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Zigmont used adult and experiential learning theories to propose a framework for developing and facilitating simulation courses [ 30 ]. For effective practice based learning he focused on 3 areas: The individual previous knowledge, self efficacy and psychological safety , the learning environment and key experiences. Within these 3 areas he elaborated important principles as for example key experiences have to be challenging, emotionally charged and contains mistakes and errors.

These principles are mapped to our second, third and fourth statements. We agree that these factors are mandatory for sustained change within a clinical environment. In-situ simulation with real teams 4 th and 5 th statements may offer the possibility fostering organizational learning and culture change [ 49 ]. Berragan published a framework conceptualising learning through simulation based on sociocultural theories [ 46 ]. The focus of this framework is the formation of professional identity, contextualisation of care and development of professional competency.

This framework based on sociocultural learning theories is in line with our 4 th and 5 th statements. Our framework, in addition, investigates the transfer of learning theories into practice as well as the principles of experiential learning and aspects on motivation and reflection. Cheng recently published a review for instructors regarding simulation-based crisis resource management CRM [ 18 ]. His guidelines are broadly based CRM-principles with description and appraisal of scenario design, debriefing strategies and assessment tools.

The described debriefing strategies are very similar supporting our first and third statements. The focus of assessment of teamwork during simulated team training is an aspect not covered in our framework. This is an omission due to our approach applying theories that are focused on learning and not assessing. Assessment is important for feedback and remediation [ 50 ] and depends upon the content of the training session i. CRM principles, technical skills and available resources.

Assessment tools for simulation training are not yet sufficiently validated or focused on teamwork [ 51 ]. Clearly, assessment is mandatory for a teaching programme and regular, longitudinal assessments may be a suitable approach with impact on learning and patient safety [ 52 , 53 ]. Two recently published reviews regarding simulation in healthcare education broadly support our first, second and third statements [ 13 , 19 ].

Curriculum integration, deliberate practice and assessment are aspects not sufficiently covered in our framework due to our focus on the single simulation session. Undoubtedly, it is mandatory to embed simulated team training into a teaching programme in order to enable repeated training and to therefore foster optimal teamwork and patient safety [ 24 ].

In-situ simulation is a newer strategy with the advantage to be within the usual context and working environment. This provides an opportunity to address organisational and system-based processes within the original cultural and social context [ 21 ]. In our framework, emphasizing the sociocultural context fourth and fifth statements in simulated team training is probably the most significant difference to other published frameworks, and this may lead to better learning outcomes. There are several limitations of our proposed framework as developed through the application of learning theories.

The main limitation is the dependency on learning theories without application and validation of the proposed framework. Reliability and validity of the framework have to be evaluated and the impact on learning needs to be compared to other published guidelines. Second, our framework is focused on a single simulation session. Published literature shows the necessity of embedding simulated team training into a curriculum with the possibility of repeated training and deliberate practice. Third, assessment of team performance is mandatory for feedback and remediation and this aspect is not covered within our framework.

The strengths of our debate are the comparison and discussion of diverse learning theories, their application to simulated team training, the outcome of several statements describing the important aspects of a training session and the conclusion with a concise and feasible framework. There are several implications following the debate and critical appraisal of relevant learning theories as a conceptual framework for simulated team training programmes.

There is always a gap between simulation and real clinical life. Simulation-based education can complement, but should not replace education involving real patients in genuine settings. Nevertheless, simulation team training can serve as a powerful tool and environment for learning.

To be fully effective it is important to critically appraise the programme, to explicitly acknowledge and name the conceptual frameworks used and to compare them with known learning principles. The debate is regarding the second scenario. Omission of the second experimentation phase means no possibility to apply new frames in a safe environment, no guaranteed feedback of new applied actions and after substantial time relapse risk of losing conceptualised but not tested behaviours.

Let them re-experiment to optimise the effect of a simulated team training session. Statement 2: Other experiential learning theorists inform us that the scenario needs to challenge participants to generate failures and feelings of inadequacy to drive and motivate team members to critical reflect and learn.

The debate is regarding the importance of failure during the experience. The inadequacy and contradictions of the habitual experience rather than the experience itself serve as a basis for reflection. A scenario generating dissonance and difficulties optimises the efficiency of simulated team training. Facilitators and peers must guide and motivate participants through the debriefing session, inciting and empowering critical reflexion. The debate is regarding the effectiveness of individual, critical reflexion. Individual observations are laden by prior conceptualisation and interpretation and it is highly unlikely that an individual learner is able to observe unbiased experience, reflect critically challenging habitual frameworks and conceptualise new principles.

Use the impact of all group members to drive and motivate individual participants to challenge their own beliefs.

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The debate is regarding the impact of real compared to improvised teams. Interactions between team members to heighten physiological state, to observe peers gaining insight into their own performance and to model behaviour may be much more pronounced within real teams compared to improvised teams not knowing each other. Use real teams fostering and supporting preparedness and motivation to improve their own team performance. Statement 5: Socio-cultural learning theory proposes that it is mandatory to introduce cultural context and social conditions to the learning experience for effective team training.

The debate is regarding team training in a simulation centre versus in-situ simulation. Knowledge is permanently negotiated by members of a team and learners are just one aspect in a complex system where learning is sensitive to the context. The system is influenced and mediated by the social setting and the context. Significant changes result not from individual decisions but from the team shifting in critical states during their response to a crisis. Use in-situ simulation to introduce the social and context setting into the training to improve effectiveness and efficacy of the learning session.

We created a conceptual framework applying the 5 statements coming out of different learning theories. We compared our new framework with other published frameworks and guidelines regarding simulated training. All statements are to some extent included in recently published guidelines and different frameworks, whereas there is no publication referring to all 5 statements. In contrast to others, our proposed framework emphasises the social setting and context together with the request for real multidisciplinary teams emphasising in-situ simulation for optimal team training.

Curriculum integration, deliberate practice and assessment of team performance are aspects of other publications regarding simulated training not covered in our framework. Embedding in-situ team training sessions into a teaching programme in order to enable repeated training and to assess regularly team performance is mandatory for a sustained improvement of team performance and patient safety. All authors fulfil the standards for authorship. MS was responsible for the concept, drafted the manuscript and had the final responsibility of the published version. MB and AM made substantial contributions to the concept, were involved revising the manuscript critically and gave final approval of the published version.

He is director of the interdisciplinary simulated team and resuscitation training programme iSTaRT at his institution. She is director of the simulated paediatric resuscitation team training programme SPRinT at her institution. There was no funding for this work. No person except the authors contributed to the manuscript. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. BMC Med Educ. Published online Apr 3.

Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author. Martin Stocker: hc. Received Dec 8; Accepted Mar This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background As a conceptual review, this paper will debate relevant learning theories to inform the development, design and delivery of an effective educational programme for simulated team training relevant to health professionals.

Summary The ideal simulated team training programme needs a scenario for concrete experience, followed by a debriefing with a critical reflexive observation and abstract conceptualisation phase, and ending with a second scenario for active experimentation. Keywords: Teamwork, Team training, In-situ simulation, Experiential learning theory, Socio-cultural learning theories, Conceptual framework. Background During the last decade medical and nursing authorities and societies have increasingly recognised the critical importance of team training as a mandatory domain for health professional education [ 1 - 4 ].

Discussion Debate 1: Single versus repeated exposure in one training session What is the most effective way to structure a simulated team training session? Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Figure 2. Debate 2: Simple experience versus experience of failure What do we know regarding the concrete experience as catalyst for effective learning? Debate 3: Individual reflection versus critical reflection in the group How should we reflect during debriefing in order to optimise learning?

Debate 5: Simulation centre versus in-situ simulation Most studies reporting simulated team training are done in the setting of a simulation centre. Figure 3. Summary There are several implications following the debate and critical appraisal of relevant learning theories as a conceptual framework for simulated team training programmes. Competing interests We declare that we have no conflicts of interest. Acknowledgment There was no funding for this work. Common program requirements: General competencies. Better standards. Better physicians.

Better care. Outcomes and standards for undergraduate medical education. An important focus will be on the selective use of strategies that contribute to effective communication. This course is intended to prepare students for the compulsory Grade 11 university or college preparation course. This course emphasizes the development of literacy, communication, and critical and creative thinking skills necessary for success in academic and daily life. Students will analyze challenging literary texts from various periods, countries, and cultures, as well as a range of informational and graphic texts; in addition, students will create oral, written, and media texts in a variety of forms.

An important focus will be on using language with precision and clarity and incorporating stylistic devices appropriately and effectively. The course is intended to prepare students for the compulsory Grade 12 university or college preparation course. Students have the opportunity to focus on Literature or Language and Literature. This course emphasizes the consolidation of the literacy, communication, and critical and creative thinking skills necessary for success in academic and daily life.

Students will analyze a range of challenging literary texts from various periods, countries, and cultures; interpret and evaluate informational and graphic texts; in addition, students will create oral, written, and media texts in a variety of forms. An important focus will be on using academic language coherently and confidently, selecting the reading strategies best suited to particular texts and particular purposes for reading, and developing greater control in writing.

The course is intended to prepare students for university, college or the workplace. This course emphasizes knowledge and skills related to the craft of writing. Students will investigate models of effective writing; use a workshop approach to write a variety of works; and make considered decisions for improving the quality of their writing. They will also complete a creative or analytical independent study project and investigate opportunities for publication and for writing careers. This half-credit course is taught over Grades 11 and 12 as part of the Extended Essay process.

It may be studied over Grades 10 to 12 only by students with previous experience with the language. Students interested in studying Mandarin in Grades may speak to their counsellors about the after school International Languages Program. Students will continue to develop and apply their speaking skills in a variety of contexts, and participate in activities that will improve their reading comprehension and writing skills. They will also continue to explore aspects of the culture of countries where Mandarin is spoken by taking part in community-sponsored events and activities involving both print and technological resources.

Although students will continue to expand their vocabulary and repertoire of language structures, the language they will use at this level will still be simple. This course offers students opportunities to further develop their knowledge of Mandarin and to enhance their communication skills. Students will use increasingly sophisticated language in a variety of activities that will enable them to speak and write with clarity and accuracy. Students will also enhance their thinking skills. This course prepares students for university studies in Mandarin.

Students will enhance their ability to use the language with clarity and precision, and will develop the language skills needed to engage in sustained conversations and discussions, understand and evaluate information, read diverse materials for both study and pleasure, and write clearly and effectively.


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Students will also have opportunities to add to their knowledge of the culture of countries where the language is spoken, through the use of community resources and computer technology. Students can earn credits toward their Ontario Secondary School Diploma. Classes are usually held after school, and an extra fee is charged because class size is often very small. Students and parents should consult the Guidance Department or our Coordinator of International Languages for more details. Branksome Hall offers courses and support for students whose first language is not English.

Our program provides support for second-language students who are already functionally literate in the English language and who are, for the most part, able to cope in mainstream academic classes. We offer four full-credit classes in second-language or English as a Second Language instruction at the intermediate, upper intermediate and advanced levels. These classes are designed for second-language learners who need to improve their English literacy skills for further study. Support outside of class is also offered to second-language learners. Students are asked to be active participants as they progress along their English-language learning continuum.

Students new to Branksome whose first language is not English and who indicate that they are second-language learners will be given an English as a Second Language assessment to determine their placement within our ESL support model. All students bridge to the regular English program prior to their final year of study. Students will participate in conversations in structured situations on a variety of familiar and new topics; read a variety of texts designed or adapted for English language learners; expand their knowledge of English grammatical structures and sentence patterns; and link English sentences to compose paragraphs.

Students will make short classroom oral presentations; read a variety of adapted and original texts in English; and write using a variety of text forms. As well, students will expand their academic vocabulary and their study skills to facilitate their transition to the mainstream school program. This course also introduces students to the rights and responsibilities inherent in Canadian citizenship, and to a variety of current Canadian issues. Students will develop the oral presentation, reading, and writing skills required for success in all school subjects.

They will extend listening and speaking skills through participation in discussions and seminars; study and interpret a variety of grade-level texts; write narratives, articles and summaries in English; and respond critically to a variety of print and media texts.


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English as a Second Language Level 5 ESLEO This course provides students with the skills and strategies they need to make the transition to college and university preparation courses in English and other secondary school disciplines. Students will be encouraged to develop independence in a range of academic tasks. They will participate in debates and lead classroom workshops; read and interpret literary works and academic texts; write essays, narratives and reports; and apply a range of learning strategies and research skills effectively.

Students will further develop their ability to respond critically to print and media texts.

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Language is central to intellectual, emotional and social development. Studying a second language stimulates the learning process and encourages self-development and understanding of diversity. French is important to. Canadian students as one of our two official languages, with many Canadians speaking French as their first language.

Many other countries use French or Spanish as their primary language. The course provides a knowledge of international languages that allows students to communicate effectively, value diversity, and participate productively in the international community. The curriculum stresses linguistic excellence and communicative competence. All programs address the essential language skills of listening, speaking, reading, and writing, with a strong cultural component that makes use of modern media and technology. Branksome Hall offers an Extended French program for students in Grades 7 to Students who enter the Extended French program in Grade 7 are expected to take both Extended French and the Extended Social Science course each year up to and including Grade 9.

In Grades 7 and 8, students with extensive experience in French may take the French Immersion course as part of their Extended French Program. To earn a Branksome Hall French proficiency certificate, students must take seven secondary school credits in the Extended French program. Core French 7 FSF7 This course will enable the student to use language effectively as a means of practical communication, and encourages the development of listening, speaking, reading and writing skills.

Students will build their skills through practice during thematic units that will include projects, dialogues, compositions, presentations, music, internet research and other language-related tasks. An international perspective on francophone culture is emphasized. Resource materials include textbook, workbook, website, dictionary, magazines and videos. This course offers an intensive approach to learning the French language in a variety of contexts, enabling students to communicate and express their thoughts in both familiar and unfamiliar situations.

Students are encouraged to express their thoughts, both in oral and written form, on a variety of discussion topics that bring intercultural awareness to the foreground. Resource materials include textbook, workbook, worksheets, dictionary, and audio and video materials. Students enrolled in this course are part of the Extended French program and also study Humanities and Social Sciences 7 in the French language.

Core French 8 FSF8 This course approaches the teaching of French with a focus on holistic learning, intercultural awareness, and communication. Students are encouraged to establish links between the French language, francophone cultures, and other areas of experience. There is an emphasis placed on helping students develop the oral communication skills they need to understand and interact with others, and to express themselves clearly and. Writing and reading activities are designed so that students will see them as meaningful and be challenged to think creatively.

This course focuses on the intensive development of listening, speaking, reading and writing skills through the study of themes. Grammar, intensive and extensive reading, conversation, discussions, dialogues, dramatic representations and presentations, research projects and creative writing form the basis of class work. Course material reflects francophone culture and multiculturalism. Resource materials include textbook, activity book, novel, short stories, dictionary, Bescherelle, library material, CDs and videos. Students enrolled in this course are part of the Extended French Program and also study Geography of Canada in the French language.

This course provides opportunities for students to communicate and interact in French with increasing independence, with a focus on familiar topics related to their daily lives. Students will develop their skills in listening, speaking, reading, and writing by using language learning strategies introduced in the elementary Core French program, and will apply creative and critical thinking skills in various ways. They will also enhance their understanding and appreciation of diverse French-speaking communities, and will develop skills necessary for lifelong language learning. This course provides opportunities for students to speak and interact in French independently in a variety of real-life and personally relevant contexts.

Students will develop their skills in listening, speaking, reading, and writing, as well their ability to communicate in French with confidence, by using language learning strategies introduced in the elementary French Immersion program. Students will enhance their knowledge of the French language through the study of literature.

They will also increase their understanding and appreciation of diverse French-speaking communities, and will develop skills necessary for lifelong language learning. This course provides opportunities for students to communicate in French about personally relevant, familiar, and academic topics in real-life situations with increasing independence.

Students will exchange information, ideas, and opinions with others in guided and increasingly spontaneous spoken interactions. Students will develop their skills in listening, speaking, reading, and writing through the selective use of strategies that contribute to effective communication. This course provides extensive opportunities for students to use their communication skills in French and to. Students will develop their skills in listening, speaking, reading, and writing by responding to and interacting with French oral and written texts in a variety of real-life contexts, using their creative and critical thinking skills to explore and evaluate information and ideas in the texts.

Students will increase their knowledge of the French language through the study of French authors. This course offers students extended opportunities to speak and interact in real-life situations in French with greater independence. Students will develop their listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills, as well as their creative and critical thinking skills, through responding to and exploring a variety of oral and written texts. They will also broaden their understanding and appreciation of diverse French-speaking communities, and will develop skills necessary for lifelong language learning.

This course provides opportunities for students to communicate about concrete and abstract topics in various situations. Students will consolidate and refine their skills in listening, speaking, reading, and writing by applying language learning strategies, as well as creative and critical thinking skills, in a variety of real-life contexts. Students will develop their knowledge of the French language through the study of contemporary French authors and well-known French European authors. They will also deepen their understanding and appreciation of diverse French-speaking communities, and will develop skills necessary for lifelong language learning.

This course provides extensive opportunities for students to speak and interact in French independently. Students will develop their listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills, apply language learning strategies in a wide variety of real-life situations, and develop their creative and critical thinking skills through responding to and interacting with a variety of oral and written texts.

They will also enrich their understanding and appreciation of diverse French-speaking communities, and will develop skills necessary for lifelong language learning. This course further emphasizes the consolidation of communication skills required to interact in French for various purposes about concrete and abstract topics. Students will independently apply language learning strategies in a variety of real-life and personally relevant contexts in listening, speaking, reading, and writing, and will broaden their creative and critical thinking skills through responding to and analysing oral and written texts.

Students will increase their knowledge of the French language through the study of Canadian and international French literature. The course is exploratory in nature, offering an overview of visual arts as a foundation for further study. Students will become familiar with the elements and principles of design and the expressive qualities of various materials by using a range of media, processes, techniques, and styles. Students will use the creative and critical analysis processes and will interpret art within a personal, contemporary, and historical context. The course enables students to create media art works by exploring new media, emerging technologies such as digital animation, and a variety of traditional art forms such as film, photography, video, and visual arts.

Students will acquire communications skills that are transferable beyond the media arts classroom and develop an understanding of responsible practices related to the creative process.

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Students will develop the skills necessary to create and interpret media art works. Students will continue to develop and apply their speaking skills in a variety of contexts, and will participate in activities that will improve their reading comprehension and writing skills. They will also continue to explore aspects of culture of Spanish-speaking countries. They will take part in cultural activities and research the Spanish-speaking community of greater Toronto.

Both print and technological resources will be used. Students will continue to expand their vocabulary and repertoire of language structures. This course offers students opportunities to further develop their knowledge of the Spanish language and to enhance their communication skills. Students will also enhance their thinking skills through the critical study of literature, and continue to explore aspects of the culture of countries where Spanish is spoken through a variety of print and technological resources.

This course prepares students for university studies in Spanish. Students will enhance their ability to use the language with clarity and precision, and will develop the language skills needed to engage sustained conversations and discussions, understand and evaluate information, read diverse materials for both study and pleasure, and write clearly and effectively.

The first purpose is to teach the language itself for its beauty, and to read Virgil, Ovid and other Latin authors in their original language. The third purpose is to look at the Romans themselves, their daily lives and their history, as part of a classical civilization that had a tremendous influence on the Western world. Students will learn the vocabulary and grammar essential for reading and translating Latin texts. English is the language of instruction. Through a variety of activities, including presentations and projects, students will explore such aspects of life in the ancient world as social customs, education and entertainment, while improving their language skills.

The Cambridge Latin course also introduces derivative study, mythology and Roman history. This course provides students with opportunities to continue their exploration of the achievements and influence of the ancient world through the study of Latin. Students will read and translate more complex passages in Latin as they continue to learn the vocabulary and grammar essential for these activities. Students will learn more about Classical mythology and Roman literature. This course provides students with opportunities to develop their understanding of the ancient world through the study of Roman literature.

This course allows students to explore the beliefs and achievements of the classical world, which have shaped Western thought and civilization. Students will investigate such aspects of classical culture as its mythology, art, literature and philosophy, as well as elements of the ancient Greek and Latin civilizations, through a variety of activities such as dramatizations, audiovisual presentations and discussions.

By reading classical authors in English and examining archeological evidence, students will enhance both their communication skills and their ability to think critically and creatively. The purpose of Geography is to make students aware of the complexities of their natural and human environments, and to connect these two environments. Such a perspective on the world demands knowledge of geographic phenomena, development of a variety of skills and the ability to make value judgments.

The practical or methodological side of Geography involves a number of skills which students will be taught. These skills are tools used to analyze and evaluate specific topics, issues or problems. An integral part of Geography is the critical analysis and evaluation of issues. Students gain experience in locating data from a variety of sources, in recording information, in organizing the data, and in evaluating and synthesizing the material collected.

They are expected to make generalizations or predictions and draw conclusions based on their data. Students master varied forms of communicating their understanding and ideas. The Geography curriculum seeks to attain a balance among knowledge, skills and analysis. The teaching of geographic skills and the application of critical thinking begin in Grade 7 and continue through Grade The Humanities aim to encourage students to respect and understand the world around them, and to provide a skills base to facilitate further study. In Grade 7, this is achieved through the study of world patterns in both physical and human geography and of the historical development of Canada from the 15th to the 19th century.

Students will explore environmental, economic, and social geographic issues relating to topics such as transportation options, energy choices, and urban development. Students will apply the concepts of geographic thinking and the geographic inquiry process, including spatial technologies, to investigate various geographic issues and to develop possible approaches for making Canada a more sustainable place in which to live.

This course explores interrelationships between the land and people in a selected region as well as interconnections between this region and the rest of the world.

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Students will apply the concepts of geographic thinking and the geographic inquiry process, including spatial technologies, to investigate a range of geographic issues in the region. Throughout the course, students will apply the concepts of geographic thinking and the geographic inquiry process and use spatial technologies to analyse these processes, make predictions related to natural disasters, and assess ways of responding to them. This course explores these changes and the challenges that come with them.

Students will apply the concepts of geographic thinking, the geographic inquiry process, and spatial skills and technologies as they investigate issues related to population change and urban life and propose ways of enhancing the sustainability of communities around the world. In this course, students will address the challenge of creating a more sustainable and equitable world.

They will explore issues involving a wide range of topics, including economic disparities, threats to the environment, globalization, human rights, and quality of life, and will analyse government policies, international agreements, and individual responsibilities relating to them. Students will apply the concepts of geographic thinking and the geographic inquiry process, including the use of spatial technologies, to investigate these complex issues and their impacts on natural and human communities around the world.

This course investigates interactions between natural and human systems, with a particular emphasis on the impacts of human activity on ecosystems and natural processes. Students will use the geographic inquiry process, apply the concepts of geographic thinking, and employ a variety of spatial skills and technologies to analyse these impacts and propose ways of reducing them. In the course of their investigations, they will assess resource management and sustainability practices, as well as related government policies and international accords.

They will also consider questions of individual responsibility and environmental stewardship as they explore ways of developing a more sustainable relationship with the environment. The study of History is one of the best ways to obtain a broad liberal education that trains the mind and touches on an extraordinary range of human experiences. Studying History helps students develop a sense of shared humanity and an understanding of how and why the world in which they live is the way it is. Above all, historical study trains students in how to think clearly and for themselves when confronted with a range of often contradictory opinions and arguments.

Reading and writing in history courses at all levels provides continual training in planning, collecting information, organization, analysis and synthesis, communication, problem solving and critical thinking. History courses provide an ideal preparation for professional study in a variety of fields later on. In Grade 7, this is achieved through the study of world patterns in both physical and human geography and of the historical development of Canada from the 15th to the 19th Century.

They will develop their ability to apply the concepts of historical thinking and the historical inquiry process, including the interpretation and analysis of evidence, when investigating key issues and events in Canadian history since The course has a specific emphasis on examination of both dominant and non-dominant narratives in Canadian history, challenging students to continually think critically. This course explores key aspects of the social, economic, and political development of the United States from precontact to the present. Students will extend their ability to apply the concepts of historical thinking and the historical inquiry process, including the interpretation and analysis of evidence, when investigating various forces that helped shape American history.

This course explores the history of various societies and civilizations around the world, from earliest times to around CE. Students will investigate a range of factors that contributed to the rise, success, and decline of various ancient and pre-modern societies throughout the world and will examine life in and the cultural and political legacy of these societies.

Students will extend their ability to apply the concepts of historical thinking and the historical inquiry process, including the interpretation and analysis of evidence, when investigating social, political, and economic structures and historical forces at work in various societies and in different historical eras. This course traces major developments and events in world history since approximately Students will explore social, economic, and political changes, the historical roots of contemporary issues, and the role of conflict and cooperation in global interrelationships.

They will extend their ability to apply the concepts of historical thinking and the historical inquiry process, including the interpretation and analysis of evidence, as they investigate key issues and ideas and assess societal progress or decline in world history. This course explores various perspectives on issues in Canadian and world politics. Students will explore political decision making and ways in which individuals, stakeholder groups, and various institutions, including governments, multinational corporations, and non-governmental organizations, respond to and work to address domestic and international issues.

Students will apply the concepts of political thinking and the political inquiry process to investigate issues, events, and developments of national and international political importance, and to develop and communicate informed opinions about them. Economics is a social science that studies how people use scarce resources to satisfy their needs and wants. Because of this scarcity, we continually need to make choices. Economics explores the ways in which these choices are made and the effects of alternative choices on our mutual well-being.

This course introduces students to the world of business. Students will develop an understanding of the functions of business including accounting, marketing, information and communication technology, human resources, and production, and of the importance of ethics and social responsibility. This course builds a foundation for further studies in business and helps students develop the business knowledge and skills they will need in their everyday lives.

This course is strongly recommended for those planning to take Economics. Students will acquire an understanding of accounting for a service and a. This course explores issues and challenges facing the Canadian economy as well as the implications of various responses to them. Students will explore the economic role of firms, workers, and government as well as their own role as individual consumers and contributors, and how all of these roles contribute to stability and change in the Canadian economy. Students will apply the concepts of economic thinking and the economic inquiry process, including economic models, to investigate the impact of economic issues and decisions at the individual, regional, and national level.

This course examines current Canadian and international economic issues, developments, policies, and practices from diverse perspectives. Students will explore the decisions that individuals and institutions, including governments, make in response to economic issues such as globalization, trade agreements, economic inequalities, regulation, and public spending. Students will apply the concepts of economic thinking and the economic inquiry process, as well as economic models and theories, to investigate, and develop informed opinions about, economic trade-offs, growth, and sustainability and related economic issues.

This course enables students to acquire an understanding of the nature of philosophy and philosophical reasoning skills and to develop and apply their knowledge and skills while exploring specialized branches of philosophy including ethics, epistemology, philosophy of science, social and political philosophy, and aesthetics. Students will develop critical thinking and philosophical reasoning skills as they formulate and evaluate arguments related to a variety of philosophical questions and theories.

They will also develop research and inquiry skills related to the study and practice of philosophy. The study of science enables a student to explore the laws that explain the behaviors of the universe. Important skills such as analysis, synthesis, application of knowledge, classification, research, independent study, and risk-taking are developed during this exploration. The Science program at Branksome Hall gives Middle Division students the chance to develop skills acquired in Grades 1 to 6, in a program that continues the study of general science. Senior students further their studies in the specialized areas of biology, chemistry, environmental science, exercise physiology and physics.

The Scientific Method, problem-solving skills, and the role of science and technology in society are central to the teaching of science at all levels. Environmental issues are explored throughout the program. Students take a hands-on approach to learning, with special emphasis on laboratory techniques. The Science program strives to make students aware of career opportunities in science, to develop scientific literacy, and to help students appreciate the impact of science on society. Science and Technology 7 SCI7 While integrating computer studies and learning strategies, this course focuses on understanding the world we live in, communicating scientifically, and thinking critically.

The scientific process of problem solving in a laboratory setting is also emphasized through collecting and processing data while examining ecosystems; planning and evaluating experiments while exploring the particle theory and heat; and building models and exploring the cycle of design while investigating structural strength.

Students will develop skills in scientific inquiry through hands-on investigations including: investigating water quality and usage; learning about microscopy; introducing dissections, solving problems involving density, pressure, work, energy and mechanical advantage; and designing independent investigations involving mechanical systems and fluids. Science SNC1D This course enables students to develop their understanding of basic concepts in biology, chemistry, earth and space science, and physics, and to relate science to technology, society and the environment.

Throughout the course, students will develop their skills in the processes of scientific investigation. Students will acquire an understanding of scientific theories and conduct investigations related to sustainable ecosystems; atomic and molecular structures and the properties of elements and compounds; the study of the universe and its properties and components; and the principles of electricity. This course enables students to enhance their understanding of concepts in biology, chemistry, Climate Change, and physics, and of the interrelationships between science, technology, society and the environment.

Students are also given opportunities to further develop their scientific investigation skills. Students will plan and conduct investigations and develop their understanding of scientific theories related to the connections between cells and systems in animals and plants; chemical reactions, with a particular focus on historical impact of chemistry; forces that affect climate and climate change; and the interaction of light and matter.

Students will study theory and conduct investigations in the areas of biodiversity; evolution; genetic processes; the structure and function of animals; and the anatomy, growth and function of plants. The course focuses on the theoretical aspects of the topics under study and helps students refine skills related to scientific investigation.

The nature of science is the overarching theme in biology. This course provides students with the opportunity for in depth study of the concepts and processes that occur in biological systems. Students will study theory and conduct investigations in the areas of biochemistry, metabolic processes, molecular genetics, homeostasis and population dynamics. Emphasis will be placed on the achievement of detailed knowledge and the refinement of skills needed for further study in various branches of the life sciences and related fields.

This course provides students with the fundamental knowledge of and skills relating to Environmental Science. Students will explore a range of topics, including the role of science in addressing contemporary environmental challenges; the impact of the environment on human health; sustainable agriculture and forestry; the reduction and management of waste; and the conservation of energy.

Students will increase their scientific and environmental literacy and examine the interrelationships between science, the environment and society, in a variety of areas. The nature of science is the overarching theme in chemistry. This course enables students to deepen their understanding of Chemistry through the study of practical and investigational skills. The properties of matter, chemical reactions and quantitative relationships in those reactions, solutions and solubility, atmospheric chemistry and the behaviour of gases are explored.

Students will further develop their analytical skills and investigate the qualitative and quantitative properties of matter, as well as the impact of some common chemical reactions on society and the environment. This course enables students to deepen their understanding of Chemistry through the study of organic chemistry, the structure and properties of matter; energy changes and rates of reaction, equilibrium in chemical systems and electrochemistry.

Students will further develop their problem-solving and investigation skills as they investigate chemical processes, and will refine their ability to communicate scientific information. Emphasis will be placed on the importance of chemistry in everyday life and on evaluating the impact of chemical technology on the environment. Students will explore kinematics, with an emphasis on linear motion; different kinds of forces; energy transformations; the properties of mechanical waves and sound; and electricity and magnetism.

They will enhance their scientific investigation skills as they test laws of physics. In addition, they will analyze the interrelationships between physics and technology, and consider the impact of technological applications of physics on society and the environment. This course enables students to deepen their understanding of physics concepts and theories.

Students will continue their exploration of energy transformations and the forces that affect motion, and will investigate electrical, gravitational, and magnetic fields and electromagnetic radiation. Students will also explore astrophysics, the wave nature of light, atomic and nuclear physics and special relativity. They will further develop their scientific investigation skills, learning, for example, how to analyze, qualitatively and quantitatively, data relating to a variety of physics concepts and principles.

Students will also consider the impact of technological applications of physics on society and the environment. This course enables students, including those pursuing post-secondary programs outside the sciences, to increase their understanding of science and contemporary social and environmental issues in health-related fields. Students will explore a variety of medical technologies, pathogens and disease, nutritional science, public health issues and biotechnology.

This course focuses on the study of human movement and of systems, factors, and principles involved in human development. The course prepares students for university programs in physical education and health, kinesiology, health sciences, health studies, recreation, and sports administration. Students will investigate the relationships between the two sciences and will use diverse resources and interdisciplinary approaches to developments, trends, products and careers in the specified field.

They will evaluate the economic, environmental, cultural, political, social and ethical issues raised in either the biotechnology or the engineering technological fields. The Mathematics program at Branksome provides opportunities for university-bound students to develop a strong understanding of mathematics; practise strategies for applying knowledge and skills to solve complex problems in both real-life and abstract situations; communicate reasoning using mathematical conventions and terminology; and become proficient in using graphing calculators and relevant web based applications apps.

Students will inquire into and learn new mathematical concepts and skills through class discussion, group work and individual practice. In all grades, students will be encouraged to develop specific study strategies that can promote academic success here at Branksome and later at university. Our program addresses not only the needs of students who require some extra time and support to develop skills, but also the needs of those who are ready to be challenged further.

Students who have demonstrated a strong foundation in mathematics and who show both an aptitude and an interest in problem solving may be placed in extended courses in Grade For those students who require extra support to strengthen skills, help is available daily after school from teachers in the Math Clinic and also from senior students through our peer tutoring program. Grade 7 Mathematics MAT7 In this course, students will develop a variety of problem-solving strategies and reasoning skills to construct organized mathematical arguments.

They will select appropriate computational strategies to investigate mathematical ideas and to solve problems. They will make connections among mathematical concepts and procedures, and relate mathematical ideas to situations or phenomena drawn from other contexts. By: Daniel, D. By: Lebreton, Preston P.. Academy of Management Proceedings, , p, 1p. To our mind, the first published work of this approach is by Rockart.

This pages reproduced from RapidBI. Vancil Published by R. Irwin, 2 p This publication seems to be one of the earliest and widest cited books in the early days of CSFs. By: Spencer, Lyle M.. Primary measures that should be listed include critical success levels such as the number of transactions per month or, in cases where specific measurements are more difficult, general goals should be specified such as moving up in an industry customer service survey.

Critical Success Factor an element of organizational activity which is central to its future success.

Critical Success Factors (CSF’s) Made Easy. A step by step guide

Critical success factors may change over time, and may include items such as product quality, employee attitudes, manufacturing flexibility, and brand awareness. This can enable analysis. Critical Success Factor any of the aspects of a business that are identified as vital for successful targets to be reached and maintained.

Critical Success Factors are normally identified in such areas as production processes, employee and organization skills, functions, techniques, and technologies. The identification and strengthening of such factors may be similar. Is a business term for an element which is necessary for an organization or project to achieve its mission. Rockart and Bullen presented five key sources of Critical Success Factors:. An example of environmental factors affecting an organization could be a de-merger. Temporal factors: These relate to short-term situations, often crises.

Practically, with the evolution and integration of markets globally, one could argue that temporal factors are not temporal anymore as they could exist regularly in organizations. For example, a firm aggressively building its business internationally would have a need for a core group of executives in its new markets. Managerial position. In organizations with departments focused on customer relationships, a CSF for managers in these departments may be customer relationship management.

These principles are:. However, due care should be exercised in identifying them due to the largely qualitative approach to identification, leaving many possible options for the factors and potentially results in discussions and debate. These would all be helpful in building knowledge of the environment, the industry and competitors.

Internally, there should be enough sources available to management from which to build on their knowledge of the organization. The information mentioned above can largely be accessed through the internet. Other sources which would be helpful, and not necessarily accessible through the internet, are interviews with buyers and suppliers, industry experts and independent observers.

Verbs that characterize actions: attract, perform, expand, monitor, manage, deploy, etc. After having developed a hierarchy of goals and their success factors, further analysis will lead to concrete requirements at the lowest level of detail. Critical success factors are elements that are vital for a strategy to be successful.