Carmel Valley, Calif. The formula for the flush consists of ascorbate vitamin C or Ester powder with bioflavonoids, one-half teaspoon taken every 20 minutes to bowel tolerance diarrhea results. Then reduce the amount taken to just below bowel tolerance until the stool is loose, but not diarrhea which, medically, is considered to be watery.
Continue for two days. Aston-Patterning A type of bodywork, movement training, and massage geared to relieving muscle tension, pain, and stress and promoting healing from injuries. Developed by the dancer Judith Aston, who recovered from injuries sustained in two automobile accidents, Aston-Patterning is an extension of the deep massage therapy known as Rolfing. Aston-Patterning practitioners may also suggest that an individual make ergonomic changes in the home and workplace in order to increase comfort and relieve unconscious stress. Although the goals of Aston-Patterning are to reduce stress, speed recovery from injury, and improve muscle tone, lightness of movement, and resiliency of the joints, it may not be recommended for those with osteoporosis, carpal tunnel syndrome, any disorder characterized by brittle bones, a bleeding disorder, or cardiac, circulatory, or respiratory problems.
Nor is it recommended for those on longterm steroid or anticoagulant therapy. Some otherwise healthy people may experience fatigue and pain from the intense sessions or be emotionally resistant to the training. A competent practitioner can adjust the massage and exercises according to the age and physical status of each client. The Aston Training Center may be contacted at P.
Box , Inclined Village, NV , or at Some of the major astringents are metal salts, such as ferric chloride, ferrous sulfate, and zinc oxide; alum; permanganates; and tannic acid. In Ayurvedic medicine, astringency corresponds to one of the taste sensations; adding an astringent to a food creates a contraction that can have an effect upon hemorrhaging blood vessels or help dispel diarrhea. Sensory hallucinations may accompany an aura in paroxysmal attacks; for example, the Dutch artist Vincent van Gogh was said to suffer from epilepsy or some sort of seizure disorder which could have been linked to substance addiction and other problems , and he remembered after an attack was over that 12 auricular therapy he had seen the color yellow, an image that stayed with him a long time.
In terms of alternative medicine, Therapeutic Touch, Reiki, and other practices rely on the premise that the body is surrounded by an electromagnetic field—also called an aura—that may be manipulated by hand in order to restore, direct, and balance healing energy for general well-being. Australian Bush Flower Essences Infusions made from indigenous Australian flowers and plants that are used to strengthen the immune system and fight viruses.
Originated in Berlin, Germany, in the s by the German psychiatrist and neurologist Dr. Johannes H. Schultz, autogenic training aims to help individuals deliberately control their autonomic nervous system, the part of the entire nervous system that focuses on involuntary bodily functioning—the heart, the smooth muscles, the adrenal medulla, and the salivary, gastric, and sweat glands, among other structures. The autonomic nervous system is divided into the sympathetic, or thoracolumbar, system, connected with thoracic and lumbar portions of the spinal nerve and other nerves, and the parasympathetic system, which consists of fibers of some of the cranial nerves and the nerves connected to the sacral portion of the spine.
It is the sympathetic system that responds to stressors, and the parasympathetic system that induces relaxation. Stimulation of the parasympathetic nerves produces a reduction in blood pressure, vasodilation, pupillary contraction, thin saliva, and reduced heart rate. The techniques of autogenic training resemble self-hypnosis and meditation. The series of mental exercises, performed three times daily for 15 minutes at a time, centers on certain words or phrases that, for the individual, will produce a relaxation response.
The second group, known as intentional exercises, is Ayurveda 13 geared to helping one release physical and emotional tension with activity such as crying, shouting, on punching pillows. Training sessions, private or in small groups, last an hour and continue for eight to 10 weeks. Autogenic training has been tested in several clinical experiments and is said to be beneficial for ailments that include anxiety and panic disorder, hypertension, and other stress-related problems. Ayurveda, most commonly defined as the practice of ancient Hindu or Indian medicine, originates with the Vedas, the earliest Indian literature, dating from ca.
In the Vedas are intricately described medical disorders and corresponding treatments, most of which are herbal but may also include simple surgical procedures. It is said that Vedic physicians invented prostheses—artificial limbs and eyes. By ca. Ayurveda has recently become the subject of studies conducted by its researchers and practitioners and collaboratively by those involved in traditional Western medicine. Gerson is reported to be the only physician in the United States who holds degrees in both traditional Western medicine and Ayurveda.
Projects with the National Cancer Institute include an evaluation of antitumor effects of Semicarpus anacardium an Ayurvedic phytomedicine, or plant extract. Initial reports over the last three years indicate that the growth of certain malignancies is thwarted by semicarpus. Further study seeks to determine whether semicarpus or other Ayurvedic medicine has the direct ability to kill cancer cells. Asthma, immune diseases, and various diseases and conditions that affect women are the subjects of additional studies. A randomized, controlled cross-over-type study of an herbal-yoga treatment regimen to treat asthma is under way at the Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha Medicine, and Ayurvedic herbal treatments for perimenopausal symptoms, premenstrual syndrome, and dysmenorrhea painful menstruation are being researched at the Rosenthal Center.
Ayurvedic herbal protocols are also under investigation for the treatment of hypertension, genital herpes, depression, adult-onset diabetes, obesity, uterine fibroid tumors, acne, irritable bowel syndrome, chronic constipation, and chronic fatigue syndrome. The effect of aromatherapy and meditation on brain wave patterns is being studied through the use of electroencephalography EEG.
Selected reading for additional information Lad, Dr. Twin Lakes, Wisc. Rakel, David, M. New York:W. Saunders, Sodhi, V. Pizzorno and M. Bayville, N. B potent for many years. Another method for making flower tinctures is the sun method, in which harvested blooms or parts of the plant are floated on water in a glass bowl and placed in the sunshine for three hours, after which only the remaining filtered water is added to brandy.
Daniel, and He also specified that after his death, no more essences were to be added to the 38 existing remedies for the purpose of keeping the system as simple as possible, so individuals would be able to diagnose their emotional problems and self-treat. Also, one may contact the Dr. Box 32, Woodmere, NY Bach, Edward British bacteriologist, medical doctor, and homeopathic physician born in who worked at the London Homeopathic Hospital in England and who between and set forth the seven major negative human emotions that correspond with ill-being or illness and developed remedies called nosodes, or homeopathic preparations for them from specific flowers and plants.
In tune with the homeopathic concept of vibrational healing, he discovered through his patients that grief, frustration, anxiety, fear, despair, loneliness, and uncertainty contributed significantly to their physical ailments. At his home, Mount Vernon, in Oxfordshire, now known as the Bach Centre, he noticed that the habits and characteristics of flowers and plants related to human behavior. For example, the typical beech tree grows to approximately feet tall and its branches span approximately 80 feet. To create his remedy, he boiled leaves and twigs from the beech tree in water, let them simmer and cool thereafter, and then filtered them from the water.
To that water Bach added a small amount of brandy the standard mix per flower or plant substance is 50 milliliters mL , or one-and-a-half fluid ounces, of the prepared water to mL, or three fluid ounces, of brandy. Called a tincture, this remains Bach Flower Remedies In addition to being the inspiration for several other flower remedies made in Australia, California, Europe, and elsewhere, the original remedies that are believed to employ the life force, or vibrations, of each flower to help relieve negativity of varying nature, balance energy, and thereby encourage physical and emotional healing.
The medical and homeopathic physician and author Rudolph M. The vines are covered with sharp spines. The biggest and most succulent berries always seem to be a little deeper into the tangle of brambles. You work 15 16 Bach Flower Remedies your way in edgewise so you can reach a bit further.
The long branches of the blackberry plant are wrapped all about you, and each has thorns that curve back in toward the plant. No matter which way you move, some of those thorns dig in deeper. You are stuck. The essence of the blackberry flower is used as a remedy for those who are at a point in their lives where they feel stuck— unable to find a way to move.
Others believe the flower remedies and other natural medicinals may work as placebos, if they are effective at all. The 38 essences created by Bach derive from agrimony, aspen, beech, centaury, cerato, cherry plum, chestnut bud, chicory, clematis, crab apple, elm, gentian, gorse, heather, holly, honeysuckle, hornbeam, impatiens, larch, mimulus, mustard, oak, olive, pine, red chestnut, rock rose, rock water, scleranthus, star of Bethlehem, sweet chestnut, vervain, vine, walnut, water violet, white chestnut, wild oat, wild rose, and willow.
Flower remedies do not interfere with any other treatment, do not work in a biochemical way, are not addictive or dangerous, and may be taken safely by people of all ages, including babies. They may be given to animals and plants as well. Bach tested all his remedies on himself.
However, people who are alcohol-intolerant or who are recovering from alcoholism should not take flower essence remedies with the alcohol in them. Used for preservation purposes, the alcohol may be removed from the remedy by putting the diluted drops of a remedy into a boiling hot drink such as tea, so the steam can make the alcohol evaporate.
When cool, the drink may be sipped throughout the day. Essences—unlike herbal preparations, in that no actual part of the plant remains in the tincture— are to be taken until the patient feels relief and begins to notice the stimulus of his or her own healing mechanism. The most frequently used remedy, it treats feelings of panic, mental numbness, shock, terror, fear of flying, response to startling noise—any emotional state of emergency or loss of control, even trauma experienced in the past that is still disturbing.
In addition to the tincture, which can be added to any skin wash preparation, douche, or compress, Rescue Remedy is made into a cream that can be applied topically to cuts, bruises, stings, sunburn, and other injuries. Also, Rescue Remedy is used for prevention of panic, such as before a stressful activity or event, and is reported to increase healing and recovery from surgery. Baily, Philip M. Garden City Park, N. Ballentine, Rudolph M.
He received his M. For 12 years he served as president of the Himalayan Institute, and for 18 years as director of its Combined Therapy Program, in which he developed models of 18 Banerjee, P. Banerjee, P. This book was originally published in He discovered that the organs have a five- to eight-cycle-per-minute rhythm of movement relative to its position or referring to its function , and when the cycles are impaired, irritation and disease may develop.
The Barral technique involves the use of light, precise mechanical force, which rebalances the organ and helps revive its normal function. Bates Method for Improving Eyesight A relaxation system geared toward restoring the natural use of the eyes and relearning to see developed by the American ophthalmologist William H. Bates, M. Bird , which presented his theory that sight can be deliberately and naturally improved after being diminished by eyestrain, tension, and misuse of the eyes. In opposition to age-old theories that the mind and body were of a different, and therefore separate, nature, Herbert Benson, M.
The potential exists for thought processes to lead both to disease and to good health. He also pointed out that psychological factors affect the conscious perception of and sensitivity to pain and pain relief, and that symptoms of certain diseases such as asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, and colitis are clearly at risk of being aggravated by psychological stress. However, even then the risk versus benefit principle should be applied. You should not allow yourself to become convinced that you are sick or becoming sick.
Is it not foolish to spend healthy years worried about disease that is not present and may never occur? Many individuals in previous generations appeared to have faith in their own health. People should strive to adopt this attitude. If you become ill, the medical profession is there to help you. There will be enough time for you to work with your physician and to learn how to adjust to an illness if it occurs. You have a right to expect to be as well as possible for as long as possible. Both are licensed acupuncturists, and Korngold is also a doctor of osteopathic medicine.
Stewart, R. Benson lives in Lexington, Massachusetts. Bhakhi enema biofeedback A series of electrodermal responses to changes in heart rate, respirations, temperature, muscle tension, perspiration, brain waves, gastric acidity, blood pressure, and other bodily functions recorded on a machine similar to an electrocardiogram. An individual is connected to sensors that pick up signals of involuntary bodily activities. At a time of stress, these signals are recorded by the machine to inform the person how the body handled that stress.
The goal of biofeedback is to help recognize these reactions and learn to alter them through relaxation techniques. Biofeedback is useful in reducing stress as a trigger for physical disorders and disease. Patients of biofeedback are usually taught various breathing techniques as a way to overcome anxiety and other stress responses. Bikram yoga A branch of yoga characterized by performing yoga exercises and asanas in a room heated to about degrees. Energy medicine techniques include Reiki, reflexology, shiatsu, craniosacral therapy, zone therapy, homeopathy, acupuncture, polarity, Phoenix Rising yoga therapy, and breathwork.
There exist devices designed to induce relaxation by emitting light usually red light or energy waves to the brain at an adjustable frequency. This modality is also used to treat seizure activity and memory and vision problems, among other disorders. A branch of dentistry that emphasizes the importance of tooth alignment and jaw structure, cavities as a source of other illness, nontoxic restoration materials, the impact of dental toxins, and the conservation of all healthy tooth material.
Biological dentistry employs various therapies that may be categorized as bioenergetic medicine, including neural and cold laser therapy, oral acupuncture, homeopathy, mouth balancing, and nutrition. Effective in healing wounds, reducing inflammation, and fighting bacteria, cold laser therapy draws on traditional acupuncture techniques, but with the use of laser beams instead of needles. Oral acupuncture, which involves the injection of saline solution, weak local anesthetics, or a combination of homeopathic remedies into acupoints in the mucous membrane, is used for relief of pain during dental procedures; for the treatment of neuralgia, sinusitis, allergies, and digestive disorders; and for diagnostic procedures.
Mouth balancing is a modality that diagnoses cranial structural problems that may cause illness in other parts of the body, such as headaches, shoulder 20 bitter pain, back problems, blurred vision, and temporomandibular joint TMJ syndrome. Mouth-balancing treatment includes the use of corrective orthopedic braces to be worn in the mouth. There are also blood tonics, including green drinks that are rich in chlorophyll similar in molecular composition to human hemoglobin , which is also a source of vitamins, minerals, enzymes, and other nutrients that promote optimal cell response and growth.
Green drinks are also effective as energy-boosting, anti-infective blood cleansers. A Chinese tongue map, for example, shows each region of the tongue in correlation with other organs and structures of the body. The area at the back of the tongue relates to the uro-genital organs; the midsection relates to the liver, gallbladder, and other digestive organs; just before the tip of the tongue, the lungs are represented; the tip relates to the heart. Chinese doctors also observe the color and condition of the tongue, very often keys to diagnosing a problem.
A dark coating on the tongue, for instance, indicates a toxicity in the body, and a dry, shiny tongue indicates dehydration. Face maps are popular for diagnosis in Asian medical practice. The middle portion emotion corresponds to the circulation, and the lower portion will to digestion and reproduction. Specific parts of the face—nostrils, chin, brow, lower lip, cheek, and so on—relate to specific organs that may be dysfunctional or impaired and the meridians energy channels of the body. In turn, the physical body conditions relate to emotional and psychological constitution of an individual.
Nose, pulse, and hand maps are also used by practitioners to identify disorders. One unit is equal to the width of the second joint of the thumb, and three body units is equal to the breadth of the second, third, fourth, and fifth fingers held together. Each major body segment has a certain number of body units. For example, five body units may be measured from the navel to the pubic bone, and 12 body units make up the area from the elbow crease to the wrist crease.
Boericke, William, and Dewey, W. Homeopathic physicians with M. By , there were , Thomsonian practitioners registered in America, and a decade later the Eclectic Medical Institute emerged when physicians and herbalists decided to join forces. Several schools operated in major cities throughout the country from the late 19th century and into the 20th, but patent medicines rose as competitors that crushed the finances of the Eclectics.
In Cincinnati, , the last Eclectic Medical School closed forever. Trigger points, or places on the body where painful muscle spasm occurs, may be the result of trauma or injury, repetitive motion, prenatal injury, or child or sexual abuse and may be exacerbated by the presence of disease, substance abuse, and the aging process. The method also involves performing stretches and trigger-point sessions to prevent recurrence of muscle spasm, strains, sprains, dislocations, tension headaches, migraines, temporomandibular joint TMJ syndrome, hemorrhoids, prostate muscle spasms, impotence, incontinence, arthritis, lupus, multiple sclerosis, foot pain, leg cramps, and neck, shoulder, arm, hand, back, chest, and abdominal pain.
Bowen Method A hands-on modality designed to balance and positively affect the autonomic nervous system, developed in the s by the Australian lay healer Thomas Bowen. With the fully clothed patient lying prone on a padded table, Bowen advocated a series of moves such as pulling the skin away from a muscle or tendon, then applying gentle pressure, and eventually allowing the specific structure to spring back into its original position. Bowen developed certain patterns for three sets of moves to treat lower back, upper back, and neck problems.
Treatment sessions vary from 20 to 45 minutes. Bowen therapy is also used to provide benefit to individuals with gastrointestinal disorders, chronic fatigue, fibromyalgia, headaches, respiratory ailments, sports- and work-related injuries, and other conditions. Patients have reported that symptoms subsided, and that anger and depression 22 Bower, Peter were reduced, after treatments.
It was developed by Michael Nixon-Livy, who wanted to systematize the Bowen Method in order to train health professionals. Bower, Peter A medical doctor practicing in Charlottesville, Virginia, where he and his associates combine Osteopathic Manual Therapy, Pilatesbased rehabilitation, and health counseling in the medical management of neurological and musculoskeletal problems. His focus is on the diagnosis and treatment of repetitive strain and sports injuries, myofascial pain syndromes, and nerve-entrapment syndromes.
Brennan runs a school of healing in New York. Broths of onion, miso, garlic, scallion, apple, carrot, potato, and other ingredients, are geared toward balancing body pH and are alkalizing agents. Hot tonics are not broths or teas, but hot drinks made from vegetables, fruits, and spices that have energizing properties. Tonics are meant to revitalize, clear nasal and sinus passages, provide nutrition, create body heat to ward off aches and chills, and fight a hangover.
A cold and flu tonic, for example, may be made by combining garlic, cumin powder, black pepper, hot mustard powder, water, turmeric, sesame salt, fresh cilantro, and cooked split peas. Buegel and Chernin are medical doctors.
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C calmative cathartic carminative caustic A substance capable of corroding or burning bodily tissue. A substance used as a tranquilizer or sedative in homeopathic and Ayurvedic medicine. A substance that relieves griping severe bowel pains and intestinal gas. A substance used as a laxative. Cayce was a photographer, gardener, Sunday School teacher, and father of two. To date he is the subject of approximately 12 biographies and is discussed in more than other books for his ability to enter a sleeplike state, during which he gave information to individuals throughout the world who had lifethreatening illnesses, questions, or problems.
Frequently he made a lifesaving diagnosis in cases that stumped the medical community. The A.
Definitions and Domains of Complementary and Alternative Medicine and Traditional Medicine
At 21, however, he entered St. Once ordained in , Father Solanus worked at Sacred Heart Parish in Yonkers, New York, mainly as doorkeeper and sacristan because he was not highly regarded for his scholarship. But the sick and troubled of the parish began to notice his gift for healing and made a point to ask for his prayers for themselves and their loved ones.
Appointed to the Capuchin Friary of St. Bonaventure in Detroit, Michigan, in , he became well known and was the inspiration of the Detroit Capuchins to establish their soup kitchen, still in operation today. He continued his ministry to the sick and the poor even after he was sent for retirement to the Friary of St. Felix in Huntington, Indiana, in When he himself became ill, he returned to Detroit, where he died July 31, Bonaventure Monastery.
He reportedly had a photographic memory that enabled him to absorb, through osmosis, the content of school books while sleeping on them. At age 21, he developed a throat malady that paralyzed his vocal cords and made him lose his voice. While under hypnosis, Cayce reportedly diagnosed his ailment and prescribed a treatment in precise, medical terms, later verified by medical investigators. After following the course of treatment, his voice returned.
His remedies were holistic, often involving diet and massage. In a homeopathic remedy, one part salt must be ground with nine parts lactose, or milk sugar, to make Natrum mur 1x x equals This may be used to treat the symptoms of hay fever, for example. A cell-salt remedy made from calcium fluoride, which is found in fibers throughout the body, is used to treat hemorrhoids, varicose veins, hernias, and other problems.
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According to homeopaths, the more times cell salts are ground, or triturated, the greater their potency. The cell-salt system, also known as tissue salts, and remedies were first developed by the German physician W. Schuessler, M. Schuessler believed that as natural medicine, cell salts are not only harmless because they are not substances foreign to the body, but beneficial in the treatment of a range of both acute and chronic problems. He utilized calcium, sodium, iron, magnesium, and potassium salts to develop a salt system long before the discovery of trace minerals such as zinc and selenium.
Schuessler also believed that cell-salt remedies catalyze natural biochemical reactions in the body and reorganize or balance them so any malfunctioning tissues can function normally. A homeopath must correctly identify which bodily tissues require specific treatment before prescribing a cell-salt remedy. Each type of salt acts a certain way. For instance, sulfur serves to help the body express, or throw off, an unwanted substance, and sodium attracts water. In combination, they may be used as a remedy for edema, the abnormal retention of water in the ankles, legs, hands, and other parts of the body.
Among other ailments that may be treated homeopathically by cell salts are fever, hemorrhage, infections, mucus congestion, inflammation, sinusitis, colds, coughs, bronchitis, backache, colic, irritable bowels, bloating, gynecological problems, muscle spasms and cramps, teething pain, nodules, hernia, anxiety, depression, and insomnia. A still-controversial treatment developed during the s by the Swiss physician Paul Niehans, who specialized in gland and organ transplantation, the original cell therapy has been banned in the United States since because of its potential for allergic reactions, infections, and ineffectiveness.
The broadest definition of cell therapy includes the use of human blood transfusions and bone marrow transplants as well as injections of cellular materials. Several schools of thought exist as to the ideal practice of cell therapy. The various methods include the use of live cells, freeze-dried cells, cells from specific organs, homeopathic formulations, and embryonic preparations.
All these techniques have been used successfully, with different methods targeting different conditions. This yields a remedy of 1c potency, which is further diluted by another 99 drops of water or alcohol to create 2c potency. Usually, the highest dose of a homeopathic remedy equals c. Homeopathic practitioners say a remedy becomes more potent the more it is diluted.
The first chakra, or root chakra, is centered on the anus, the base of the spine, the descending colon, and the hamstrings; it represents basic survival instincts, security, groundedness, and fears, including annihilation, abandonment, and other types of primal upheaval. The second chakra, the genital or sexual chakra, consists of the gonads, the urogenital structures, prostate, pelvis, and quadriceps, and represents gender, issues of commitment, sexuality, sensuality, and procreation. The solar plexus, or third chakra, incorporates the abdomen, the entire region around the navel, stomach, duodenum, ileum, pancreas, liver, and adrenal glands; it contains the largest portion of nerve tissue after that of the cranium and spinal cord.
Emotionally, the solar plexus represents overall physical vitality and mastery.
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The fourth, or heart, chakra, is the area just above the diaphragm in the area of the heart. Just above the heart chakra is the throat including the larynx, pharynx, and thyroid gland , or fifth, chakra, which symbolizes communication, self-expression, and creativity. Each chakra is also associated with an element such as air, water, ether, fire, or earth and with certain colors. In the practice of Ayurveda, yoga, homeopathy, Reiki, and other disciplines, manipulating the energies of the chakras plays an important role in the healing process.
The three- to four-hour procedure involves an intravenous IV injection of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid EDTA into the hand or a finger. As a treatment for occluded arteries, chelation may be necessary 20 to 50 times, to as many as infusions of EDTA; as a preventive measure, the typical number of infusions is 10, administered one to three times a week. The IV solution may also contain supplements such as vitamins and minerals, as well as gingko biloba and phosphatidylserine, both of which act as chelators one may take orally as well.
So far, although it is considered safer than aspirin, EDTA has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration only for lead and other heavy metal poisoning and the treatment of hypercalcemia an excessive amount of calcium in the blood. Chelation therapy remains controversial as an alternative treatment of other disorders, although some physicians prescribe it for individuals with cardiovascular problems and claim that it does in fact improve circulation and relieve the symptoms of arteriosclerosis that can lead to more serious problems.
A substance originally familiar to plumbers for removing calcium deposits from pipes, EDTA was first used therapeutically by the United States Navy to treat lead poisoning in Somewhat less effective than intravenous administration, oral chelation involves combining EDTA with other chelators, including garlic, vitamin C, carrageenan, rutin, bromelain, and certain enzymes. The enzyme cysteine, for example, may be prescribed for nickel poisoning and presence of excessive free radicals.
Also, the action of the drug penicillamine, used as a conventional treatment of several ailments, including metal poisoning and rheumatoid arthritis, is similar to that of EDTA. A study was conducted in in Switzerland to determine the effectiveness of EDTA chelation therapy as a preventive measure against cancer.
The adults in the study lived near a heavytraffic highway that may have been exposing them to lead from vehicle exhaust, to which exposure was attributed high rates of cancer mortality and chiropractic 27 symptoms including headaches, drug and alcohol abuse, digestive problems, depression, fatigue, and anxiety. Chinese herbalism A segment of ancient Chinese medicine that focuses on plants and natural substances as sources of relief for medical and psychological problems.
Because the whole plant contains the active ingredients, and because various herbs and other substances may be blended, side effects are minimized or eliminated and results are often enhanced. Since the mythic sage Shen Nung experimented with and codified medicinal herbs years ago, herbalism has become a highly sophisticated, intricate, and systematized practice that involves more than substances prescribed by practitioners. Herbs are categorized according to their nature warm, cool, or neutral , taste sour, bitter, sweet, salty, spicy, or bland , configuration shape, texture, moisture , color, and properties, that is, their ability to relieve a particular ailment.
The Encyclopedia of Complementary and Alternative Medicine
An herbal substance may tonify, or strengthen; consolidate, or condense, astringe, or help concentrate energy, and so on; disperse, or help circulate; or purge, or eliminate, depending upon the diagnosis. Another herb, scutellaria, which purges heat from the lungs and liver, is used for the treatment of jaundice and infections. Chinese herbalism, which now has entered mainstream American alternative and complementary medicine, is often used in conjunction with conventional Western drugs and treatments.
A person with an ulcer who takes traditional antacids may be further relieved by Chinese herbs that fight heat and dampness in the stomach, help the liver to relax, and decongest impaired flow of qi. In general, Chinese herbalism recognizes remedies for illness but interprets illness as an imbalance of body constituents that may show up as patterns consisting of both physical and emotional symptoms. Common Chinese herbs are astragulus, lotus seed, nutmeg, walnut, ginger, cinnamon, radish seed, angelica root, schizandra, poria cocos, licorice, peony, chrysanthemum, ligusticum, honeysuckle, mulberry, raspberry, mustard seed, dianthus, plantain, motherwort, turmeric, myrrh resin, hawthorn, red and black dates, ephedra root, artemisia leaf, agrimony, magnolia, corn silk, corydalis root, peach seed, salvia root, fennel seed, coptis root, dandelion, sargassum, millettia stem, cordyceps, peppermint leaf, sileris root, gardenia, clove, cardamom seed, and unicaria stem.
Chinese herbal substances also have Chinese and botanical names. Modern chiropractic took root in the theory expressed in by Daniel David Palmer, of Davenport, Iowa, who advocated the teachings of Hippocrates and believed that all illnesses had their sources in the spine and the nervous system. Palmer suggested that innate intelligence flowed throughout the nervous system—which corresponds and communicates with every other part of the body—and could be blocked by a subluxation. When the subluxation is relieved, the body has the opportunity to heal itself.
The Canadian-born Dr.
Apparently the man had a subluxated vertebra that corresponded to an injury he had suffered to his upper spine just before he lost his hearing. Palmer adjusted that specific area, thereby correcting the blockage in the nerves that caused the deafness. The stiffness progressed rapidly to his hips and all joints. But the pain progressed until the child cried, was unable to dress himself, and was stooped over as if he was an elderly man. Further hospital test findings proved negative.
After the first adjustment, Duncan felt sick. By the next day, his hands were pain-free. The existing body of data already shows that some approaches are useless, that for many the evidence is positive but weak, and that a few are highly encouraging table Although social, medical, and cultural reasons may account for why people in a given country prefer CAM and TM to conventional Western medicine, economic forces are also at play.
This section describes the socioeconomic determinants of seeking treatment from traditional healers and providers of CAM; reviews the evidence on the cost-effectiveness of CAM and TM; and discusses cost-effective approaches to regulating, improving, and expanding the use of CAM and TM.
Much of this evidence is from industrial countries; few studies have been conducted in or are applicable to low- and middle-income countries. This caveat is important for two reasons. First, the CAM and TM modalities discussed in this section may not be used in many developing countries. Second, the limited data on cost-effectiveness may not be applicable in the case of those countries. Nevertheless, the data give a rough picture of the relative cost-effectiveness of a number of CAM and TM practices.
Although economic factors play a role in this choice, the underlying incentives are not always predictable. For instance, a common misconception is that patients opt for CAM and TM services because they are cheaper alternatives to conventional medical care. Even though there are certainly instances when the cost of treatment using CAM or TM is much cheaper than the cost of accessing a conventional medical service, several studies have found that CAM and TM cost the same or more than conventional treatments for the same conditions see, for example, Muela, Mushi, and Ribera At least one study has shown that financial considerations are rarely the primary factor in choosing a traditional healer, ranking behind such reasons as confidence in the treatment, ease of access, and convenience Winston and Patel The high cost of using a healer was cited as the most common barrier to seeking care from this source.
The same survey found that outcomes tended to be better when patients went to government clinics TM is not always more expensive than conventional medicine, however. Another common misconception is that the poor are more likely to use TM. At least one study shows that this may not be true. Although some traditional healers charge more than conventional practitioners, their fees may be negotiable, the method of payment may be flexible often on credit or in exchange for labor , and payment may be contingent on outcome.
The availability of an outcome-contingent contract favors TM over Western medicine when the disease condition requires providers to both exert effort in curing patients and induce patients to comply with their recommendations. Nonetheless, this strategy may be difficult to apply to the larger health care system.
Furthermore, patients tend to seek care from traditional healers for conditions such as mental illness, impotence, and chronic disorders, which they perceive as requiring greater involvement by the extended family and kinship group. Accordingly, the availability of financial support for seeking treatments for these disorders is greater than it is for illnesses such as malaria or diarrhea, for which patients more often seek conventional treatment. Few published data are available on the financial costs of TM in low- and middle-income countries.
The data presented here on the use of traditional healers are extracted from the World Bank's living standards surveys in Vietnam to provide one nationally representative snapshot of the situation. Of 28, individuals in the sample, 10, had consulted a health care provider in the four weeks preceding the survey. These consultations included both home visits and visits to a provider. Of the 10,, 1, had been to a public provider, 1, to a private provider, 7, to a pharmacy, and to a traditional healer. The per visit drug cost for consulting a traditional healer was D 46, and the total cost per visit was D 51, compared with drug costs of D 38 and total costs of D 41 for going to a private clinic.
One commonly cited motivation for using CAM and TM is that their use might lower the incidence and costs of side effects associated with conventional treatments, but the published evidence on this point remains mixed. There is some evidence that CAM is used in addition to conventional treatments Thomas and others , but CAM may also have the effect of displacing conventional treatments. An outpatient survey found that, of patients who had been receiving conventional treatment from the Royal London Homeopathic Hospital since the onset of care, a third had halted their conventional treatment and another third had reduced their intake of conventional medication van Haselen The use of homeopathic treatment often replaced conventional treatments in patients with skin and respiratory infections; in patients with cancer, its use was purely complementary and therefore added to overall health care costs.
Thomas and others observe that patients who use CAM and TM also commonly access conventional medical care. In industrial countries, most CAM usage complements conventional care, but this is also common in developing nations. For instance, Mwabu provides evidence from Kenya that patients are likely to use more than one type of provider from the range of those available, such as government facilities, mission clinics, private clinics, pharmacies, and traditional healers. Furthermore, the choice of provider depends on patients' illness, condition, socioeconomic status, and education.
If an initial visit to one kind of provider did not resolve the disease satisfactorily, a follow-up visit was made to a different kind of provider. Finally, the quality of care—including efficiency of service and waiting time at government and private clinics—is an important determinant of whether patients choose to go to traditional healers. Most traditional healers surveyed in a second study referred patients to Western practices for treatment when necessary Mwabu, Ainsworth, and Nyamete Although most studies tend to focus on a specific CAM or TM practice, Sommer, Burgi, and Theiss looked more broadly at whether the provision of CAM and TM services through prepaid health plans or government insurance reduces the overall costs of health care and found that it does not.
A possible reason is that few individuals who are offered access to CAM use them, and those who do might access those services in addition to, not in place of, more conventional health services. Studies that compare the cost-effectiveness of different CAM and TM approaches using the same analytical framework are rare. Complementary medical practices evaluated included acupuncture, homeopathy, tai chi, meditation, reflexology, hydrotherapy, naturopathy, and massage.
Patients were enrolled in either the Western medicine group or the CAM group. Patients were not randomized between the two treatment groups, but they were matched by disease pathology and severity, age, and sex. Furthermore, selected patients had completed at least one year in the health system, as the investigators reasoned that this would enable them to evaluate their follow-up. Overall, the investigators found that complementary medicine was between 53 and 63 percent less expensive than conventional medicine for achieving equivalent levels of effectiveness.
Complementary medicine was especially cost-effective for osteoarthritis, hypertension , facial paralysis, and peptic ulcers. However, this study was not randomized, and patients had to have failed first-line drug treatment before being offered the choice of second line-treatment, either with acupuncture or with Western medicine.
Evidence indicates that the cost of homeopathic medication is lower than the average cost of allopathic products, which would be an economic factor in favor of its use if homeopathy were proven to be effective. A study by the National Health Service in the United Kingdom found that the drug costs associated with homeopathy were lower than those of allopathic practitioners Swayne A study that compared medical expenditures over a four-year period for participants in a comprehensive program of ayurvedic-based natural medicine which included antioxidant strategies, mind-body medicine, and other techniques with participants whose expenditures were covered through a BlueCross BlueShield health insurance plan found that the expenditures for the ayurvedic group were 50 percent lower per person Orme-Johnson and Herron However, the study was not randomized and failed to control for the inclination of only a subset of people to accept and remain compliant with ayurvedic approaches.
Some studies found that spinal manipulation is less expensive than conventional treatments for episodes of back pain. Moreover, 15 percent of patients in the chiropractic group were able to return to work, compared with none in the control group.
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However, other larger and better-controlled studies failed to find a difference between chiropractic and physical therapy in terms of either outcomes or costs Cherkin and others ; Skargren and others ; Skargren, Carlsson, and Oberg A study of adults with low back pain who were randomly assigned to physical therapy or chiropractic manipulation or were just given an educational booklet found no significant differences in either the mean costs of care or the outcomes between the physical therapy and chiropractic groups Cherkin and others Little evidence is available on the cost-effectiveness of practices such as meditation and yoga, but the cost of acquiring the skills required for these practices, as well as the time costs of practicing them, are so low relative to conventional medicine that evidence of their clinical effectiveness might suffice to justify their use on economic grounds.
Available evidence from clinical studies suggests that mind-body treatments can be cost-effective Caudill and others ; Friedman and others ; Hellman and others ; Sobel Blumenthal and others find significant declines in coronary events and in predicted costs of care for patients who were assigned to a one-and-a-half-hour long weekly class on stress management, relative to usual care for each of the first two years of follow-up and after five years. Although cost-effectiveness is one guiding rationale for determining resource allocations for expanding or restricting access to CAM and TM, additional societal benefits and costs, such as effects on biodiversity, must also be considered.
CAM and TM could provide a rationale for conserving species, but overharvesting of endangered species for medicinal purposes is also a concern. According to WHO, 85 percent of the world's population principally those in developing countries depends on plants for medicine, and 25 percent of prescription drugs have an active ingredient derived from a flowering plant Cox The possible extinction of medicinal plants is of concern not only to developing countries but also to industrial countries, as in the cases of poaching of American ginseng and overharvesting of native saw palmetto.
Similarly, the reliance of Chinese TM on tiger genitals, bear gallbladders, and black rhinoceros horns has played an important role in poaching and threatens to wipe out these mega fauna. Local knowledge and culture regarding the uses of medicinal plants may be important determinants of whether a certain species will survive Etkin In addition to the biodiversity value of these saved species, scientists may be able to analyze these plants for potential clinical application on a broader scale than TM permits.
Although preserving traditional knowledge of healing practices helps preserve the culture and identity of indigenous populations, CAM and TM may impose significant costs. In such instances, promoting conventional treatments that do not depend on endangered species may bring important benefits to society. Despite the uncertainty about the clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness of certain CAM and TM practices, expansion of their use in instances in which moderate evidence of their efficacy and good evidence of their safety exists could yield health, social, and economic benefits.
A number of surveys show that local pharmacies are the primary source of treatment for many ailments, especially in rural areas where government or private clinics are less accessible. In these situations, improving the quality of TM might serve as an effective substitute for allowing the unregulated use of conventional medical treatments. Training traditional healers is substantially less expensive than training doctors or nurses. Traditional healers can also be recruited into a more broadly based system for delivering public health; for example, with additional training, traditional healers can serve as primary health care workers Hoff and provide advice on such matters as sexually transmitted diseases and oral rehydration therapy Nations and de Souza ; Nations and others ; Ndubani and Hojer In addition, permitting access to CAM and TM within the context of the conventional health care system would facilitate access to multiple health services at one location.
Food and Drug Administration cannot require proof that dietary supplements and herbal products are safe and effective before they are sold, although it is charged with requiring good manufacturing practices. The quality of herbal products is not regulated, and herbal products typically differ from source to source and from batch to batch in terms of their component ingredients and respective amounts and in terms of whether they contain contaminants. In the United States, no single entity is responsible for all aspects of CAM and TM control, education, information, and research, and no national, voluntary system of self-regulation exists.
A common misperception is that in the developing world CAM and TM is used primarily by poorer, uneducated populations, while in industrial countries it is used more by affluent and better-educated segments of the population Eisenberg and others In both settings, relatively little evidence supports this view. Many investigators have failed to critically assess the use of CAM and TM by minority and immigrant populations in Western nations. In Africa, nearly 85 percent of the population uses TM, often as the only way to obtain primary health care, and wealthier people in developing countries often use TM WHO Investments in improving the quality and consistency of TM could reduce the cost of health care delivery, especially for chronic conditions such arthritic pain and AIDS, where TM interventions may improve patients' sense of well-being, appetite, and energy.
At the same time, in the absence of resources to extend the public health infrastructure, a network of certified CAM and TM providers could provide the infrastructure for delivering other care, such as immunizations and maternal-child health programs. Recognizing the redistributive nature of investment in TM is important. Indigenous people will seek the help of traditional healers because of proximity, familiarity, and trust. Investments in TM could therefore be used strategically to increase access to conventional preventive and therapeutic care. Including the traditional healer as part of the health care team may thus be an important strategy both to attract patients and to upgrade the skills and training of traditional healers.
How equity is affected by the proportions in which different condition-specific interventions are combined and how other interventions regulations, tax policy, managerial changes are likely to affect equity need to be studied. Given that the majority of indigenous populations in developing countries use TM for their primary health care, the availability, safety, and affordability of TM, including herbal medicines, should be ensured as a matter of equity.
One way to do this is by supporting local production of safe and effective herbals such as artemisia at affordable prices. In addition, rigorous research on TM should be supported.
Ineffective or unsafe herbal products identified by such studies should be removed from use, while those with proven efficacy and safety should be made available for therapeutic use. For example, in China, where traditional Chinese medicine is well integrated into the health system, many different modalities may be used to treat a given condition. In the United States, by contrast, CAM programs are slowly being integrated with conventional medicine. Several medical schools have nascent CAM programs and have integrated them into medical school curricula to differing degrees. His Integrative Medicine Fellowship Program trains physicians in CAM and TM and strives to produce a new delivery model whereby physicians, patients, and nurses form a healing team for the care of the patient.
However, this program needs to be critically evaluated before its adoption by more institutions can be urged. Artemisinin is a recently developed, active metabolite of artemisia, an herbal extract that has been used in China for centuries to treat fever. Chinese scientists determined the active ingredient of the herbal in the s, and Western pharmaceutical companies have developed several derivatives as drugs for use against resistant Plasmodium malaria Li and others Randomized clinical trials have shown that one such drug, dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine, is effective against drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria Hien and Dolecek Another artemisinin derivative, artesunate, was shown to increase parasite clearance and reduce the gametocyte count when added to existing drugs to combat malaria Adjuik and others Many pain management clinics, hospitals, and academic centers in the West now provide acupuncture services, and some insurance companies reimburse for acupuncture services.
Rigorous clinical trials have demonstrative positive efficacy in two areas: a management of postoperative nausea and emesis Shen and others and b amelioration of the pain of chronic osteoarthritis Ezzo and others ; Soeken ; Tukmachi and others Studies providing rational explanations of the mechanisms whereby acupuncture might be achieving its effects complement the evidence about its efficacy; for example, one mechanism of action appears to involve opioid-dependent brain pathways. This kind of two-step process—that is, initial demonstration of clinical efficacy followed by scientific research into the mechanism of action—is one way that CAM and TM will gain scientific acceptance and integration into conventional medicine.
Chiropractic medicine was invented in the American heartland during the waning years of the 19th century. It uses spinal manipulation to treat an array of conditions thought to arise because of abnormal alignment of or stresses on vertebrae, most often in patients with musculoskeletal complaints.
Two aspects of chiropractic medicine are success stories. First, even though practitioners of conventional medicine ostracized practitioners of chiropractic medicine in the late 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, it has gradually evolved into a viable healing discipline that is increasingly accepted by the conventional medicine community.
The evolution of chiropractic can be compared with that of osteopathy. Osteopathy was developed in the United States in parallel with chiropractic, but the field elected to accommodate rather than reject allopathic techniques. The second success story is research showing that chiropractic manipulation for low back pain is superior to bed rest, physical therapy, or provision of an educational booklet Cherkin and others Chiropractic manipulation has also shown results comparable to those achieved with nonsteroidal, anti-inflammatory drugs in alleviating back pain Straus Homeopathy is a success in terms of its broad appeal and use, not because of the strength of evidence supporting it.
Indeed, few conventional scientists and physicians find homeopathy to be plausible. According to the "principle of similars" underlying homeopathy, practitioners choose remedies that, when given in high concentrations, produce symptoms similar to those that the patient presents with. The substance is then put in solution and serially diluted by as much as 10 60 , well beyond the point defined by Avogadro's number at which a single molecule of the original substance could remain in the solution.
It is readily accessible to nurses, students and professionals from other related fields. Subscribe now to be the first to hear about specials and upcoming releases. Title Author. Encyclopedia of Complementary Health Practice. Paperback 1. Description of this Book This comprehensive resource of key terms and concepts in complementary health care addresses practices, and conditions, and research-based treatments.
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