Nearly every state dinner under Johnson included beef or steak, whereas Clinton, whose presidency coincided with the low-fat-crazed s, served beef only twice. Turkey, once a common state dinner course, was never seen again after Dwight D. George W. Bush and Obama, both two-term presidents, hosted 13 dinners apiece. Trump, who became president over two years ago, has so far hosted only one.
The number of female candidates in the upcoming presidential election also raises another question: If the first lady traditionally oversees the state dinner, would the first gentleman take that responsibility if one of these candidates won? Or would he delegate that authority to someone else?
Now that heads of state can more easily communicate, or even see what the U.
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The Roosevelts might have been American aristocracy, but when it came to the dinner table, the radical spirit of the New Deal was very much in play. Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt, especially Eleanor, wanted to rebuild social functions at the White House into something more purposeful and progressive. State dinners under the previous president, Herbert Hoover, consisted of seven courses: a shellfish course usually oysters or clams , soup served with celery and olives, fish, a meat course, salad, a dessert course accompanied by coffee and sometimes candy, and finally a fruit course.
Guests would wash these down with a tall glass of water, because Prohibition. If there were an entree and soup, the fish course would be omitted. And no fruit course. A look at the menus shows state dinners in the s nixed the fruit but still maintained the other six courses the seafood courses were dropped after Dig in: How the graphics work The food served was also rather modest in comparison to what previous presidents provided. Fancy feasts would have been a bad look in the middle of the Great Depression—and then positively treasonous during the limited rationing of the United States in World War II.
There are few records of what the honored heads of state thought of these meals, but a letter Ernest Hemingway wrote to his mother-in-law in about his dinner at the White House is rather illustrative. An enthusiastic but unskilled admirer. Charles de Gaulle, were included because of the special circumstances surrounding the war and to flesh out the dataset.
Roosevelt during a state dinner at the White House on May 5, George R. Truman presided over a major renovation of the White House, which meant all of his state dinners from to were held in various hotels around Washington. And it came with a certain corn chip, although to cut Truman some slack the Fritos were served at luncheons—in January for Drees and April for Churchill—not dinners. Then-Princess Elizabeth of England was served baked Old Missouri ham, french fried potato balls, and watermelon pickles along with the lobster thermidor at her state dinner in October , shortly before she became queen.
The wine still goes largely unmentioned. President Elpidio Quirino of the Philippines was served a dry sherry, Sauterne, and a red wine at his August state dinner, which aside from the lack of Champagne seems to fit the general pattern of state dinner wines during this time period. Mentioned far more frequently are the hard liquor selections.
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Truman had a reputation as a bourbon fan, starting every day at 5 a. As a result, every luncheon started with old fashioneds, martinis, and tomato juice. Given the White House renovation and the lack of available data on state dinners held at Blair House, the majority of these menus come from state luncheons, stag luncheons no women allowed , and official dinners. A dinner and luncheon for Winston Churchill were included, although he was no longer head of state at the time, because they were prepared similarly to a state dinner.
President Harry S. Right: A note written by Truman details his busy schedule during a state visit by the president of Ecuador in June He was not above serving saltines and toasted Triscuits to his foreign guests. In his second term, the state dinners get noticeably fancier, matching the boom times of the s. Dig in: How the graphics work We also see the first appearance of many dishes that are mainstays on the state dinner menus all the way to George H. Bush: wild rice, bibb lettuce salads, artichokes, mousse. But Ike was a humble Kansan at heart: The foie gras gelatin was served with Boston brown bread sandwiches.
Eisenhower was also the first president to document the selected wines on every state dinner menu. The structure is the same for every state dinner: A sherry with every first course, a Sauterne for the next course, a Burgundy for the following, and a Champagne at the end. The wineries are notably all from France or Spain. The ever-moderate and incremental Eisenhower was, in fact, the first president to serve California wines at White House social functions—but only at luncheons and dinners lower on the social totem pole than the state dinner.
Eisenhower Presidential Library. Ever the proletarian, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev refused to wear the customary white tie and tails. Right: President Dwight D. Eisenhower loved soup so much that he even created his own.
His detailed recipe for vegetable soup was printed in an Iowa newspaper in The Kennedys brought unprecedented class and sophistication to the White House state dinner. Jacqueline Kennedy restructured the White House staff and created a new executive chef position to handle formal dinners. The days of family friends and old military buddies commanding the cooks were over.
His impact on the menus was immediate. Verdon also insisted on the freshest, highest-quality ingredients possible. Indeed, the whole country in the early s went gaga for the Gauls. Dig in: How the graphics work But not all French cuisine is for the diamond credit card set, as the Kennedys demonstrated. JFK is only one of two presidents known to have served waffle fries as a side dish the other is Lyndon B. Kennedy was a global president, starting the Peace Corps and making travel a far more frequent role of the presidency, with eight state visits in his less than three years in office—three times the rate of Eisenhower.
But despite his cultural diplomacy, nods to other countries are kept mostly to the desserts, usually themes on a faddish s dessert known as a bombe. He was also the first president to serve chardonnay, which—along with the occasional pinot blanc—replaced sherry as the first-course wine. On Nov. Right: The menu, with notes President John F. John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum. And plenty of beer. Johnson was not a picky eater, but he was definitely a meat-and-potatoes kind of guy—literally.
More than three-quarters of his state dinners included beef, lamb, or veal. The menus were written in English again. Although Kennedy was the first president to serve an American wine at a state dinner, Johnson was the first to serve American wines exclusively. This was over 10 years before the Judgment of Paris , when wine snobs still automatically assumed the inferiority of American vintages. The Americanized food and wine were two parts of a larger diplomatic effort by the Johnson administration to showcase products from a country at the height of its power and influence.
Befitting one of the most ambitious presidents of the 20th century, Johnson also holds the record for most state dinners: a staggering That was over eight times the number hosted by Truman. Johnson even hosted two state dinners within three days of each other on the week of June 8, Lyndon and Lady Bird Johnson also made a decision that would define state dinners at the White House for decades. A Swiss-born hotel chef, Haller oversaw state dinner cuisine for the next 21 years. After Richard Nixon became president in January , he reverted the food and wine at state dinners back to how they had been under Kennedy.
Had the years to really happened, or were they simply a frenzied, sirloin-and-spuds fever dream? Nixon hosted 40 state dinners before he resigned. Perhaps as a typically Nixonian attempt to convince others of his status, 13 of those dinners were in his first year alone.
He was also the first president to host a leader of the Soviet Union—General Secretary Leonid Brezhnev on June 18, —since the s. With modern weapons it just does not make sense. If war comes we both lose. Although the tension between superpowers in was dulled by detente and the SALT I treaty, the state dinners held for Brezhnev in Washington and Nixon at the Soviet Embassy over that summer were where the kitchen debate spilled over into the dining room. During this Francophilic era of American state dinners, lobster bellevue was reserved for a limited number of state dinners. It was expensive and difficult to prepare.
It helped demonstrate to the guest of honor the American horn of plenty at its meat gelatin-coated finest and fullest. Priyatnogo appetita! The dinners hosted in his honor during his historic visit to China revolutionized restaurant menus in the United States. A country that knew of Chinese food mainly as chop suey and egg rolls was exposed to a variety of new dishes during the media blitz—mu shu pork and Peking duck, for instance.
Pat Nixon and Jackie Kennedy were good friends, according to Seale, despite the bitterness of the election. Although Nixon came from humble roots in rural Southern California, he had expensive taste, especially in wine. Many of his favored wines were pricey French Bordeaux and German rieslings, such as Bernkasteler Doctor—the most expensive German wine you could buy at the time.
His treemap includes more Cristal than a Jay-Z album. The bottle was wrapped in a napkin to conceal the label from the congressmen. He served the same bibb lettuce salad 14 state dinners in a row, from to the final dinner in December Gerald Ford served as president for just two and a half years and yet found time to host 34 state dinners—the fifth most of any president. His output was as solid and steady as Ford himself. Seven of those state dinners were in the last five months of alone, his first five months of office. A dinner hosted by then-President Nixon had been scheduled with the king for March 12, The ever-reliable Ford, meanwhile, found a way to host the king at the White House despite being scheduled for a talk in San Diego that afternoon.
Ford, who promised to restore dignity to the White House, also used state dinners as a way to reassure foreign leaders. Stable allies were important amid the chaos of the mids, with the Yom Kippur War, the energy crisis, the fall of Saigon, and the rise of terrorism in Europe. Even though the guy before me resigned, you can trust me to keep this ship afloat. In fact, he said precisely that at one dinner. Dig in: How the graphics work And what of the food? Gerald Ford was a transitional president with transitional state dinners.
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For the first year, Ford menus were a continuation of the precedent set by Kennedy and Nixon: French menus with French names. Think of the s as French food with American ingredients. By the end of , all of the wines at a Ford state dinner were from the United States. It was the first Wolverine State wine ever served at a White House state dinner and would remain the only Michigan wine until Barack Obama served one in The menus could not be found by the Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library and Museum. If historians judged presidents purely on their culinary performance, Jimmy Carter would be ranked one of the all-time greats.
Not only did he host more state dinners in a single year than any other president—16 in —but on Sept. His state dinner in March to honor the Israeli-Egyptian peace treaty was the largest ever given by the White House: 1, guests. The food on both occasions was the epitome of a fancy dinner at the time—Maine lobster en belle-vue and roast saddle of veal with a selection of fresh vegetables for the former, and Columbia River salmon in aspic and roast sirloin of beef with spring vegetables at the latter. There was a solid political reason for this flurry of events.
Harry S. Truman
Carter was constantly on the defensive during his presidency, facing a country that believed itself to be in terminal decline and perceived as a weak and uncertain leader. Around the halfway point of his presidency, the Democratic Party grew nervous. Huge things that the party would pay for … to pep him up. Talk about bridge-building—he even invited Richard Nixon as a guest! Dig in: How the graphics work By the time Carter left office he had hosted 38 state dinners.
With dinners so frequent that some occurred within two or three days of each other, the Carter menus offered few surprises.
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The most significant departure from other state dinners of the era was the appearance every so often of a Georgia dish. The late s saw so much growth in the American wine market that by , sales surpassed that of hard liquor. That passion for wine did not translate into the White House. Never a big drinker himself, Carter served wines that were carryovers from Gerald Ford—except for the bargain-bin Paul Masson wines, which were served four times. Contact sheets show state dinners hosted by the Carters—for the president of Venezuela on June 28, top two rows , and the Shah of Iran on Nov.
National Archives. For fans of state dinners, the Reagan administration was morning in America. Bush or Barack Obama. And no other president can boast of a state dinner where John Travolta danced with Princess Diana. How were the Reagans able to throw so many glamorous state dinners? The historian William Seale offered another possible explanation. And everything went as they planned it. By December , tensions had thawed, and the White House even threw a state dinner for Mikhail Gorbachev. Dig in: How the graphics work Still, by it was apparent that the state dinner food was becoming an archaism.
Nancy Reagan, taking a more hands-on approach than most first ladies, tried to freshen up menu selections that had now been used for more than 20 years. Ruta, who served as executive sous-chef during the Reagan years, recalled that Nancy Reagan relied on the advice of, remarkably, her interior decorator, Ted Graber. Mousse was served more frequently as a lighter alternative to the traditionally heavy French courses.
The Reagans hired David Berkley, a wine expert based in Sacramento, to consult on wine selections. Berkley introduced several new California wineries to the White House cellars, with the visible result that the drinks were noticeably more diverse than in the s. Chenin blanc took a backseat to chardonnay, and the hot California climate-friendly zinfandel and merlot appeared for the first time. Nixon would likely disagree. The following state dinner menus are currently unavailable or incomplete: Anwar Sadat of Egypt, Aug. For George H. Bush, every course deserved its own mousse.
When it came to alcohol, Bush was a beneficiary of the s chardonnay boom, with the drink edging out sparkling wine on his menus as prices went down and interest in wine—especially American wine—spiked. But otherwise, there was no great innovation during the Bush era; as in much else. King Hassan II of Morocco was served cold pumpkin souffle with crystallized ginger and blackberry sauce for dessert in September But at that same dinner, the king was also served medallions of salmon in aspic with caviar sauce.
Chambrin, who came to the White House as a sous-chef in , loved working for the Bushes. Like Lyndon B. Johnson, George H. Bush had been part of Washington culture for a long time and loved to entertain. From the stylishly casual and traditional to the self-confidently bold, our rooms are as inviting as they are homely. Rooms Suites. Offers Browse our range of inspiring offers, seasonal specials and themed escapes.
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