skeels, M. When social networks cross boundaries: a case study of workplace use of facebook and linkedin. Young K. Internet addiction: symptoms, evaluation and treatment.
In Innovations in Clinical Practice, a cura di L. Effect of stimulus type and experimental procedure on a visual discrimination task. Introduction Diurnal primate species are frequently studied in the context of learning abilities in the visual cognition domain since they most rely on sight to gather information from the environment Fleagle, ; Gilad et al. Virtually all experimental paradigms employed to study visual cognition in humans and non-human species are based on discrimination tasks involving the choice between two or more visual stimuli.
To this purpose, different types of stimuli and procedures for stimuli presentation can be used. Specifically, the necessity to carry out in depth analyses of cognitive processes led to the development of increasingly sophisticated methods for data collection.
In particular, in the last decades, there was a spread use of computerised procedures in a growing number of animal taxa e. This trend stressed the necessity to compare data obtained with computerised procedures to those acquired from procedures that require to be administered by a human experimenter. On the one hand, computerised tasks allow to present a high number of trials within a scheduled time slot and also to present stimuli and to register responses very precisely in terms of both accuracy and response time preventing experimenter biases.
On the other hand, this kind of procedures are almost exclusively administered by using images presented on a computer screen. Systematic comparisons of the same subjects tested by using different types of methodological procedures would contribute to clarify how methodological aspects may affect learning behaviour in cognitive tasks.
Materials and Methods Subjects were eight adult tufted capuchin monkeys four males and four females. Capuchins were trained to discriminate which stimulus, between two stimuli of the same shape but different size, was the bigger one. Stimuli consisted of pairs of: a. In each experimental condition, the stimuli could be linear-shaped or circular-shaped. The Food condition included a pair of salted sticks 10 cm and 6 cm in length, respectively , and a pair of circular hosts 6.
In the Food and the Object conditions, the apparatus consisted of a metal trolley with a sliding tray which could be moved forward and backward on a support. A human experimenter located the stimuli on the sliding tray, moved them closer to the subject and provided a food reward in case of correct responses. In the Food condition the reward was the food item selected, whereas in the Object condition the reward was a piece of peanut. In the Image condition, the apparatus consisted of a computerized workstation with a laptop connected to a touch-screen and an automatic food dispenser.
A software served to present the stimuli, to record the response behaviour and to control the releasing of a banana-flavoured pellet in case of correct responses. For the three types of stimuli we compared the mean number of trials to reach the learning criterion and the mean percentage of correct responses to acquisition. Results and discussion The results of Experiment 1 foods vs.
Both the different types of stimuli and procedures for stimuli presentation may have played a key role. The results of the second experiment objects indicated that objects discrimination led to intermediate levels of performance compared with foods and images, both in terms of number of trials to acquisition and accuracy at. Specifically, as previously observed for foods, capuchins needed significantly less trials to reach the learning criterion with objects than images. However, in terms of accuracy at acquisition, objects did not differ from both foods and images. Finally, no clear evidence emerged in favour of the ability of capuchins to immediately generalise the solution of the problem across the three different conditions.
Thus, similarities among conditions used in this study seem to be not sufficient to promote generalization processes, albeit capuchin monkeys are able to transfer their discrimination ability across different conditions in other experimental settings e. Altogether, these results show that capuchin monkeys can learn a visual discrimination task presented in different settings, but the learning time and the accuracy of their responses may vary depending on both the stimulus type and the experimental procedure adopted.
Finally, this study suggests that the manipulation of the stimuli could facilitate the comprehension of their size, as argued for humans Gori et al. Future studies in nonhuman species would need to investigate all these factors and their mutual interactions in order to understand their effects in visual cognition processes. Bayer, K. The touch-screen method as an implement for dog experiments. Barros, R. Generalized identity matching-to-sample in Cebus apella. Cook, R.
Successive two-item same—different discrimination and concept learning by pigeons. Extent and limits of the matching concept in monkeys Cebus apella. Fagot, J. Evidence for large long-term memory capacities in baboons and pigeons and its implications for learning and the evolution of cognition. Fleagle, J. Primate Adaptation and Evolution. Gilad, Y. Loss of olfactory receptor genes coincides with the acquisition of full trichromatic vision in primates.
Plos Biol. Gori, M. Impaired visual sizediscrimination in children with movement disorders. Neuropsychologia 50, Hanggi, E. Long-term memory for categories and concepts in horses Equus caballus. Mueller-Paul J. Touchscreen performance and knowledge transfer in the red-footed tortoise Chelonoidis carbonaria. Truppa, V. Identity concept learning in matching-to-sample tasks by tufted capuchin monkeys Cebus apella. Veit, L. Abstract rule neurons in the endbrain support intelligent behaviour in corvid songbirds.
Vonk, J. Gorilla Gorilla gorilla gorilla and Orangutan Pongo abelii understanding of first- and second-order relations. Marcengo, Buriano e Geymonat Bandura ; Nakajima, Lehdonvirta, Tokunaga e Kimura I sistemi IoT possono dunque favorire il cambiamento nei comportamenti degli utenti: su questa base sono stati sviluppati diversi tool es. Froehlich et al. Questa ricerca ha gli scopi di prospettare un sistema IoT capace di promuovere un cambiamento comportamentale e di presentare alcune riflessioni per la progettazione di affordance nei sistemi IoT.
Il sistema deve essere in grado di integrare questi dati e ragionare su di essi, es. La nozione di segnale fatico permette di immaginare come questi nuovi tipi di affordance possano essere integrati in oggetti materiali. Ricerca e progettazione dovrebbero orientarsi verso la creazione di questi tipi di affordance materiali, in modo da creare sistemi IoT che, pienamente integrati nei contesti di vita quotidiani degli utenti, siano con essi in comunicazione costante. Bandura, A. PsychoOncology, 22, Carassa, A. Movement, action, and situation. Rey Solaz eds. In Proc.
Cognitive Science Society, Cipriani, F. Hungry Minds Froehlich, J. Bransford eds. Erlbaum Jakobson, R. Feltrinelli Kay, M. In ACM Conf. Ubiquitous Computing, Marcengo, A. Springer Nakajima, T. In Conf. Designing Interactive Systems, Tirassa, M. Emerging Communication, 10, Troina fbuono oasi. Troina gtrubia oasi. Varie ricerche hanno mostrato come alcuni individui con ASD preferiscono i robot agli esseri umani. Ad esempio, Robins et al. Duquette et al. In altri casi l'imitazione si sviluppa spontaneamente come parte di un gioco con il bambino che imita i comportamenti del robot e viceversa Robins et al.
Questo gioco si estende anche alle interazioni triadiche tra un bambino con autismo, un adulto o bambino e un robot. Materiali e metodo 2. Kim et al. De Graaf et al. Nessuno dei bambini e degli educatori aveva precedentemente avuto esperienza con un robot. Le informazioni sui partecipanti e sui tempi di interazione con il robot sono riassunte nella Tabella I. Sigla V. Questa distanza ha permesso ai bambini di creare un proprio spazio personale positivo per l'interazione Fridin et al.
Durante il gioco il ricercatore, utilizzando lo smartphone, opera il robot da remoto e ne controlla il comportamento. In seguito chiede al bambino di imitare alcuni semplici movimenti corporei degli arti superiori e inferiori. Nella fase conclusiva il robot saluta il bambino verbalmente e con il gesto chiedendo inoltre una stretta di mano, ringraziandolo per la sua partecipazione.
Per analizzare l'interazione abbiamo usato quattro criteri proposti da Robins et al. I comportamenti sono stati valutati grazie alla registrazione in video delle sessioni sperimentali utilizzando la tecnica di un fotogramma a secondo. Il bambino V. Sorprendentemente, al termine della sessione, ha salutato il robot e il ricercatore. Robins et al. Bibliografia Bird, G. Corisco in press De Graaf, M. Robots, 24, — Fridin, M. Human Behav. IEEE Int. Access Inf. Autism Dev. Symbolic theories of meaning assume that linguistic meaning arises from the quasi-syntactic combination of mental symbols.
This view is often conjoined with a modularist assumption that meaning is processed in an informationally encapsulated way such that these mental symbols are amodal, i. Amodal-symbolic theories of meaning have more recently been challenged by embodied-emulative theories according to which linguistic meaning is grounded in sensory, motor and emotional processes and semantic comprehension consists in emulations of scenarios involving such processes Barsalou, ; Kemmerer, ; Gallese and Lakoff, The amodal-symbolic view is often aligned with the minimalist semantic claim of bottom-up compositionality according to which the truth evaluable semantic content of a sentence is fully determined by its syntactic structure and lexical content where only a small number of lexical items e.
With regard to the semantic integration of a sentence in a discourse, this implies a two-step process: discourse-level information is considered only after sentence local meaning is established. The two-step model is challenged by the idea of free pragmatic enrichment. Recanati, according to which contextual information can be immediately incorporated into the truth-evaluable sentence meaning such that global context and lexical content contribute to sentence meaning at once, leading to a one-step model.
In this paper we tackle both these debates presenting the results of an experimental investigation in which, using event-related potentials ERPs , we tested the diverging predictions of two-step and single-step models concerning the time course of the integration of discourse-level information. Since we were also interested in the contrast between amodal and embodiedemulative view, we combined both aims choosing contextual information that is related to bodily information. We created short stories in which a human character selected an object to accomplish a specific goal.
There were two possible situations: in the first case, the combination between the object and the action gave rise to a familiar or conventional interaction for example, using a funnel to pour water ; in the second type of situation, the combination between the object and the action was novel and unconventional for example, using the funnel to hang the coat.
Distinguishing between conventional and unconventional interactions we wanted to emphasize the difference between common uses of objects and novel uses that they can take on because of their physical properties. The term affordance is commonly referred to both these cases Gibson, ; see Borghi and Riggio, for a distinction between stable and temporary affordances.
However, a more subtle and theoretically interesting distinction in the domain of affordances can be made between ad hoc affordances and telic roles. Ad hoc affordances are dispositional properties of objects and environments in a particular given situation. In contrast, the telic role of an object is stored in semantic long-term memory as part of the lexical entry of the concept under which the object is categorized. The telic component of the lexical entry specifies the function or the purpose of an object Pustejovsky, In our experiment the ad hoc affordance was chosen such that it was incompatible with the lexically specified telic role.
To guarantee the ad hoc character, we invented unusual scenarios to make sure that subjects could not recruit information from previously made experiences. Introducing this context generates a contrast between the lexically specified affordance of pouring the telic role and the contextually induced affordance of hanging the ad hoc affordance. Once the contrast between ad hoc affordance and the telic role be-. Using an ERP paradigm, we specifically investigated the time course of how this conflict is resolved.
In particular, we focused on the N effect, a negative ERP deflection peaking around ms after stimulus onset and larger over centro-parietal electrodes. The N has become particularly relevant in language studies given its close relation to the processing of word meanings in context Kutas and Federmeier, However, this would imply a violation of semantic expectations within the sentence composition process whether or not the linguistic context induces a conflicting ad hoc affordance. A clearly enhanced N component should be elicited, indicating that the subject is experiencing interpretative problems.
The contextual information should be taken into account only after sentence meaning composition has been completed. The N component should not be enhanced. On the contrary, single-step models assume that the conflict between lexically specified telic roles and contextually provided ad-hoc affordances is resolved already in the process of sentence meaning composition because contextual information is immediately taken into account.
Consequently, in the process of sentence meaning composition no violation of semantic expectation is predicted and, hence, no enhanced N The pattern of N effects observed in our experiment is consistent with the predictions of single-step models. These effects are best explained, we suggest, by the following hypothesis: If the preceding linguistic discourse induces an ad hoc affordance for an object that conflicts with the lexically.
These results have striking implications for both the debates we wanted to tackle. As for the role of sensory-motor information in semantic processing, the immediate integration of ad hoc affordances during the process of meaning composition cannot be easily conciliated with amodal-symbolic accounts of meaning, and is consistent, instead, with embodied-emulative theories of language and cognition.
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Annual Review of Psychology, 62, Pustejovsky, J. The Generative Lexicon. Pylyshyn, Z. Computation and cognition. Toward a foundation for cognitive science. Cambridge: MIT Press. Assessing fluency in persons with stuttering by complex automatized and non-automatized dualtask conditions. Introduction According to the main explanatory models on stuttering, specific cognitive functions are involved in speech planning and in fluency management. In general, they are based on cognitive architectures formed by modules, processes and function controls, aimed at resource management and regulation.
According to the HMM, only the first level modules, the simplest ones, are similar to those described by Fodor, while the second and third level modules are less computationally encapsulated and are the result of SAS management. These modules can control learned automatic behaviours. This model acknowledges a relevant role of central and executive functions in fluency learning and regulation.